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Chapter 4
The Confidential Reasons for Lord Caitanya's Appearance
In this chapter of the epic Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī has stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal purposes of His own. The first purpose was to relish the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself, and Rādhārāṇī is the object. Thus the subject, the Lord, wanted to relish the loving mellow in the position of the object, Rādhārāṇī.
The second reason for His appearance was to understand the transcendental mellow of Himself. Lord Kṛṣṇa is all sweetness. Rādhārāṇī's attraction for Kṛṣṇa is sublime, and to experience that attraction and understand the transcendental sweetness of Himself, He accepted the mentality of Rādhārāṇī.
The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss tasted by Rādhārāṇī. The Lord thought that undoubtedly Rādhārāṇī enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Rādhārāṇī, but the exchange of transcendental mellow between the spiritual couple was more pleasing to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī than to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Rādhārāṇī felt more transcendental pleasure in the company of Kṛṣṇa than He could understand without taking Her position, but for Śrī Kṛṣṇa to enjoy in the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was impossible because that position was completely foreign to Him. Kṛṣṇa is the transcendental male, and Rādhārāṇī is the transcendental female. Therefore, to know the transcendental pleasure of loving Kṛṣṇa, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself appeared as Lord Caitanya, accepting the emotions and bodily luster of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Lord Caitanya appeared to fulfill these confidential desires and also to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, and to answer the call of Advaita Prabhu. These were secondary reasons.
Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī was the principal figure among Lord Caitanya's confidential devotees. The records of his diary have revealed these confidential purposes of the Lord. These revelations have been confirmed by the statements of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his various prayers and poems.
This chapter also specifically describes the difference between lust and love. The transactions of Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā are completely different from material lust. Therefore the author has very clearly distinguished between them.
TEXT 1
śrī-caitanya-prasādena
tad-rūpasya vinirṇayam
bālo 'pi kurute śāstraṁ
dṛṣṭvā vraja-vilāsinaḥ
SYNONYMS
śrī-caitanya-prasādena—by the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tat—of Him; rūpasya—of the form; vinirṇayam—complete determination; bālaḥ—a child; api—even; kurute—makes; śāstram—the revealed scriptures; dṛṣṭvā—having seen; vraja-vilāsinaḥ—who enjoys the pastimes of Vraja.
TRANSLATION
By the mercy of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, even a foolish child can fully describe the real nature of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enjoyer of the pastimes of Vraja, according to the vision of the revealed scriptures.
PURPORT
One can ascertain the meaning of this Sanskrit śloka only when one is endowed with the causeless mercy of Lord Caitanya. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, being the absolute Personality of Godhead, cannot be exposed to the mundane instruments of vision. He reserves the right not to be exposed by the intellectual feats of nondevotees. Notwithstanding this truth, even a small child can easily understand Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and His transcendental pastimes in the land of Vṛndāvana by the grace of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
TEXT 2
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
SYNONYMS
jaya jaya—all glory; śrī-caitanya—to Lord Caitanya; jaya—all glory; nityānanda—to Lord Nityānanda; jaya—all glory; advaita-candra—to Advaita Ācārya; jaya—all glory; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—to the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
TRANSLATION
All glory to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. All glory to Lord Nityānanda. All glory to Śrī Advaita Ācārya. And all glory to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya.
TEXT 3
caturtha ślokera artha kaila vivaraṇa
pañcama ślokera artha śuna bhakta-gaṇa
SYNONYMS
caturtha—fourth; ślokera—of the verse; artha—the meaning; kaila—made; vivaraṇa—description; pañcama—fifth; ślokera—of the verse; artha—the meaning; śuna—please hear; bhakta-gaṇa—O devotees.
TRANSLATION
I have described the meaning of the fourth verse. Now, O devotees, kindly hear the explanation of the fifth verse.
TEXT 4
mūla-ślokera artha karite prakāśa
artha lāgāite āge kahiye ābhāsa
SYNONYMS
mūla—original; ślokera—of the verse; artha—the meaning; karite—to make; prakāśa—revelation; artha—the meaning; lāgāite—to touch; āge—first; kahiye—I shall speak; ābhāsa—hint.
TRANSLATION
Just to explain the original verse, I shall first suggest its meaning.
TEXT 5
caturtha ślokera artha ei kaila sāra
prema-nāma pracārite ei avatāra
SYNONYMS
caturtha—fourth; ślokera—of the verse; artha—the meaning; ei—this; kaila—gave; sāra—essence; prema—love of Godhead; nāma—the holy name; pracārite—to propagate; ei—this; avatāra—incarnation.
TRANSLATION
I have given the essential meaning of the fourth verse: this incarnation descends to propagate the chanting of the holy name and spread love of God.
TEXT 6
satya ei hetu, kintu eho bahiraṅga
āra eka hetu, śuna, āche antaraṅga
SYNONYMS
satya—true; ei—this; hetu—reason; kintu—but; eho—this; bahiraṅga—external; āra—another; eka—one; hetu—reason; śuna—please hear; āche—is; antaraṅga—internal.
TRANSLATION
Although this is true, this is but the external reason for the Lord's incarnation. Please hear one other reason-the confidential reason-for the Lord's appearance.
PURPORT
In the Third Chapter, fourth verse, it has been clearly said that Lord Caitanya appeared in order to distribute love of Kṛṣṇa and the chanting of His transcendental holy name, Hare Kṛṣṇa. That was the secondary purpose of Lord Caitanya's appearance. The real reason is different, as we shall see in this chapter.
TEXT 7
pūrve yena pṛthivīra bhāra haribāre
kṛṣṇa avatīrṇa hailā śāstrete pracāre
SYNONYMS
pūrve—previously; yena—as; pṛthivīra—of the earth; bhāra—burden; haribāre—to take away; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; avatīrṇa—incarnated; hailā—was; śāstrete—the scriptures; pracāre—proclaim.
TRANSLATION
The scriptures proclaim that Lord Kṛṣṇa previously descended to take away the burden of the earth.
TEXT 8
svayaṁ-bhagavānera karma nahe bhāra-haraṇa
sthiti-kartā viṣṇu karena jagat-pālana
SYNONYMS
svayam-bhagavānera—of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; karma—the business; nahe—is not; bhāra-haraṇa—taking away the burden; sthiti-kartā—the maintainer; viṣṇu—Lord Viṣṇu; karena—does; jagat-pālana—protection of the universe.
TRANSLATION
To take away this burden, however, is not the work of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The maintainer, Lord Viṣṇu, is the one who protects the universe.
TEXT 9
kintu kṛṣṇera yei haya avatāra-kāla
bhāra-haraṇa-kāla tāte ha-ila miśāla
SYNONYMS
kintu—but; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; yei—that which; haya—is; avatāra—of incarnation; kāla—the time; bhāra-haraṇa—of taking away the burden; kāla—the time; tāte—in that; ha-ila—there was; miśāla—mixture.
TRANSLATION
But the time to lift the burden of the world mixed with the time for Lord Kṛṣṇa's incarnation.
PURPORT
We have information from the Bhagavad-gītā that the Lord appears at particular intervals to adjust a time-worn spiritual culture. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa appeared at the end of Dvāpara-yuga to regenerate the spiritual culture of human society and also to manifest His transcendental pastimes. Viṣṇu is the authorized Lord who maintains the created cosmos, and He is also the principal Deity who makes adjustments for improper administration in the cosmic creation. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the primeval Lord, and He appears not to make such administrative adjustments but only to exhibit His transcendental pastimes and thus attract the fallen souls back home, back to Godhead.
However, the time for administrative rectification and the time for Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa's appearance coincided at the end of the last Dvāpara-yuga. Therefore when Śrī Kṛṣṇa appeared, Viṣṇu, the Lord of maintenance, also merged in Him because all the plenary portions and parts of the absolute Personality of Godhead merge in Him during His appearance.
TEXT 10
pūrṇa bhagavān avatare yei kāle
āra saba avatāra tāṅte āsi' mile
SYNONYMS
pūrṇa—full; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; avatare—incarnates; yei—that; kāle—at the time; āra—other; saba—all; avatāra—incarnations; tāṅte—in Him; āsi'-coming; mile—meet.
TRANSLATION
When the complete Supreme Personality of Godhead descends, all other incarnations of the Lord meet together within Him.
TEXTS 11-12
nārāyaṇa, catur-vyūha, matsyādy-avatāra
yuga-manvantarāvatāra, yata āche āra
sabe āsi' kṛṣṇa-aṅge haya avatīrṇa
aiche avatare kṛṣṇa bhagavān pūrṇa
SYNONYMS
nārāyaṇa—Lord Nārāyaṇa; catuḥ-vyūha—the four expansions; matsya-ādi—beginning with Matsya; avatāra—the incarnations; yuga-manv-antara-avatāra—the yuga and manv-antara incarnations; yata—as many as; āche—there are; āra—other; sabe—all; āsi'-coming; kṛṣṇa-aṅge—in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa; haya—are; avatīrṇa—incarnated; aiche—in this way; avatare—incarnates; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pūrṇa—full.
TRANSLATION
Lord Nārāyaṇa, the four primary expansions [Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha], Matsya and the other līlā incarnations, the yuga-avatāras, the manv-antara incarnations and as many other incarnations as there are-all descend in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this way the complete Supreme Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, appears.
TEXT 13
ataeva viṣṇu takhana kṛṣṇera śarīre
viṣṇu-dvāre kare kṛṣṇa asura-saṁhāre
SYNONYMS
ataeva—therefore; viṣṇu—Lord Viṣṇu; takhana—at that time; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; śarīre—in the body; viṣṇu-dvāre—by Lord Viṣṇu; kare—does; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; asura-saṁhāre—killing the demons.
TRANSLATION
At that time, therefore, Lord Viṣṇu is present in the body of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and Lord Kṛṣṇa kills the demons through Him.
TEXT 14
ānuṣaṅga-karma ei asura-māraṇa
ye lāgi' avatāra, kahi se mūla kāraṇa
SYNONYMS
ānuṣaṅga-karma—secondary work; ei—this; asura—of the demons; māraṇa—killing; ye—that; lāgi'-for; avatāra—the incarnation; kahi—I shall speak; se—the; mūla—root; kāraṇa—cause.
TRANSLATION
Thus the killing of the demons is but secondary work. I shall now speak of the main reason for the Lord's incarnation.
TEXTS 15-16
prema-rasa-niryāsa karite āsvādana
rāga-mārga bhakti loke karite pracāraṇa
rasika-śekhara kṛṣṇa parama-karuṇa
ei dui hetu haite icchāra udgama
SYNONYMS
prema-rasa—of the mellow of love of God; niryāsa—the essence; karite—to do; āsvādana—tasting; rāga-mārga—the path of spontaneous attraction; bhakti—devotional service; loke—in the world; karite—to do; pracāraṇa—propagation; rasika-śekhara—the supremely jubilant; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; parama-karuṇa—the most merciful; ei—these; dui—two; hetu—reasons; haite—from; icchāra—of desire; udgama—the birth.
TRANSLATION
The Lord's desire to appear was born from two reasons: He wanted to taste the sweet essence of the mellows of love of God, and He wanted to propagate devotional service in the world on the platform of spontaneous attraction. Thus He is known as supremely jubilant and as the most merciful of all.
PURPORT
During the period of Lord Kṛṣṇa's appearance, the killing of asuras or nonbelievers such as Kaṁsa and Jarāsandha was done by Viṣṇu, who was within the person of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Such apparent killing by Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa took place as a matter of course and was an incidental activity for Him. But the real purpose of Lord Kṛṣṇa's appearance was to stage a dramatic performance of His transcendental pastimes at Vrajabhūmi, thus exhibiting the highest limit of transcendental mellow in the exchanges of reciprocal love between the living entity and the Supreme Lord. These reciprocal exchanges of mellows are called rāga-bhakti, or devotional service to the Lord in transcendental rapture. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa wants to make known to all the conditioned souls that He is more attracted by rāga-bhakti than vidhi-bhakti, or devotional service under scheduled regulations. It is said in the Vedas (Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.7), raso vai saḥ: the Absolute Truth is the reservoir for all kinds of reciprocal exchanges of loving sentiments. He is also causelessly merciful, and He wants to bestow upon us this privilege of rāga-bhakti. Thus He appeared as His own internal energy. He was not forced to appear by any extraneous force.
TEXT 17
aiśvarya-jñānete saba jagat miśrita
aiśvarya-śithila-preme nahi mora prīta
SYNONYMS
aiśvarya jñānete—with knowledge of majesty; saba—all; jagat—the universe; miśrita—mixed; aiśvarya-śithila—weakened by majesty; preme—in love; nāhi—there is not; mora—My; prīta—pleasure.
TRANSLATION
[Lord Kṛṣṇa thought:] "All the universe is filled with the conception of My majesty, but love weakened by that sense of majesty does not satisfy Me.
TEXT 18
āmāre īśvara māne, āpanāke hīna
tāra preme vaśa āmi nā ha-i adhīna
SYNONYMS
āmāre—Me; īśvara—the Lord; māne—regards; āpanāke—himself; hīna—low; tāra—of him; preme—by the love; vaśa—controlled; āmi—I; ha-i—am not; adhīna—subservient.
TRANSLATION
"If one regards Me as the Supreme Lord and himself as a subordinate, I do not become subservient to his love, nor can it control Me.
TEXT 19
āmāke ta' ye ye bhakta bhaje yei bhāve
tāre se se bhāve bhaji,--e mora svabhāve
SYNONYMS
āmāke—Me; ta'-certainly; ye ye—whatever; bhakta—devotee; bhaje—worships; yei—which; bhāve—in the mood; tāre—him; se se—that; bhāve—in the mood; bhaji—I reciprocate; e—this; mora—My; svabhāve—in the nature.
TRANSLATION
"In whatever transcendental mellow My devotee worships Me, I reciprocate with him. That is My natural behavior.
PURPORT
The Lord, by His inherent nature, reveals Himself before His devotees according to their inherent devotional service. The Vṛndāvana pastimes demonstrated that although generally people worship God with reverence, the Lord is more pleased when a devotee thinks of Him as his pet son, personal friend or most dear fiancī and renders service unto Him with such natural affection. The Lord becomes a subordinate object of love in such transcendental relationships. Such pure love of Godhead is unadulterated by any tinge of superfluous nondevotional desires and is not mixed with any sort of fruitive action or empiric philosophical speculation. It is pure and natural love of Godhead, spontaneously aroused in the absolute stage. This devotional service is executed in a favorable atmosphere freed from material affection.
TEXT 20
ye yathā māṁ prapadyante
tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham
mama vartmānuvartante
manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ
SYNONYMS
ye—all who; yathā—as; mām—unto Me; prapadyante—surrender; tān—them; tathā—so; eva—certainly; bhajāmi—reward; aham—I; mama—My; vartma—path; anuvartante—follow; manuṣyāḥ—all men; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; sarvaśaḥ—in all respects.
TRANSLATION
" 'In whatever way My devotees surrender unto Me, I reward them accordingly. Everyone follows My path in all respects, O son of Pṛthā.'
PURPORT
In the Fourth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā Lord Kṛṣṇa affirms that formerly (some 120 million years before the Battle of Kurukṣetra) He explained the mystic philosophy of the Gītā to the sun-god. The message was received through the chain of disciplic succession, but in course of time, the chain being broken somehow or other, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa appeared again and taught Arjuna the truths of the Bhagavad-gītā. At that time the Lord spoke this verse (Bg. 4.11) to His friend Arjuna.
TEXTS 21-22
mora putra, mora sakhā, mora prāṇa-pati
ei-bhāve yei more kare śuddha-bhakti
āpanāke baḍa māne, āmāre sama-hīna
sei bhāve ha-i āmi tāhāra adhīna
SYNONYMS
mora—my; putra—son; mora—my; sakhā—friend; mora—my; prāṇa-pati—lord of life; ei bhāve—in this way; yei—those who; more—unto Me; kare—do; śuddha-bhakti—pure devotion; āpanāke—himself; baḍa—great; māne—he regards; āmāre—Me; sama—equal; hīna—or lower; sei bhāve—in that way; ha-i—am; āmi—I; tāhāra—to him; adhīna—subordinate.
TRANSLATION
"If one cherishes pure loving devotion to Me, thinking of Me as his son, his friend or his beloved, regarding himself as great and considering Me his equal or inferior, I become subordinate to him.
PURPORT
In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta three kinds of devotional service are described-namely, bhakti (ordinary devotional service), śuddha-bhakti (pure devotional service) and viddha-bhakti (mixed devotional service).
When devotional service is executed with some material purpose, involving fruitive activities, mental speculations or mystic yoga, it is called mixed or adulterated devotional service. Besides bhakti-yoga, the Bhagavad-gītā also describes karma-yoga, jñāna-yoga and dhyāna-yoga. Yoga means linking with the Supreme Lord, which is possible only through devotion. Fruitive activities ending in devotional service, philosophical speculation ending in devotional service, and the practice of mysticism ending in devotional service are known respectively as karma-yoga, jñāna-yoga and dhyāna-yoga. But such devotional service is adulterated by the three kinds of material activities.
For those grossly engaged in identifying the body as the self, pious activity, or karma-yoga, is recommended. For those who identify the mind with the self, philosophical speculation, or jñāna-yoga, is recommended. But devotees standing on the spiritual platform have no need of such material conceptions of adulterated devotion. Adulterated devotional service does not directly aim for love of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore service performed strictly in conformity with the revealed scriptures is better than such viddha-bhakti because it is free from all kinds of material contamination. It is executed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, solely to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Those who are spontaneously devoted to the Lord and have no aims for material gain are called attracted devotees. They are spontaneously attracted to the service of the Lord, and they follow in the footsteps of self-realized souls. Their pure devotion (śuddha-bhakti), manifested from pure love of Godhead, surpasses the regulative principles of the authoritative scriptures. Sometimes loving ecstasy transcends regulative principles; such ecstasy, however, is completely on the spiritual platform and cannot be imitated. The regulative principles help ordinary devotees rise to the stage of perfect love of Godhead. Pure love for Kṛṣṇa is the perfection of pure devotion, and pure devotional service is identical with spontaneous devotional service.
Flawless execution of regulative principles is exhibited in the Vaikuṇṭha planets. By strictly executing these principles one can be elevated to the Vaikuṇṭha planets. But spontaneous pure loving service is found in Kṛṣṇaloka alone.
TEXT 23
mayi bhaktir hi bhūtānām
amṛtatvāya kalpate
diṣṭyā yad āsīn mat-sneho
bhavatīnāṁ mad-āpanaḥ
SYNONYMS
mayi—to Me; bhaktiḥ—devotional service; hi—certainly; bhūtānām—of the living beings; amṛtatvāya—the eternal life; kalpate—brings about; diṣṭyā—by good fortune; yat—which; āsīt—was; mat—for Me; snehaḥ—the affection; bhavatīnām—of all of you; mat—of Me; āpanaḥ—the obtaining.
TRANSLATION
" 'Devotional service rendered to Me by the living beings revives their eternal life. O My dear damsels of Vraja, your affection for Me is your good fortune, for it is the only means by which you have obtained My favor.'
PURPORT
Pure devotional service is represented in the activities of the residents of Vrajabhūmi (Vṛndāvana). During a solar eclipse, the Lord came from Dvārakā and met the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana at Samanta-pañcaka. The meeting was intensely painful for the damsels of Vrajabhūmi because Lord Kṛṣṇa had apparently left them to reside at Dvārakā. But the Lord obligingly acknowledged the pure devotional service of the damsels of Vraja by speaking this verse (Bhāg. 10.82.44).
TEXT 24
mātā more putra-bhāve karena bandhana
atihīna-jñāne kare lālana pālana
SYNONYMS
mātā—mother; more—Me; putra-bhāve—in the position of a son; karena—does; bandhana—binding; ati-hīna-jñāne—in thinking very poor; kare—does; lālana—nourishing; pālana—protecting.
TRANSLATION
"Mother sometimes binds Me as her son. She nourishes and protects Me, thinking Me utterly helpless.
TEXT 25
sakhā śuddha-sakhye kare, skandhe ārohaṇa
tumi kon baḍa loka,--tumi āmi sama
SYNONYMS
sakhā—the friend; śuddha-sakhye—in pure friendship; kare—does; skandhe—on the shoulders; ārohaṇa—mounting; tumi—You; kon—what; baḍa—big; loka—person; tumi—You; āmi—I; sama—the same.
TRANSLATION
"My friends climb on My shoulders in pure friendship, saying, 'What kind of big man are You? You and I are equal.'
TEXT 26
priyā yadi māna kari' karaye bhartsana
veda-stuti haite hare sei mora mana
SYNONYMS
priyā—the lover; yadi—if; māna kari'-sulking; karaye—does; bhartsana—rebuking; veda-stuti—the Vedic prayers; haite—from; hare—takes away; sei—that; mora—My; mana—mind.
TRANSLATION
"If My beloved consort reproaches Me in a sulky mood, that steals My mind from the reverent hymns of the Vedas.
PURPORT
According to the Upaniṣads, all living entities are dependent on the supreme living entity, the Personality of Godhead. As it is said (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 5.3), nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān: one eternal living entity supports all the other eternal living entities. Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead maintains all the other living entities, they remain subordinate to the Lord, even when joined with Him in the reciprocation of loving affairs.
But in the course of exchanging transcendental love of the highest purity, sometimes the subordinate devotee tries to predominate over the predominator. One who lovingly engages with the Supreme Lord as if His mother or father sometimes supersedes the position of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Similarly, His fiancī or lover sometimes supersedes the position of the Lord. But such attempts are exhibitions of the highest love. Only out of pure love does the subordinate lover of the Supreme Personality of Godhead chide Him. The Lord, enjoying this chiding, takes it very nicely. The exhibition of natural love makes such activities very enjoyable. In worship of the Supreme Lord with veneration there is no manifestation of such natural love because the devotee considers the Lord his superior.
Regulative principles in devotional service are meant for those who have not invoked their natural love of Godhead. When natural love arises, all regulative methods are surpassed, and pure love is exhibited between the Lord and the devotee. Although on such a platform of love the devotee sometimes appears to predominate over the Lord or transgress regulative principles, such dealings are far more advanced than ordinary dealings through regulative principles with awe and veneration. A devotee who is actually free from all designations due to complete attachment in love for the Supreme exhibits spontaneous love for Godhead, which is always superior to the devotion of regulative principles.
The informal language used between lover and beloved is significant of pure affection. When devotees worship their beloved as the most venerable object, spontaneous loving sentiments are observed to be lacking. A neophyte devotee who follows the Vedic instructions that regulate those who lack pure love of Godhead may superficially seem more exalted than a devotee in spontaneous love of Godhead. But in fact such spontaneous pure love is far superior to regulated devotional service. Such pure love of Godhead is always glorious in all respects, more so than reverential devotional service rendered by a less affectionate devotee.
TEXTS 27-28
ei śuddha-bhakta lañā karimu avatāra
kariba vividha-vidha adbhuta vihāra
vaikuṇṭhādye nāhi ye ye līlāra pracāra
se se līlā kariba, yāte mora camatkāra
SYNONYMS
ei—these; śuddha-bhakta—pure devotees; lañā—taking; karimu—I shall make; avatāra—incarnation; kariba—I shall do; vividha-vidha—various kinds; adbhuta—wonderful; vihāra—pastimes; vaikuṇṭha-ādye—in the Vaikuṇṭha planets, etc.; nāhi—not; ye ye—whatever; līlāra—of the pastimes; pracāra—broadcasting; se se—those; līlā—pastimes; kariba—I shall perform; yāte—in which; mora—My; camatkāra—wonder.
TRANSLATION
"Taking these pure devotees with Me, I shall descend and sport in various wonderful ways, unknown even in Vaikuṇṭha. I shall broadcast such pastimes by which even I am amazed.
PURPORT
Lord Kṛṣṇa in the form of Lord Caitanya educates His devotees to develop progressively to the stage of pure devotional service. Thus He appears periodically as a devotee to take part in various wonderful activities depicted in His sublime philosophy and teachings.
There are innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets in the spiritual sky, and in all of them the Lord accepts the service rendered by His eternal devotees in a reverential mood. Therefore Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa presents His most confidential pastimes as He enjoys them in His transcendental realm. Such pastimes are so attractive that they attract even the Lord, and thus He relishes them in the form of Lord Caitanya.
TEXT 29
mo-viṣaye gopī-gaṇera upapati-bhāve
yoga-māyā karibeka āpana-prabhāve
SYNONYMS
mo-viṣaye—on the subject of Me; gopī-gaṇera—of the gopīs; upapati—of a paramour; bhāve—in the position; yoga-māyāyogamāyā, Lord Kṛṣṇa's internal potency; karibeka—will make; āpana—her own; prabhāve—by the influence.
TRANSLATION
"The influence of yogamāyā will inspire the gopīs with the sentiment that I am their paramour.
PURPORT
Yogamāyā is the name of the internal potency that makes the Lord forget Himself and become an object of love for His pure devotee in different transcendental mellows. This yogamāyā potency creates a spiritual sentiment in the minds of the damsels of Vraja by which they think of Lord Kṛṣṇa as their paramour. This sentiment is never to be compared to mundane illicit sexual love. It has nothing to do with sexual psychology, although the pure love of such devotees seems to be sexual. One should know for certain that nothing can exist in this cosmic manifestation that has no real counterpart in the spiritual field. All material manifestations are emanations of the Transcendence. The erotic principles of amorous love reflected in mixed material values are perverted reflections of the reality of spirit, but one cannot understand the reality unless one is sufficiently educated in the spiritual science.
TEXT 30
āmiha nā jāni tāhā, nā jāne gopī-gaṇa
duṅhāra rūpa-guṇe duṅhāra nitya hare mana
SYNONYMS
āmiha—I; jāni—shall not know; tāhā—that; jāne—will not know; gopī-gaṇa—the gopīs; duṅhāra—of the two; rūpa-guṇe—the beauty and qualities; duṅhāra—of the two; nitya—always; hare—carry away; mana—the minds.
TRANSLATION
"Neither the gopīs nor I shall notice this, for our minds will always be entranced by one another's beauty and qualities.
PURPORT
In the spiritual sky the Vaikuṇṭha planets are predominated by Nārāyaṇa. His devotees have the same features He does, and the exchange of devotion there is on the platform of reverence. But above all these Vaikuṇṭha planets is Goloka, or Kṛṣṇaloka, where the original Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, fully manifests His pleasure potency in free loving affairs. Since the devotees in the material world know almost nothing about these affairs, the Lord desires to show these affairs to them.
In Goloka Vṛndāvana there is an exchange of love known as parakīya-rasa. It is something like the attraction of a married woman for a man other than her husband. In the material world this sort of relationship is most abominable because it is a perverted reflection of the parakīya-rasa in the spiritual world, where it is the highest kind of loving affair. Such feelings between the devotee and the Lord are presented by the influence of yogamāyā. The Bhagavad-gītā states that devotees of the highest grade are under the care of daiva-māyā, or yogamāyā: mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ (Bg. 9.13). Those who are actually great souls (mahātmās) are fully absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, always engaged in the service of the Lord. They are under the care of daivī-prakṛti, or yogamāyā. Yogamāyā creates a situation in which the devotee is prepared to transgress all regulative principles simply to love Kṛṣṇa. A devotee naturally does not like to transgress the laws of reverence for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but by the influence of yogamāyā he is prepared to do anything to love the Supreme Lord better.
Those under the spell of the material energy cannot at all appreciate the activities of yogamāyā, for a conditioned soul can hardly understand the pure reciprocation between the Lord and His devotee. But by executing devotional service under the regulative principles, one can become very highly elevated and then begin to appreciate the dealings of pure love under the management of yogamāyā.
In the spiritual loving sentiment induced by the yogamāyā potency, both Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the damsels of Vraja forget themselves in spiritual rapture. By the influence of such forgetfulness, the attractive beauty of the gopīs plays a prominent part in the transcendental satisfaction of the Lord, who has nothing to do with mundane sex. Because spiritual love of Godhead is above everything mundane, the gopīs superficially seem to transgress the codes of mundane morality. This perpetually puzzles mundane moralists. Therefore yogamāyā acts to cover the Lord and His pastimes from the eyes of mundaners, as confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.25), where the Lord says that He reserves the right of not being exposed to everyone.
The acts of yogamāyā make it possible for the Lord and the gopīs, in loving ecstasy, to sometimes meet and sometimes separate. These transcendental loving affairs of the Lord are unimaginable to empiricists involved in the impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth. Therefore the Lord Himself appears before the mundaners to bestow upon them the highest form of spiritual realization and also personally relish its essence. The Lord is so merciful that He Himself descends to take the fallen souls back home to the kingdom of Godhead, where the erotic principles of Godhead are eternally relished in their real form, distinct from the perverted sexual love so much adored and indulged in by the fallen souls in their diseased condition. The reason the Lord displays the rāsa-līlā is essentially to induce all the fallen souls to give up their diseased morality and religiosity, and to attract them to the kingdom of God to enjoy the reality. A person who actually understands what the rāsa-līlā is will certainly hate to indulge in mundane sex life. For the realized soul, hearing the Lord's rāsa-līlā through the proper channel will result in complete abstinence from material sexual pleasure.
TEXT 31
dharma chāḍi' rāge duṅhe karaye milana
kabhu mile, kabhu nā mile,--daivera ghaṭana
SYNONYMS
dharma chāḍi'-giving up religious customs; rāge—in love; duṅhe—both; karaye—do; milana—meeting; kabhu—sometimes; mile—they meet; kabhu—sometimes; mile—they do not meet; daivera—of destiny; ghaṭana—the happening.
TRANSLATION
"Pure attachment will unite us even at the expense of moral and religious duties [dharma]. Destiny will sometimes bring us together and sometimes separate us.
PURPORT
The gopīs came out to meet Kṛṣṇa in the dead of night when they heard the sound of Kṛṣṇa's flute. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has accordingly composed a nice verse (see Cc. Ādi 5.224) that describes the beautiful boy called Govinda standing by the bank of the Yamunā with His flute to His lips in the shining moonlight. Those who want to enjoy life in the materialistic way of society, friendship and love should not go to the Yamunā to see the form of Govinda. The sound of Lord Kṛṣṇa's flute is so sweet that it has made the gopīs forget all about their relationships with their kinsmen and flee to Kṛṣṇa in the dead of night.
By leaving home in that way, the gopīs transgressed the Vedic regulations of household life. This indicates that when natural feelings of love for Kṛṣṇa become fully manifest, a devotee can neglect conventional social rules and regulations. In the material world we are situated in designative positions only, but pure devotional service begins when one is freed from all designations. When love for Kṛṣṇa is awakened, the designative positions are overcome.
The spontaneous attraction of Śrī Kṛṣṇa for His dearest parts and parcels generates an enthusiasm that obliges Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs to meet together. To celebrate this transcendental enthusiasm, there is need of a sentiment of separation between the lover and beloved. In the condition of material tribulation, no one wants the pangs of separation. But in the transcendental form, the very same separation, being absolute in its nature, strengthens the ties of love and enhances the desire of the lover and beloved to meet. The period of separation, evaluated transcendentally, is more relishable than the actual meeting, which lacks the feelings of increasing anticipation because the lover and beloved are both present.
TEXT 32
ei saba rasa-niryāsa kariba āsvāda
ei dvāre kariba saba bhaktere prasāda
SYNONYMS
ei—these; saba—all; rasa-niryāsa—essence of mellows; kariba—I shall do; āsvāda—tasting; ei dvāre—by this; kariba—I shall do; saba—all; bhaktere—to the devotees; prasāda—favor.
TRANSLATION
"I shall taste the essence of all these rasas, and in this way I shall favor all the devotees.
TEXT 33
vrajera nirmala rāga śuni' bhakta-gaṇa
rāga-mārge bhaje yena chāḍi' dharma-karma
SYNONYMS
vrajera—of Vraja; nirmala—spotless; rāga—love; śuni'-hearing; bhakta-gaṇa—the devotees; rāga-mārge—on the path of spontaneous love; bhaje—they worship; yena—so that; chāḍi'-giving up; dharma—religiosity; karma—fruitive activity.
TRANSLATION
"Then, by hearing about the pure love of the residents of Vraja, devotees will worship Me on the path of spontaneous love, abandoning all rituals of religiosity and fruitive activity."
PURPORT
Many realized souls, such as Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and King Kulaśekhara, have recommended with great emphasis that one develop this spontaneous love of Godhead, even at the risk of transgressing all the traditional codes of morality and religiosity. Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, one of the six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, has written in his prayers called the Manaḥ-śikṣā that one should simply worship Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa with all attention. Na dharmaṁ nādharmaṁ śruti-gaṇa-niruktaṁ kila kuru: one should not be much interested in performing Vedic rituals or simply following rules and regulations.
King Kulaśekhara has written similarly, in his book Mukunda-mālā-stotra (5):
nāsthā dharme na vasu-nicaye naiva kāmopabhoge
yad bhāvyaṁ tad bhavatu bhagavan pūrva-karmānurūpam
etat prārthyaṁ mama bahu-mataṁ janma-janmāntare 'pi
tvat-pādāmbho-ruha-yuga-gatā niścalā bhaktir astu
"I have no attraction for performing religious rituals or holding any earthly kingdom. I do not care for sense enjoyments; let them appear and disappear in accordance with my previous deeds. My only desire is to be fixed in devotional service to the lotus feet of the Lord, even though I may continue to take birth here life after life."
TEXT 34
anugrahāya bhaktānāṁ
mānuṣaṁ deham āśritaḥ
bhajate tādṛśīḥ krīḍā
yāḥ śrutvā tat-paro bhavet
SYNONYMS
anugrahāya—for showing favor; bhaktānām—to the devotees; mānuṣam—humanlike; deham—body; āśritaḥ—accepting; bhajate—He enjoys; tādṛśīḥ—such; krīḍāḥ—pastimes; yāḥ—which; śrutvā—having heard; tat-paraḥ—fully intent upon Him; bhavet—one must become.
TRANSLATION
"Kṛṣṇa manifests His eternal humanlike form and performs His pastimes to show mercy to the devotees. Having heard such pastimes, one should engage in service to Him."
PURPORT
This text is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.33.36). The Supreme Personality of Godhead has innumerable expansions of His transcendental form who eternally exist in the spiritual world. This material world is only a perverted reflection of the spiritual world, where everything is manifested without inebriety. There everything is in its original existence, free from the domination of time. Time cannot deteriorate or interfere with the conditions in the spiritual world, where different manifestations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are the recipients of the worship of different living entities in their constitutional spiritual positions. In the spiritual world all existence is unadulterated goodness. The goodness found in the material world is contaminated by the modes of passion and ignorance.
The saying that the human form of life is the best position for devotional service has its special significance because only in this form can a living entity revive his eternal relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The human form is considered the highest state in the cycle of the species of life in the material world. If one takes advantage of this highest kind of material form, one can regain his position of devotional service to the Lord.
Incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead appear in all the species of life, although this is inconceivable to the human brain. The Lord's pastimes are differentiated according to the appreciating capacity of the different types of bodies of the living entities. The Supreme Lord bestows the most merciful benediction upon human society when He appears in His human form. It is then that humanity gets the opportunity to engage in different kinds of eternal service to the Lord.
Special natural appreciation of the descriptions of a particular pastime of Godhead indicates the constitutional position of a living entity. Adoration, servitorship, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love are the five primary relationships with Kṛṣṇa. The highest perfectional stage of the conjugal relationship, enriched by many sentiments, gives the maximum relishable mellow to the devotee.
The Lord appears in different incarnations-as a fish, tortoise and boar, as Paraśurāma, Lord Rāma, Buddha and so on-to reciprocate the different appreciations of living entities in different stages of evolution. The conjugal relationship of amorous love called parakīya-rasa is the unparalleled perfection of love exhibited by Lord Kṛṣṇa and His devotees.
A class of so-called devotees known as sahajiyās try to imitate the Lord's pastimes, although they have no understanding of the amorous love in His expansions of pleasure potency. Their superficial imitation can create havoc on the path for the advancement of one's spiritual relationship with the Lord. Material sexual indulgence can never be equated with spiritual love, which is in unadulterated goodness. The activities of the sahajiyās simply lower one deeper into the material contamination of the senses and mind. Kṛṣṇa's transcendental pastimes display eternal servitorship to Adhokṣaja, the Supreme Lord, who is beyond all conception through material senses. Materialistic conditioned souls do not understand the transcendental exchanges of love, but they like to indulge in sense gratification in the name of devotional service. The activities of the Supreme Lord can never be understood by irresponsible persons who think the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa to be ordinary affairs. The rāsa dance is arranged by Kṛṣṇa's internal potency yogamāyā, and it is beyond the grasp of the materially affected person. Trying to throw mud into transcendence with their perversity, the sahajiyās misinterpret the sayings tat-paratvena nirmalam and tat-paro bhavet. By misinterpreting tādrśīḥ krīḍāḥ, they want to indulge in sex while pretending to imitate Lord Kṛṣṇa. But one must actually understand the imports of the words through the intelligence of the authorized gosvāmīs. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, in his prayers to the Gosvāmīs, has explained his inability to understand such spiritual affairs.
rūpa-raghunātha-pade ha-ibe ākuti
kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pīriti
"When I shall be eager to understand the literature given by the Gosvāmīs, then I shall be able to understand the transcendental love affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa." In other words, unless one is trained under the disciplic succession of the Gosvāmīs, one cannot understand Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The conditioned souls are naturally averse to understanding the spiritual existence of the Lord, and if they try to know the transcendental nature of the Lord's pastimes while they remain absorbed in materialism, they are sure to blunder like the sahajiyās.
TEXT 35
'bhavet' kriyā vidhiliṅ, sei ihā kaya
kartavya avaśya ei, anyathā pratyavāya
SYNONYMS
bhavetbhavet; kriyā—the verb; vidhi-liṅ—an injunction of the imperative mood; sei—that; ihā—here; kaya—says; kartavya—to be done; avaśya—certainly; ei—this; anyathā—otherwise; pratyavāya—detriment.
TRANSLATION
Here the use of the verb "bhavet," which is in the imperative mood, tells us that this certainly must be done. Noncompliance would be abandonment of duty.
PURPORT
This imperative is applicable to pure devotees. Neophytes will be able to understand these affairs only after being elevated by regulated devotional service under the expert guidance of the spiritual master. Then they too will be competent to hear of the love affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.
As long as one is in material, conditioned life, strict discipline is required in the matter of moral and immoral activities. The absolute world is transcendental and free from such distinctions because there inebriety is not possible. But in this material world a sexual appetite necessitates distinction between moral and immoral conduct. There are no sexual activities in the spiritual world. The transactions between lover and beloved in the spiritual world are pure transcendental love and unadulterated bliss.
One who has not been attracted by the transcendental beauty of rasa will certainly be dragged down into material attraction, thus to act in material contamination and progress to the darkest region of hellish life. But by understanding the conjugal love of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa one is freed from the grip of attraction to material so-called love between man and woman. Similarly, one who understands the pure parental love of Nanda and Yaśodā for Kṛṣṇa will be saved from being dragged into material parental affection. If one accepts Kṛṣṇa as the supreme friend, the attraction of material friendship will be finished for him, and he will not be dismayed by so-called friendship with mundane wranglers. If he is attracted by servitorship to Kṛṣṇa, he will no longer have to serve the material body in the degraded status of material existence, with the false hope of becoming master in the future. Similarly, one who sees the greatness of Kṛṣṇa in neutrality will certainly never again seek the so-called relief of impersonalist or voidist philosophy. If one is not attracted by the transcendental nature of Kṛṣṇa, one is sure to be attracted to material enjoyment, thus to become implicated in the clinging network of virtuous and sinful activities and continue material existence by transmigrating from one material body to another. Only in Kṛṣṇa consciousness can one achieve the highest perfection of life.
TEXTS 36-37
ei vāñchā yaiche kṛṣṇa-prākaṭya-kāraṇa
asura-saṁhāra--ānuṣaṅga prayojana
ei mata caitanya-kṛṣṇa pūrṇa bhagavān
yuga-dharma-pravartana nahe tāṅra kāma
SYNONYMS
ei—this; vāñchā—desire; yaiche—just as; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; prākaṭya—for the manifestation; kāraṇa—reason; asura-saṁhāra—the killing of demons; ānuṣaṅga—secondary; prayojana—reason; ei mata—like this; caitanya—as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; pūrṇa—full; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yuga-dharma—the religion of the age; pravartana—initiating; nahe—is not; tāṅra—of Him; kāma—the desire.
TRANSLATION
Just as these desires are the fundamental reason for Kṛṣṇa's appearance whereas destroying the demons is only an incidental necessity, so for Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, promulgating the dharma of the age is incidental.
TEXT 38
kona kāraṇe yabe haila avatāre mana
yuga-dharma-kāla haila se kāle milana
SYNONYMS
kona kāraṇe—by some reason; yabe—when; haila—there was; avatāre—in incarnation; mana—inclination; yuga-dharma—for the religion of the age; kāla—the time; haila—there was; se kāle—at that time; milana—conjunction.
TRANSLATION
When the Lord desired to appear for another reason, the time for promulgating the religion of the age also arose.
TEXT 39
dui hetu avatari' lañā bhakta-gaṇa
āpane āsvāde prema-nāma-saṅkīrtana
SYNONYMS
dui—two; hetu—reasons; avatari'-incarnating; lañā—taking; bhakta-gaṇa—the devotees; āpane—Himself; āsvāde—tastes; prema—love of God; nāma-saṅkīrtana—and congregational chanting of the holy name.
TRANSLATION
Thus with two intentions the Lord appeared with His devotees and tasted the nectar of prema with the congregational chanting of the holy name.
TEXT 40
sei dvāre ācaṇḍāle kīrtana sañcāre
nāma-prema-mālā gāṅthi' parāila saṁsāre
SYNONYMS
sei dvāre—by that; ā-caṇḍāle—even among the caṇḍālas; kīrtana—the chanting of the holy names; sañcāre—He infuses; nāma—of the holy names; prema—and of love of God; mālā—a garland; gāṅthi'-stringing together; parāila—He put it on; saṁsāre—the whole material world.
TRANSLATION
Thus He spread kīrtana even among the untouchables. He wove a wreath of the holy name and prema with which He garlanded the entire material world.
TEXT 41
ei-mata bhakta-bhāva kari' aṅgīkāra
āpani ācari' bhakti karila pracāra
SYNONYMS
ei-mata—like this; bhakta-bhāva—the position of a devotee; kari'-making; aṅgīkāra—acceptance; āpani—Himself; ācari'-practicing; bhakti—devotional service; karila—did; pracāra—propagation.
TRANSLATION
In this way, assuming the sentiment of a devotee, He preached devotional service while practicing it Himself.
PURPORT
When Rūpa Gosvāmī met Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Prayāga (Allahabad), he offered his respectful obeisances by submitting that Lord Caitanya was more magnanimous than any other avatāra of Kṛṣṇa because He was distributing love of Kṛṣṇa. His mission was to enhance love of Godhead. In the human form of life the highest achievement is to attain the platform of love of Godhead. Lord Caitanya did not invent a system of religion, as people sometimes assume. Religious systems are meant to show the existence of God, who is then generally approached as the cosmic order-supplier. But Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's transcendental mission is to distribute love of Godhead to everyone. Anyone who accepts God as the Supreme can take to the process of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa and become a lover of God. Therefore Lord Caitanya is the most magnanimous. This munificent broadcasting of devotional service is possible only for Kṛṣṇa Himself. Therefore Lord Caitanya is Kṛṣṇa.
In the Bhagavad-gītā Kṛṣṇa has taught the philosophy of surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who has surrendered to the Supreme can make further progress by learning to love Him. Therefore the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement propagated by Lord Caitanya is especially meant for those who are cognizant of the presence of the Supreme Godhead, the ultimate controller of everything. His mission is to teach people how to dovetail themselves into engagements of transcendental loving service. He is Kṛṣṇa teaching His own service from the position of a devotee. The Lord's acceptance of the role of a devotee in the eternal form of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is another of the Lord's wonderful features. A conditioned soul cannot reach the absolute Personality of Godhead by his imperfect endeavor, and therefore it is wonderful that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, in the form of Lord Gaurāṅga, has made it easy for everyone to approach Him.
Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī has described Lord Caitanya as Kṛṣṇa Himself with the attitude of Rādhārāṇī, or a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. The intention of Lord Caitanya is to taste Kṛṣṇa's sweetness in transcendental love. He does not care to think of Himself as Kṛṣṇa, because He wants the position of Rādhārāṇī. We should remember this. A class of so-called devotees called the nadīyā-nāgarīs or gaura-nāgarīs pretend that they have the sentiment of gopīs toward Lord Caitanya, but they do not realize that He placed Himself not as the enjoyer, Kṛṣṇa, but as the enjoyed, the devotee of Kṛṣṇa. The concoctions of unauthorized persons pretending to be bona fide have not been accepted by Lord Caitanya. Presentations such as those of the gaura-nāgarīs are only disturbances to the sincere execution of the mission of Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya is undoubtedly Kṛṣṇa Himself, and He is always nondifferent from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. But the emotion technically called vipralambha-bhāva, which the Lord adopted for confidential reasons, should not be disturbed in the name of service. A mundaner should not unnecessarily intrude into affairs of transcendence and thereby displease the Lord. One must always be on guard against this sort of devotional anomaly. A devotee is not meant to create disturbances to Kṛṣṇa. As Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has explained, devotional service is ānukūlyena, or favorable to Kṛṣṇa. Acting unfavorably toward Kṛṣṇa is not devotion. Kaṁsa was the enemy of Kṛṣṇa. He always thought of Kṛṣṇa, but he thought of Him as an enemy. One should always avoid such unfavorable so-called service.
Lord Caitanya has accepted the role of Rādhārāṇī, and we should support that position, as Svarūpa Dāmodara did in the Gambhīrā (the room where Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed in Purī). He always reminded Lord Caitanya of Rādhā's feelings of separation as they are described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and Lord Caitanya appreciated his assistance. But the gaura-nāgarīs, who place Lord Caitanya in the position of enjoyer and themselves as His enjoyed, are not approved by Lord Caitanya or by Lord Caitanya's followers. Instead of being blessed, the foolish imitators are left completely apart. Their concoctions are against the principles of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The doctrine of transcendental enjoyment by Kṛṣṇa cannot be mixed up with the doctrine of transcendental feeling of separation from Kṛṣṇa in the role of Rādhārāṇī.
TEXT 42
dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, āra ye śṛṅgāra
cāri prema, catur-vidha bhakta-i ādhāra
SYNONYMS
dāsya—servitude; sakhya—friendship; vātsalya—parental affection; āra—and; ye—that; śrṅgāra—conjugal love; cārī—four types; prema—love of God; catuḥ-vidha—four kinds; bhakta-i—devotees; ādhāra—the containers.
TRANSLATION
Four kinds of devotees are the receptacles of the four kinds of mellows in love of God, namely servitude, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love.
TEXT 43
nija nija bhāva sabe śreṣṭha kari' māne
nija-bhāve kare kṛṣṇa-sukha āsvādane
SYNONYMS
nija nija—each his own; bhāva—mood; sabe—all; śreṣṭha kari'-making the best; māne—accepts; nija-bhāve—in his own mood; kare—does; kṛṣṇa-sukha—happiness with Lord Kṛṣṇa; āsvādane—tasting.
TRANSLATION
Each kind of devotee feels that his sentiment is the most excellent, and thus in that mood he tastes great happiness with Lord Kṛṣṇa.
TEXT 44
taṭastha ha-iyā mane vicāra yadi kari
saba rasa haite śṛṅgāre adhika mādhurī
SYNONYMS
taṭa-stha ha-iyā—becoming impartial; mane—in the mind; vicāra—consideration; yadi—if; kari—doing; saba rasa—all the mellows; haite—than; śṛṅgāre—in conjugal love; adhika—greater; mādhurī—sweetness.
TRANSLATION
But if we compare the sentiments in an impartial mood, we find that the conjugal sentiment is superior to all in sweetness.
PURPORT
No one is higher or lower than anyone else in transcendental relationships with the Lord, for in the absolute realm everything is equal. But although these relationships are absolute, there are also transcendental differences between them. Thus the transcendental relationship of conjugal love is considered the highest perfection.
TEXT 45
yathottaram asau svāda-
viśeṣollāsamayy api
ratir vāsanayā svādvī
bhāsate kāpi kasyacit
SYNONYMS
yathā-uttaram—one after another; asau—that; svāda-viśeṣa—of particular tastes; ullāsa-mayī—consisting of the increase; api—although; ratiḥ—love; vāsanayā—by the different desire; svādvī—sweet; bhāsate—exists; api—any; kasyacit—of someone (the devotee).
TRANSLATION
"Increasing love is experienced in various tastes, one above another. But that love which has the highest taste in the gradual succession of desire manifests itself in the form of conjugal love."
PURPORT
This is a verse from Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī's Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.38).
TEXT 46
ataeva madhura rasa kahi tara nāma
svakīyā-parakīyā-bhāve dvi-vidha saṁsthāna
SYNONYMS
ataeva—therefore; madhura—sweet; rasa—mellow; kahi—I say; tāra—of that; nāma—the name; svakīyāsvakīyā (own); parakīyā—and named parakīyā (another's); bhāve—in the moods; dvi-vidha—two types; saṁsthāna—positions.
TRANSLATION
Therefore I call it madhura-rasa. It has two further divisions, namely wedded and unwedded love.
TEXT 47
parakīyā-bhāve ati rasera ullāsa
vraja vinā ihāra anyatra nāhi vāsa
SYNONYMS
parakīyā-bhāve—in the mood of parakīyā, or conjugal relations outside of marriage; ati—very great; rasera—of mellow; ullāsa—increase; vraja vinā—except for Vraja; ihāra—of this; anyatra—anywhere else; nāhi—there is not; vāsa—residence.
TRANSLATION
There is a great increase of mellow in the unwedded conjugal mood. Such love is found nowhere but in Vraja.
TEXT 48
vraja-vadhū-gaṇera ei bhāva niravadhi
tāra madhye śrī-rādhāya bhāvera avadhi
SYNONYMS
vraja-vadhū-gaṇera—of the young wives of Vraja; ei—this; bhāva—mood; niravadhi—unbounded; tāra madhye—among them; śrī-rādhāya—in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; bhāvera—of the mood; avadhi—the highest limit.
TRANSLATION
This mood is unbounded in the damsels of Vraja, but among them it finds its perfection in Śrī Rādhā.
TEXT 49
prauḍha nirmala-bhāva prema sarvottama
kṛṣṇera mādhurya-rasa-āsvāda-kāraṇa
SYNONYMS
prauḍha—matured; nirmala-bhāva—pure condition; prema—love; sarva-uttama—best of all; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; mādhurya-rasa—of the mellow of the conjugal relationship; āsvāda—of the tasting; kāraṇa—the cause.
TRANSLATION
Her pure, mature love surpasses that of all others. Her love is the cause of Lord Kṛṣṇa's tasting the sweetness of the conjugal relationship.
TEXT 50
ataeva sei bhāva aṅgīkāra kari'
sādhilena nija vāñchā gaurāṅga-śrī-hari
SYNONYMS
ataeva—therefore; sei bhāva—that mood; aṅgīkāra kari'-accepting; sādhilena—fulfilled; nija—His own; vāñchā—desire; gaurāṅga—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śrī-hari—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
Therefore Lord Gaurāṅga, who is Śrī Hari Himself, accepted the sentiments of Rādhā and thus fulfilled His own desires.
PURPORT
Of the four kinds of reciprocation of loving service-dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya-mādhurya is considered the fullest. But the conjugal relationship is further divided into two varieties, namely svakīya and parakīya. Svakīya is the relationship with Kṛṣṇa as a formally married husband, and parakīya is the relationship with Kṛṣṇa as a paramour. Expert analysts have decided that the transcendental ecstasy of the parakīya mellow is better because it is more enthusiastic. This phase of conjugal love is found in those who have surrendered to the Lord in intense love, knowing well that such illicit love with a paramour is not morally approved in society. The risks involved in such love of Godhead make this emotion superior to the relationship in which such risk is not involved. The validity of such risk, however, is possible only in the transcendental realm. Svakīya and parakīya conjugal love of Godhead have no existence in the material world, and parakīya is not exhibited anywhere in Vaikuṇṭha, but only in the portion of Goloka Vṛndāvana known as Vraja.
Some devotees think that Kṛṣṇa is eternally the enjoyer in Goloka Vṛndāvana but only sometimes comes to the platform of Vraja to enjoy parakīya-rasa. The six Gosvāmīs of Vṛndāvana, however, have explained that Kṛṣṇa's pastimes in Vraja are eternal, like His other activities in Goloka Vṛndāvana. Vraja is a confidential part of Goloka Vṛndāvana. Kṛṣṇa exhibited His Vraja pastimes on the surface of this world, and similar pastimes are eternally exhibited in Vraja in Goloka Vṛndāvana, where parakīya-rasa is ever existent.
In the Third Chapter of this epic, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī has explicitly accepted the fact that Kṛṣṇa appears in this material world at the end of the Dvāpara age of the twenty-eighth catur-yuga of Vaivasvata Manu and brings with Him His Vrajadhāma, which is the eternal abode of His highest pastimes. As the Lord appears by His own internal potency, so He also brings all His paraphernalia by the same internal potency, without extraneous help. It is further stated here in Caitanya-caritāmṛta that the parakīya sentiment exists only in that transcendental realm and nowhere else. This highest form of ecstasy can exist only in the most confidential part of the transcendental world, but by the causeless mercy of the Lord we can have a peep into that invisible Vraja.
The transcendental mellow relished by the gopīs in Vraja is superexcellently featured in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Mature assimilation of the transcendental humor of conjugal love is represented by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, whose feelings are incomprehensible even to the Lord Himself. The intensity of Her loving service is the highest form of ecstasy. No one can surpass Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in relishing the transcendental mellow qualities of the Lord. Therefore the Lord Himself agreed to assume the position of Rādhārāṇī in the form of Lord Śrī Gaurāṅga. He then relished the highest position of parakīya-rasa, as exhibited in the transcendental abode of Vraja.
TEXT 51
sureśānāṁ durgaṁ gatir atiśayenopaniṣadāṁ
munīnāṁ sarva-svaṁ praṇata-paṭalīnāṁ madhurimā
viniryāsaḥ premṇo nikhila-paśu-pālāmbuja-dṛśāṁ
sa caitanyaḥ kiṁ me punar api dṛśor yāsyati padam
SYNONYMS
sura-īśānām—of the kings of the demigods; durgam—fortress; gatiḥ—the goal; atiśayena—eminently; upaniṣadām—of the Upaniṣads; munīnām—of the sages; sarva-svam—the be-all and end-all; praṇata-paṭalīnām—of the groups of the devotees; madhurimā—the sweetness; viniryāsaḥ—the essence; premṇaḥ—of love; nikhila—all; paśu-pālā—of the cowherd women; ambuja-dṛśām—lotus-eyed; saḥ—He; caitanyaḥ—Lord Caitanya; kim—what; me—my; punaḥ—again; api—certainly; dṛśoḥ—of the two eyes; yāsyati—will come; padam—to the abode.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Caitanya is the shelter of the demigods, the goal of the Upaniṣads, the be-all and end-all of the great sages, the beautiful shelter of His devotees, and the essence of the love of the lotus-eyed gopīs. Will He again be the object of my vision?"
TEXT 52
apāraṁ kasyāpi praṇayi-jana-vṛndasya kutukī
rasa-stomaṁ hṛtvā madhuram upabhoktuṁ kam-api yaḥ
rucaṁ svām āvavre dyutim iha tadīyāṁ prakaṭayan
sa devaś caitanyākṛtir atitarāṁ naḥ kṛpayatu
SYNONYMS
apāram—boundless; kasya api—of someone; praṇayi-jana-vṛndasya—of the multitude of lovers; kutukī—one who is curious; rasa-stomam—the group of mellows; hṛtvā—stealing; madhuram—sweet; upabhoktum—to enjoy; kam api—some; yaḥ—who; rucam—luster; svām—own; āvavre—covered; dyutim—luster; iha—here; tadīyām—related to Him; prakaṭayan—manifesting; saḥ—He; devaḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-ākṛtiḥ—having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; atitarām—greatly; naḥ—unto us; kṛpayatu—may He show His mercy.
TRANSLATION
"Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to taste the limitless nectarean mellows of the love of one of His multitude of loving damsels [Śrī Rādhā], and so He has assumed the form of Lord Caitanya. He has tasted that love while hiding His own dark complexion with Her effulgent yellow color. May that Lord Caitanya confer upon us His grace."
PURPORT
Texts 51 and 52 are from the Stava-mālā of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
TEXT 53
bhāva-grahaṇera hetu kaila dharma-sthāpana
tāra mukhya hetu kahi, śuna sarva-jana
SYNONYMS
bhāva-grahaṇera—of accepting the mood; hetu—the reason; kaila—did; dharma—religion; sthāpana—establishing; tāra—of that; mukhya—principal; hetu—reason; kahi—I say; śuna—please hear; sarva-jana—everyone.
TRANSLATION
To accept ecstatic love is the main reason He appeared and reestablished the religious system for this age. I shall now explain that reason. Everyone please listen.
TEXT 54
mūla hetu āge ślokera kaila ābhāsa
ebe kahi sei ślokera artha prakāśa
SYNONYMS
mūla hetu—the root cause; āge—in the beginning; ślokera—of the verse; kaila—gave; ābhāsa—hint; ebe—now; kahi—I shall speak; sei—that; ślokera—of the verse; artha—meaning; prakāśa—manifestation.
TRANSLATION
Having first given hints about the verse describing the principal reason why the Lord appeared, now I shall manifest its full meaning.
TEXT 55
rādhā kṛṣṇa-praṇaya-vikṛtir hlādinī śaktir asmād
ekātmānāv api bhuvi purā deha-bhedaṁ gatau tau
caitanyākhyaṁ prakaṭam adhunā tad-dvayaṁ caikyam āptaṁ
rādhā-bhāva-dyuti-suvalitaṁ naumi kṛṣṇa-svarūpam
SYNONYMS
rādhā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; praṇaya—of love; vikṛtiḥ—the transformation; hlādinī śaktiḥ—pleasure potency; asmāt—from this; eka-ātmānau—both the same in identity; api—although; bhuvi—on earth; purā—from beginningless time; deha-bhedam—separate forms; gatau—obtained; tau—these two; caitanya-ākhyam—known as Śrī Caitanya; prakaṭam—manifest; adhunā—now; tat-dvayam—the two of Them; ca—and; aikyam—unity; āptam—obtained; rādhā—of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; bhāva—mood; dyuti—the luster; suvalitam—who is adorned with; naumi—I offer my obeisances; kṛṣṇa-svarūpam—to Him who is identical with Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
TRANSLATION
"The loving affairs of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are transcendental manifestations of the Lord's internal pleasure-giving potency. Although Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one in Their identity, They separated Themselves eternally. Now these two transcendental identities have again united, in the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. I bow down to Him, who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī although He is Kṛṣṇa Himself."
PURPORT
This text is from the diary of Śrīla Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī. It appears as the fifth of the first fourteen verses of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.
TEXT 56
rādhā-kṛṣṇa eka ātmā, dui deha dhari'
anyonye vilase rasa āsvādana kari'
SYNONYMS
rādhā-kṛṣṇaRādhā and Kṛṣṇa; eka—one; ātmā—self; dui—two; deha—bodies; dhari'-assuming; anyonye—one another; vilase—They enjoy; rasa—the mellows of love; āsvādana kari'-tasting.
TRANSLATION
Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are one and the same, but They have assumed two bodies. Thus They enjoy each other, tasting the mellows of love.
PURPORT
The two transcendentalists Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa are a puzzle to materialists. The above description of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa from the diary of Śrīla Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī is a condensed explanation, but one needs great spiritual insight to understand the mystery of these two personalities. One is enjoying in two. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the potent factor, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the internal potency. According to Vedānta philosophy, there is no difference between the potent and potency: they are identical. We cannot differentiate between one and the other, any more than we can separate fire from heat.
Everything in the Absolute is inconceivable in relative existence. Therefore in relative cognizance it is very difficult to assimilate this truth of the oneness between the potent and the potency. The philosophy of inconceivable oneness and difference propounded by Lord Caitanya is the only source of understanding for such intricacies of transcendence.
In fact, Rādhārāṇī is the internal potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and She eternally intensifies the pleasure of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Impersonalists cannot understand this without the help of a mahā-bhāgavata devotee. The very name Rādhā suggests that She is eternally the topmost mistress of the comforts of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. As such, She is the medium transmitting the living entities' service to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Devotees in Vṛndāvana therefore seek the mercy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in order to be recognized as loving servitors of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu personally approaches the fallen conditioned souls of the iron age to deliver the highest principle of transcendental relationships with the Lord. The activities of Lord Caitanya are primarily in the role of the pleasure-giving portion of His internal potency.
The absolute Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is the omnipotent form of transcendental existence, knowledge and bliss in full. His internal potency is exhibited first as sat, or existence-or, in other words, as the portion that expands the existence function of the Lord. The same potency while displaying full knowledge is called cit, or samvit, which expands the transcendental forms of the Lord. Finally, the same potency while playing as a pleasure-giving medium is known as hlādinī, or the transcendental blissful potency. Thus the Lord manifests His internal potency in three transcendental divisions.
TEXT 57
sei dui eka ebe caitanya gosāñi
rasa āsvādite doṅhe hailā eka-ṭhāṅi
SYNONYMS
sei—these; dui—two; eka—one; ebe—now; caitanya gosāñi—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; rasa—mellow; āsvādite—to taste; doṅhe—the two; hailā—have become; eka-ṭhāṅi—one body.
TRANSLATION
Now, to enjoy rasa, They have appeared in one body as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
TEXT 58
ithi lāgi' āge kari tāra vivaraṇa
yāhā haite haya gaurera mahimā-kathana
SYNONYMS
ithi lāgi'-for this; āge—first; kari—I shall do; tāra—of that; vivaraṇa—description; yāhā haite—from which; haya—there is; gaurera—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mahimā—the glory; kathana—relating.
TRANSLATION
Therefore I shall first delineate the position of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. From that the glory of Lord Caitanya will be known.
TEXT 59
rādhikā hayena kṛṣṇera praṇaya-vikāra
svarūpa-śakti--'hlādinī' nāma yāṅhāra
SYNONYMS
rādhikā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; hayena—is; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; praṇaya-vikāra—transformation of love; svarūpa-śakti—personal energy; hlādinīhlādinī; nāma—name; yāṅhāra—whose.
TRANSLATION
Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the transformation of Kṛṣṇa's love. She is His internal energy called hlādinī.
TEXT 60
hlādinī karāya kṛṣṇe ānandāsvādana
hlādinīra dvārā kare bhaktera poṣaṇa
SYNONYMS
hlādinī—the hlādinī energy; karāya—causes to do; kṛṣṇe—in Lord Kṛṣṇa; ānanda-āsvādana—the tasting of bliss; hlādinīra dvārā—by the pleasure potency; kare—does; bhaktera—of the devotee; poṣaṇa—nourishing.
TRANSLATION
That hlādinī energy gives Kṛṣṇa pleasure and nourishes His devotees.
PURPORT
Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī has elaborately discussed the hlādinī potency in his Prīti-sandarbha. He says that the Vedas clearly state, "Only devotional service can lead one to the Personality of Godhead. Only devotional service can help a devotee meet the Supreme Lord face to face. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is attracted by devotional service, and as such the ultimate supremacy of Vedic knowledge rests in knowing the science of devotional service."
What is the particular attraction that makes the Supreme Lord enthusiastic to accept devotional service, and what is the nature of such service? The Vedic scriptures inform us that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, is self sufficient, and that māyā, nescience, can never influence Him at all. As such, the potency that overcomes the Supreme must be purely spiritual. Such a potency cannot be anything of the material manifestation. The bliss enjoyed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot be of material composition like the impersonalist conception of the bliss of Brahman. Devotional service is reciprocation between two, and therefore it cannot be located simply within one's self. Therefore the bliss of self-realization, brahmānanda, cannot be equated with devotional service.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has three kinds of internal potency, namely, the hlādinī-śakti, or pleasure potency, the sandhinī-śakti, or existential potency, and the samvit-śakti, or cognitive potency. In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.12.69) the Lord is addressed as follows: "O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hlādinī, sandhinī and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities."
Hlādinī is the personal manifestation of the blissfulness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, by which He enjoys pleasure. Because the pleasure potency is perpetually present in the Supreme Lord, the theory of the impersonalist that the Lord appears in the material mode of goodness cannot be accepted. The impersonalist conclusion is against the Vedic version that the Lord possesses a transcendental pleasure potency. When the pleasure potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is exhibited by His grace in the person of a devotee, that manifestation is called love of God. "Love of God" is an epithet for the pleasure potency of the Lord. Therefore devotional service reciprocated between the Lord and His devotee is an exhibition of the transcendental pleasure potency of the Lord.
The potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that always enriches Him with transcendental bliss is not material, but the Śaṅkarites have accepted it as such because they are ignorant of the identity of the Supreme Lord and His pleasure potency. Those ignorant persons cannot understand the distinction between impersonal spiritual bliss and the variegatedness of the spiritual pleasure potency. The hlādinī potency gives the Lord all transcendental pleasure, and the Lord bestows such a potency upon His pure devotee.
TEXT 61
sac-cid-ānanda, pūrṇa, kṛṣṇera svarūpa
eka-i cic-chakti tāṅra dhare tina rūpa
SYNONYMS
sat-cit-ānanda—eternity, knowledge and bliss; pūrṇa—full; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sva-rūpa—own form; eka-i—one; cit-śakti—spiritual energy; tāṅra—of Him; dhare—manifests; tina—three; rūpa—forms.
TRANSLATION
Lord Kṛṣṇa's body is eternal [sat], full of knowledge [cit] and full of bliss [ānanda]. His one spiritual energy manifests three forms.
TEXT 62
ānandāṁśe hlādinī, sad-aṁśe sandhinī
cid-aṁśe samvit--yāre jñāna kari' māni
SYNONYMS
ānanda-aṁśe—in the bliss portion; hlādinī—the pleasure energy; sat-aṁśe—in the eternal portion; sandhinī—the existence-expanding energy; cit-aṁśe—in the cognizant portion; samvit—the full energy of knowledge; yāre—which; jñāna kari'-as knowledge; māni—I accept.
TRANSLATION
Hlādinī is His aspect of bliss; sandhinī, of eternal existence; and samvit, of cognizance, which is also accepted as knowledge.
PURPORT
In his thesis Bhagavat-sandarbha (103), Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī explains the potencies of the Lord as follows: The transcendental potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by which He maintains His existence is called sandhinī. The transcendental potency by which He knows Himself and causes others to know Him is called samvit. The transcendental potency by which He possesses transcendental bliss and causes His devotees to have bliss is called hlādinī.
The total exhibition of these potencies is called viśuddha-sattva, and this platform of spiritual variegatedness is displayed even in the material world, when the Lord appears here. The pastimes and manifestations of the Lord in the material world are therefore not at all material: they belong to the pure transcendental state. The Bhagavad-gītā confirms that anyone who understands the transcendental nature of the Lord's appearance, activities and disappearance becomes eligible for freedom from material bondage upon quitting the present material tabernacle. He can enter the spiritual kingdom to associate with the Supreme Personality of Godhead and reciprocate the hlādinī potency in transactions between him and the Lord. In the mundane mode of goodness there are tinges of passion and ignorance. Therefore mundane goodness, being mixed, is called miśra-sattva. But the transcendental variegatedness of viśuddha-sattva is completely free from all mundane qualities. Viśuddha-sattva is therefore the proper atmosphere in which to experience the Personality of Godhead and His transcendental pastimes. Spiritual variegatedness is eternally independent of all material conditions and is nondifferent from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, both being absolute. The Lord and His devotees simultaneously perceive the hlādinī potency directly by the power of the samvit potency.
The material modes of nature control the conditioned souls, but the Supreme Personality of Godhead is never influenced by these modes, as all Vedic literature directly and indirectly corroborates. Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself says in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.25.12), sattvaṁ rajas tama iti guṇā jīvasya naiva me: "The material modes of goodness, passion and ignorance are connected with the conditioned souls, but never with Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead." The Viṣṇu Purāṇa confirms this as follows:
sattvādayo na santīśe
yatra na prākṛtā gunāḥ
sa śuddhaḥ sarva-śuddhebhyaḥ
pumān ādyaḥ prasīdatu
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, is beyond the three qualities goodness, passion and ignorance. No material qualities exist in Him. May that original person, Nārāyaṇa, who is situated in a completely transcendental position, be pleased with us." In the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.27.4), Indra praised Kṛṣṇa as follows:
viśuddha-sattvaṁ tava dhāma śāntaṁ
tapo-mayaṁ dhvasta-rajas-tamaskam
māyā-mayo 'yaṁ guṇa-sampravāho
na vidyate te 'grahaṇānubandhaḥ
"My dear Lord, Your abode is viśuddha-sattva, always undisturbed by the material qualities, and the activities there are in transcendental loving service unto Your feet. The goodness, austerity and penance of the devotees enhance such activities, which are always free from the contamination of passion and ignorance. Material qualities cannot touch You under any circumstances."
When not manifested, the modes of material nature are said to be in goodness. When they are externally manifested and active in producing the varieties of material existence, they are said to be in passion. And when there is a lack of activity and variegatedness, they are said to be in ignorance. In other words, the pensive mood is goodness, activity is passion, and inactivity is ignorance. Above all these mundane qualitative manifestations is viśuddha-sattva. When it is predominated by the sandhinī potency, it is perceivable as the existence of all that be. When predominated by the samvit potency, it is perceived as knowledge in transcendence. And when predominated by the hlādinī potency, it is perceived as the most confidential love of Godhead. Viśuddha-sattva, the simultaneous manifestation of these three in one, is the main feature of the kingdom of God.
The Absolute Truth is therefore the substance of reality, eternally manifest in three energies. The manifestation of the internal energy of the Lord is the inconceivably variegated spiritual world, the manifestation of the marginal energy comprises the living entities, and the manifestation of the external energy is the material cosmos. Therefore the Absolute Truth includes these four principles-the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, His internal energy, His marginal energy and His external energy. The form of the Lord and the expansions of His form as svayaṁ-rūpa and vaibhava-prakāśa are directly the enjoyers of the internal energy, which is the eternal exhibitor of the spiritual world, the most confidential of the manifestations of energy. The external manifestation, the material energy, provides the covering bodies of the conditioned living entities, from Brahmā down to the insignificant ant. This covering energy is manifested under the three modes of material nature and appreciated in various ways by living entities in both the higher and lower forms of life.
Each of the three divisions of the internal potency-the sandhinī, samvit and hlādinī energies-influences one of the external potencies by which the conditioned souls are conducted. Such influence manifests the three qualitative modes of material nature, proving definitely that the living entities, the marginal potency, are eternally servitors of the Lord and are therefore controlled by either the internal or the external potency.
TEXT 63
hlādinī sandhinī samvit
tvayy ekā sarva-saṁsthitau
hlāda-tāpa-karī miśrā
tvayi no guṇa-varjite
SYNONYMS
hlādinī—pleasure potency; sandhinī—existence potency; samvit—knowledge potency; tvayi—in You; ekā—one; sarva-saṁsthitau—who are the basis of all things; hlāda—pleasure; tāpa—and misery; karī—causing; miśrā—a mixture of the two; tvayi—in You; na u—not; guṇa-varjite—who are without the three modes of material nature.
TRANSLATION
"O Lord, You are the support of everything. The three attributes hlādinī, sandhinī and samvit exist in You as one spiritual energy. But the material modes, which cause happiness, misery and mixtures of the two, do not exist in You, for You have no material qualities."
PURPORT
This text is from the Viṣṇu Purāṇa (1.12.69).
TEXT 64
sandhinīra sāra aṁśa--'śuddha-sattva' nāma
bhagavānera sattā haya yāhāte viśrāma
SYNONYMS
sandhinīra—of the existence potency; sāra—essence; aṁśa—portion; śuddha-sattvaśuddha-sattva (pure existence); nāma—named; bhagavānera—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sattā—the existence; haya—is; yāhāte—in which; viśrāma—the resting place.
TRANSLATION
The essential portion of the sandhinī potency is śuddha-sattva. Lord Kṛṣṇa's existence rests upon it.
TEXT 65
mātā, pitā, sthāna, gṛha, śayyāsana āra
e-saba kṛṣṇera śuddha-sattvera vikāra
SYNONYMS
mātā—mother; pitā—father; sthāna—place; gṛha—house; śayya-āsana—beds and seats; āra—and; e-saba—all these; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; śuddha-sattvera—of the śuddha-sattva; vikāra—transformations.
TRANSLATION
Kṛṣṇa's mother, father, abode, house, bedding, seats and so on are all transformations of śuddha-sattva.
PURPORT
Lord Kṛṣṇa's father, mother and household affairs are all displayed in the same viśuddha-sattva existence. A living entity situated in the status of pure goodness can understand the form, quality and other features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇa consciousness begins on the platform of pure goodness. Although there is a faint realization of Kṛṣṇa at first, Kṛṣṇa is actually realized as Vāsudeva, the absolute proprietor of omnipotence or the prime predominating Deity of all potencies. When the living entity is situated in viśuddha-sattva, transcendental to the three material modes of nature, he can perceive the form, quality and other features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead through his service attitude. The status of pure goodness is the platform of understanding, for the Supreme Lord is always in spiritual existence.
Kṛṣṇa is always all-spiritual. Aside from the parents of the Personality of Godhead, all the other paraphernalia of His existence is also essentially a manifestation of sandhinī-śakti, or a transformation of viśuddha-sattva. To make this more clear, it may be said that this sandhinī-śakti of the internal potency maintains and manifests all the variegatedness of the spiritual world. In the kingdom of God, the Lord's servants and maidservants, His consorts, His father and mother and everything else are all transformations of the spiritual existence of sandhinī-śakti. The existential sandhinī-śakti in the external potency similarly expands all the variegatedness of the material cosmos, from which we can have a glimpse of the spiritual field.
TEXT 66
sattvaṁ viśuddhaṁ vasudeva-śabditaṁ
yad īyate tatra pumān apāvṛtaḥ
sattve ca tasmin bhagavān vāsudevo
hy adhokṣajo me manasā vidhīyate
SYNONYMS
sattvam—existence; viśuddham—pure; vasudeva-śabditam—named vasudeva; yat—from which; īyate—appears; tatra—in that; pumān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; apāvṛtaḥ—without any covering; sattve—in goodness; ca—and; tasmin—that; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudevaḥVāsudeva; hi—certainly; adhokṣajaḥ—who is beyond the senses; me—my; manasā—by the mind; vidhīyate—is procured.
TRANSLATION
"The condition of pure goodness [śuddha-sattva], in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed without any covering, is called vasudeva. In that pure state the Supreme Godhead, who is beyond the material senses and who is known as Vāsudeva, is perceived by my mind."
PURPORT
This text from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (4.3.23), spoken by Lord Śiva when he condemned Dakṣa, the father of Satī, as an opponent of Viṣṇu, confirms beyond a doubt that Lord Kṛṣṇa, His name, His fame, His qualities and everything in connection with His paraphernalia exist in the sandhinī-śakti of the Lord's internal potency.
TEXT 67
kṛṣṇe bhagavattā-jñāna--saṁvitera sāra
brahma-jñānādika saba tāra parivāra
SYNONYMS
kṛṣṇe—in Kṛṣṇa; bhagavattā—of the quality of being the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; jñāna—knowledge; saṁvitera—of the knowledge potency; sāra—the essence; brahma-jñāna—knowledge of Brahman; ādika—and so on; saba—all; tāra—of that; parivāra—dependents.
TRANSLATION
The essence of the samvit potency is knowledge that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is Lord Kṛṣṇa. All other kinds of knowledge, such as the knowledge of Brahman, are its components.
PURPORT
The activities of the samvit-śakti produce the effect of cognition. Both the Lord and the living entities are cognizant. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, has full knowledge of everything everywhere, and therefore there are no hindrances to His cognition. He can have knowledge merely by glancing over an object, whereas innumerable impediments block the cognition of ordinary living beings. The cognition of the living beings has three divisions: direct knowledge, indirect knowledge and perverted knowledge. Sense perception of material objects by the mundane senses, such as the eye, ear, nose and hand, always produces definitely perverted knowledge. This illusion is a presentation of the material energy, which is influenced by the samvit-śakti in a perverted manner. Negative cognition of an object beyond the reach of sense perception is the way of indirect knowledge, which is not altogether imperfect but which produces only fragmentary knowledge in the form of impersonal spiritual realization and monism. But when the samvit factor of cognition is enlightened by the hlādinī potency of the same internal energy, they work together, and only thus can one attain knowledge of the Personality of Godhead. The samvit-śakti should be maintained in that state. Material knowledge and indirect spiritual knowledge are by-products of the samvit-śakti.
TEXT 68
hlādinīra sāra 'prema', prema-sāra 'bhāva'
bhāvera parama-kāṣṭhā, nāma--'mahā-bhāva'
SYNONYMS
hlādinīra—of the pleasure potency; sāra—the essence; prema—love for God; prema-sāra—the essence of such love; bhāva—emotion; bhāvera—of emotion; parama-kāṣṭhā—the highest limit; nāma—named; mahā-bhāvamahābhāva.
TRANSLATION
The essence of the hlādinī potency is love of God, the essence of love of God is emotion [bhāva], and the ultimate development of emotion is mahābhāva.
PURPORT
The product of the hlādinī-śakti is love of Godhead, which has two divisions-namely, pure love of Godhead and adulterated love of Godhead. Only when the hlādinī śakti emanates from Śrī Kṛṣṇa and is bestowed upon the living being to attract Him does the living being become a pure lover of God. But when the same hlādinī-śakti is adulterated by the external, material energy and emanates from the living being, it does not attract Kṛṣṇa; on the contrary, the living being becomes attracted by the glamor of the material energy. At that time instead of becoming mad with love of Godhead, the living being becomes mad after material sense enjoyment, and because of his association with the qualitative modes of material nature, he is captivated by its interactions of distressful, unhappy feelings.
TEXT 69
mahābhāva-svarūpā śrī-rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī
sarva-guṇa-khani kṛṣṇa-kāntā-śiromaṇi
SYNONYMS
mahā-bhāva—of mahābhāva; svarūpā—the form; śrī-rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; sarva-guṇa—of all good qualities; khani—mine; kṛṣṇa-kāntā—of the lovers of Lord Kṛṣṇa; śiromaṇi—crown jewel.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Rādhā Ṭhākurāṇī is the embodiment of mahābhāva. She is the repository of all good qualities and the crest jewel among all the lovely consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
PURPORT
The unadulterated action of the hlādinī-śakti is displayed in the dealings of the damsels of Vraja and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the topmost participant in that transcendental group. The essence of the hlādinī-śakti is love of Godhead, the essence of love of Godhead is bhāva, or transcendental sentiment, and the highest pitch of that bhāva is called mahābhāva. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the personified embodiment of these three aspects of transcendental consciousness. She is therefore the highest principle in love of Godhead and is the supreme lovable object of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
TEXT 70
tayor apy ubhayor madhye
rādhikā sarvathādhikā
mahābhāva-svarūpeyaṁ
guṇair ativarīyasī
SYNONYMS
tayoḥ—of them; api—even; ubhayoḥ—of both (Candrāvalī and Rādhārāṇī); madhye—in the middle; rādhikā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; sarvathā—in every way; adhikā—greater; mahā-bhāva-svarūpā—the form of mahābhāva; iyam—this one; guṇaiḥ—with good qualities; ativarīyasī—the best of all.
TRANSLATION
"Of these two gopīs [Rādhārāṇī and Candrāvalī], Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is superior in all respects. She is the embodiment of mahābhāva, and She surpasses all in good qualities."
PURPORT
This text is verse 2 of the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
TEXT 71
kṛṣṇa-prema-bhāvita yāṅra cittendriya-kāya
kṛṣṇa-nija-śakti rādhā krīḍāra sahāya
SYNONYMS
kṛṣṇa-prema—love for Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhāvita—steeped in; yāṅra—whose; citta—mind; indriya—senses; kāya—body; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nija-śakti—His own energy; rādhā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; krīḍāra—of pastimes; sahāya—companion.
TRANSLATION
Her mind, senses and body are steeped in love for Kṛṣṇa. She is Kṛṣṇa's own energy, and She helps Him in His pastimes.
PURPORT
Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is as fully spiritual as Kṛṣṇa. No one should consider Her to be material. She is definitely not like the conditioned souls, who have material bodies, gross and subtle, covered by material senses. She is all-spiritual, and both Her body and mind are of the same spiritual embodiment. Because Her body is spiritual, Her senses are also spiritual. Thus Her body, mind and senses fully shine in love of Kṛṣṇa. She is the personified hlādinī-śakti (the pleasure-giving energy of the Lord's internal potency), and therefore She is the only source of enjoyment for Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
Śrī Kṛṣṇa cannot enjoy anything that is internally different from Him. Therefore Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa are identical. The sandhinī portion of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's internal potency has manifested the all-attractive form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and the same internal potency, in the hlādinī feature, has presented Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is the attraction for the ail-attractive. No one can match Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the transcendental pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
TEXT 72
ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
SYNONYMS
ānanda—bliss; cit—and knowledge; maya—consisting of; rasa—mellows; prati—at every second; bhāvitābhiḥ—who are engrossed with; tābhiḥ—with those; yaḥ—who; eva—certainly; nija-rūpatayā—with His own form; kalābhiḥ—who are parts of portions of His pleasure potency; goloke—in Goloka Vṛndāvana; eva—certainly; nivasati—resides; akhila-ātma—as the soul of all; bhūtaḥ—who exists; govindam—Lord Govinda; ādi-puruṣam—the original personality; tam—Him; aham—I; bhajāmi—worship.
TRANSLATION
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who resides in His own realm, Goloka, with Rādhā, who resembles His own spiritual figure and who embodies the ecstatic potency [hlādinī]. Their companions are Her confidantes, who embody extensions of Her bodily form and who are imbued and permeated with ever-blissful spiritual rasa."
PURPORT
This text is from the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.37).
TEXT 73
kṛṣṇere karāya yaiche rasa āsvādana
krīḍāra sahāya yaiche, śuna vivaraṇa
SYNONYMS
kṛṣṇere—unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; karāya—causes to do; yaiche—how; rasa—the mellows; āsvādana—tasting; krīḍāra—of pastimes; sahāya—helper; yaiche—how; śuna—please hear; vivaraṇa—the description.
TRANSLATION
Now please listen to how Lord Kṛṣṇa's consorts help Him taste rasa and how they help in His pastimes.
TEXTS 74-75
kṛṣṇa-kāntā-gaṇa dekhi tri-vidha prakāra
eka lakṣmī-gaṇa, pure mahiṣī-gaṇa āra
vrajāṅganā-rūpa, āra kāntā-gaṇa-sāra
śrī-rādhikā haite kāntā-gaṇera vistāra
SYNONYMS
kṛṣṇa-kāntā-gaṇa—the lovers of Lord Kṛṣṇa; dekhi—I see; tri-vidha—three; prakāra—kinds; eka—one; lakṣmī-gaṇa—the goddesses of fortune; pure—in the city; mahiṣī-gaṇa—the queens; āra—and; vraja-aṅganā—of the beautiful women of Vraja; rūpa—having the form; āra—another type; kāntā-gaṇa—of the lovers; sāra—the essence; śrī-rādhikā haite—from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; kāntā-gaṇera—of the lovers of Kṛṣṇa; vistāra—the expansion.
TRANSLATION
The beloved consorts of Lord Kṛṣṇa are of three kinds: the goddesses of fortune, the queens, and the milkmaids of Vraja, who are the foremost of all. These consorts all proceed from Rādhikā.
TEXT 76
avatārī kṛṣṇa yaiche kare avatāra
aṁśinī rādhā haite tina gaṇera vistāra
SYNONYMS
avatārī—the source of all incarnations; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; yaiche—just as; kare—makes; avatāra—incarnation; aṁśinī—the source of all portions; rādhā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; haite—from; tina—three; gaṇera—of the groups; vistāra—expansion.
TRANSLATION
Just as the fountainhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa, is the cause of all incarnations, so Śrī Rādhā is the cause of all these consorts.
TEXT 77
vaibhava-gaṇa yena tāṅra aṅga-vibhūti
bimba-pratibimba-rūpa mahiṣīra tati
SYNONYMS
vaibhava-gaṇa—the expansions; yena—as it were; tāṅra—of Her; aṅga—of the body; vibhūti—powerful expansions; bimba—reflections; pratibimba—counterreflections; rūpa—having the form; mahiṣīra—of the queens; tati—the expansion.
TRANSLATION
The goddesses of fortune are partial manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhikā, and the queens are reflections of Her image.
TEXT 78
laksmī-gaṇa tāṅra vaibhava-vilāsāṁśa-rūpa
mahiṣī-gaṇa vaibhava-prakāśa-svarūpa
SYNONYMS
lakṣmī-gaṇa—the goddesses of fortune; tāṅra—Her; vaibhava-vilāsa—as vaibhava-vilāsa; aṁśa—of plenary portions; rūpa—having the form; mahiṣī-gaṇa—the queens; vaibhava-prakāśa—of vaibhava-prakāśa; svarūpa—having the nature.
TRANSLATION
The goddesses of fortune are Her plenary portions, and they display the forms of vaibhava-vilāsa. The queens are of the nature of Her vaibhava-prakāśa.
TEXT 79
ākāra svabhāva-bhede vraja-devī-gaṇa
kāya-vyūha-rūpa tāṅra rasera kāraṇa
SYNONYMS
ākāra—of features; svabhāva—of natures; bhede—with differences; vraja-devī-gaṇa—the gopīs; kāya—of Her body; vyūha—of expansions; rūpa—having the form; tāṅra—of Her; rasera—of mellows; kāraṇa—instruments.
TRANSLATION
The Vraja-devīs have diverse bodily features. They are Her expansions and are the instruments for expanding rasa.
TEXT 80
bahu kāntā vinā nahe rasera ullāsa
līlāra sahāya lāgi' bahuta prakāśa
SYNONYMS
bahu—many; kāntā—lovers; vinā—without; nahe—there is not; rasera—of mellow; ullāsa—exultation; līlāra—of pastimes; sahāya—helper; lāgi'-for the purpose of being; bahuta—many; prakāśa—manifestations.
TRANSLATION
Without many consorts, there is not such exultation in rasa. Therefore there are many manifestations of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to assist in the Lord's pastimes.
TEXT 81
tāra madhye vraje nānā bhāva-rasa-bhede
kṛṣṇake karāya rāsādika-līlāsvāde
SYNONYMS
tāra madhye—among them; vraje—in Vraja; nānā—various; bhāva—of moods; rasa—and of mellows; bhede—by differences; kṛṣṇake—Lord Kṛṣṇa; karāya—cause to do; rāsa-ādika—beginning with the rāsa dance; līlā—of the pastimes; āsvāde—tasting.
TRANSLATION
Among them are various groups of consorts in Vraja who have varieties of sentiments and mellows. They help Lord Kṛṣṇa taste all the sweetness of the rāsa dance and other pastimes.
PURPORT
As already explained, Kṛṣṇa and Rādhā are one in two. They are identical. Kṛṣṇa expands Himself in multi-incarnations and plenary portions like the puruṣas. Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī expands Herself in multiforms as the goddesses of fortune, the queens and the damsels of Vraja. Such expansions from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are all Her plenary portions. All these womanly forms of Kṛṣṇa are expansions corresponding to His plenary expansions of Viṣṇu forms. These expansions have been compared to reflected forms of the original form. There is no difference between the original form and the reflected forms. The female reflections of Kṛṣṇa's pleasure potency are as good as Kṛṣṇa Himself.
The plenary expansions of Kṛṣṇa's personality are called vaibhava-vilāsa and vaibhava-prakāśa, and Rādhā's expansions are similarly described. The goddesses of fortune are Her vaibhava-vilāsa forms, and the queens are her vaibhava-prakāśa forms. The personal associates of Rādhārāṇī, the damsels of Vraja, are direct expansions of Her body. As expansions of Her personal form and transcendental disposition, they are agents of different reciprocations of love in the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa, under the supreme direction of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. In the transcendental realm, enjoyment is fully relished in variety. The exuberance of transcendental mellow is increased by the association of a large number of personalities similar to Rādhārāṇī, who are also known as gopīs or sakhīs. The variety of innumerable mistresses is a source of relish for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and therefore these expansions from Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are necessary for enhancing the pleasure potency of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Their transcendental exchanges of love are the superexcellent affairs of the pastimes in Vṛndāvana. By these expansions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī's personal body, She helps Lord Kṛṣṇa taste the rāsa dance and similar other activities. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, being the central petal of the rāsa-līlā flower, is also known by the names found in the following verses.
TEXT 82
govindānandinī rādhā, govinda-mohinī
govinda-sarvasva, sarva-kāntā-śiromaṇi
SYNONYMS
govinda-ānandinī—She who gives pleasure to Govinda; rādhā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; govinda-mohinī—She who mystifies Govinda; govinda-sarvasva—the be-all and end-all of Lord Govinda; sarva-kāntā—of all the Lord's lovers; śiromaṇi—the crown jewel.
TRANSLATION
Rādhā is the one who gives pleasure to Govinda, and She is also the enchantress of Govinda. She is the be-all and end-all of Govinda, and the crest jewel of all His consorts.
TEXT 83
devī kṛṣṇa-mayī proktā
rādhikā para-devatā
sarva-lakṣmī-mayī sarva-
kāntiḥ sammohinī parā
SYNONYMS
devī—who shines brilliantly; kṛṣṇa-mayī—nondifferent from Lord Kṛṣṇa; proktā—called; rādhikā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; para-devatā—most worshipable; sarva-lakṣmī-mayī—presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; sarva-kāntiḥ—in whom all splendor exists; sammohinī—whose character completely bewilders Lord Kṛṣṇa; parā—the superior energy.
TRANSLATION
"The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."
PURPORT
This text is from the Bṛhad-gautamīya-tantra.
TEXT 84
'devī' kahi dyotamānā, paramā sundarī
kimvā, kṛṣṇa-pūjā-krīḍāra vasati nagarī
SYNONYMS
devī—the word devī; kahi—I say; dyotamānā—shining; paramā—most; sundarī—beautiful; kimvā—or; kṛṣṇa-pūjā—of the worship of Lord Kṛṣṇa; krīḍāra—and of sports; vasati—the abode; nagarī—the town.
TRANSLATION
"Devī" means "resplendent and most beautiful." Or else it means "the lovely abode of the worship and love sports of Lord Kṛṣṇa."
TEXT 85
kṛṣṇa-mayī--kṛṣṇa yāra bhitare bāhire
yāṅhā yāṅhā netra paḍe tāṅhā kṛṣṇa sphure
SYNONYMS
kṛṣṇa-mayī—the word kṛṣṇa-mayī; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; yāra—of whom; bhitare—the within; bāhire—the without; yāṅhā yāṅhā—wherever; netra—the eyes; paḍe—fall; tāṅhā—there; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; sphure—manifests.
TRANSLATION
"Kṛṣṇa-mayī" means "one whose within and without are Lord Kṛṣṇa." She sees Lord Kṛṣṇa wherever She casts Her glance.
TEXT 86
kimvā, prema-rasa-maya kṛṣṇera svarūpa
tāṅra śakti tāṅra saha haya eka-rūpa
SYNONYMS
kimvā—or; prema-rasa—the mellows of love; maya—made of; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; svarūpa—the real nature; tāṅra—of Him; śakti—the energy; tāṅra saha—with Him; haya—there is; eka-rūpa—oneness.
TRANSLATION
Or, She is identical with Lord Kṛṣṇa, for She embodies the mellows of love. The energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa is identical with Him.
PURPORT
Kṛṣṇa-mayī has two different imports. First, a person who always thinks of Kṛṣṇa both within and without and who always remembers only Kṛṣṇa, wherever he goes or whatever he sees, is called kṛṣṇa-mayī. Also, since Kṛṣṇa's personality is full of love, His loving potency, Rādhārāṇī, being nondifferent from Him, is called kṛṣṇa-mayī.
TEXT 87
kṛṣṇa-vāñchā-pūrti-rūpa kare ārādhane
ataeva 'rādhikā' nāma purāṇe vākhāne
SYNONYMS
kṛṣṇa-vāñchā—of the desire of Lord Kṛṣṇa; pūrti-rūpa—of the nature of fulfillment; kare—does; ārādhane—worship; ataeva—therefore; rādhikā—Śrīmatī Rādhikā; nāma—named; purāṇe—in the Purāṇas; vākhāne—in the description.
TRANSLATION
Her worship [ārādhana] consists of fulfilling the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Therefore the Purāṇas call Her Rādhikā.
PURPORT
The name Rādhā is derived from the root word ārādhana, which means "worship." The personality who excels all in worshiping Kṛṣṇa may therefore be called Rādhikā, the greatest servitor.
TEXT 88
anayārādhito nūnaṁ
bhagavān harir īśvaraḥ
yan no vihāya govindaḥ
prīto yām anayad rahaḥ
SYNONYMS
anayā—by this one; ārādhitaḥ—worshiped; nūnam—certainly; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hariḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa; īśvaraḥ—the Supreme Lord; yat—from which; naḥ—us; vihāya—leaving aside; govindaḥGovinda; prītaḥ—pleased; yām—whom; anayat—lead; rahaḥ—to a lonely place.
TRANSLATION
"Truly the Personality of Godhead has been worshiped by Her. Therefore Lord Govinda, being pleased, has brought Her to a lonely spot, leaving us all behind."
PURPORT
This text is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.30.28).
TEXT 89
ataeva sarva-pūjyā, parama-devatā
sarva-pālikā, sarva jagatera mātā
SYNONYMS
ataeva—therefore; sarva-pūjyā—worshipable by all; parama—supreme; devatā—goddess; sarva-pālikā—the protectress of all; sarva jagatera—of all the universes; mātā—the mother.
TRANSLATION
Therefore Rādhā is parama-devatā, the supreme goddess, and She is worshipable for everyone. She is the protectress of all, and She is the mother of the entire universe.
TEXT 90
'sarva-lakṣmī'-śabda pūrve kariyāchi vyākhyāna
sarva-lakṣmī-gaṇera tiṅho hana adhiṣṭhāna
SYNONYMS
sarva-lakṣmī-śabda—the word sarva-lakṣmī; pūrve—previously; kariyāchi—I have done; vyākhyāna—explanation; sarva-lakṣmī-gaṇera—of all the goddesses of fortune; tiṅho—She; hana—is; adhiṣṭhāna—abode.
TRANSLATION
I have already explained the meaning of "sarva-lakṣmī." Rādhā is the original source of all the goddesses of fortune.
TEXT 91
kimvā, 'sarva-lakṣmī'--kṛṣṇera ṣaḍ-vidha aiśvarya
tāṅra adhiṣṭhātrī śakti--sarva-śakti-varya
SYNONYMS
kimvā—or; sarva-lakṣmī—the word sarva-lakṣmī; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ṣaṭ-vidha—six kinds; aiśvarya—opulences; tāṅra—of Him; adhiṣṭhātrī—chief; śakti—energy; sarva-śakti—of all energies; varya—the best.
TRANSLATION
Or "sarva-lakṣmī" indicates that She fully represents the six opulences of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore She is the supreme energy of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
TEXT 92
sarva-saundarya-kānti vaisaye yāṅhāte
sarva-lakṣmī-gaṇera śobhā haya yāṅhā haite
SYNONYMS
sarva-saundarya—of all beauty; kānti—the splendor; vaisaye—sits; yāṅhāte—in whom; sarva-lakṣmī-gaṇera—of all the goddesses of fortune; śobhā—the splendor; haya—is; yāṅhā haite—from whom.
TRANSLATION
The word "sarva-kānti" indicates that all beauty and luster rest in Her body. All the lakṣmīs derive their beauty from Her.
TEXT 93
kimvā 'kānti'-śabde kṛṣṇera saba icchā kahe
kṛṣṇera sakala vāñchā rādhātei rahe
SYNONYMS
kimvā—or; kānti-śabde—by the word kānti; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; saba—all; icchā—desires; kahe—says; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sakala—all; vāñchā—desires; rādhātei—in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; rahe—remain.
TRANSLATION
"Kānti" may also mean "all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa." All the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa rest in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
TEXT 94
rādhikā karena kṛṣṇera vāñchita pūraṇa
'sarva-kānti'-śabdera ei artha vivaraṇa
SYNONYMS
rādhikā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; karena—does; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; vāñchita—desired object; pūraṇa—fulfilling; sarva-kānti-śabdera—of the word sarva-kānti; ei—this; artha—meaning; vivaraṇa—the description.
TRANSLATION
Śrīmatī Rādhikā fulfills all the desires of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is the meaning of "sarva-kānti."
TEXT 95
jagat-mohana kṛṣṇa, tāṅhāra mohinī
ataeva samastera parā ṭhākurāṇī
SYNONYMS
jagat-mohana—enchanting the universe; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; tāṅhāra—of Him; mohinī—the enchantress; ataeva—therefore; samastera—of all; parā—foremost; ṭhākurāṇī—goddess.
TRANSLATION
Lord Kṛṣṇa enchants the world, but Śrī Rādhā enchants even Him. Therefore She is the supreme goddess of all.
TEXT 96
rādhā--pūrṇa-śakti, kṛṣṇa--pūrṇa-śaktimān
dui vastu bheda nāi, śāstra-paramāṇa
SYNONYMS
rādhā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; pūrṇa-śakti—the complete energy; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; pūrṇa-śaktimān—the complete possessor of energy; dui—two; vastu—things; bheda—difference; nāi—there is not; śāstra-paramāṇa—the evidence of revealed scripture.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Rādhā is the full power, and Lord Kṛṣṇa is the possessor of full power. The two are not different, as evidenced by the revealed scriptures.
TEXT 97
mṛgamada, tāra gandha--yaiche aviccheda
agni, jvālāte--yaiche kabhu nāhi bheda
SYNONYMS
mṛga-mada—musk; tāra—of that; gandha—fragrance; yaiche—just as; aviccheda—inseparable; agni—the fire; jvālāte—temperature; yaiche—just as; kabhu—any; nāhi—there is not; bheda—difference.
TRANSLATION
They are indeed the same, just as musk and its scent are inseparable, or as fire and its heat are nondifferent.

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