Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's Travels to the Holy Places
A summary of the Ninth Chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura. After leaving Vidyānagara, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited such places of pilgrimage as Gautamī-gaṅgā, Mallikārjuna, Ahovala-nṛsiṁha, Siddhavaṭa, Skanda-kṣetra, Trimaṭha, Vṛddhakāśī, Bauddha-sthāna, Tirupati, Tirumala, Pānā-nṛsiṁha, Śiva-kāñcī, Viṣṇu-kāñcī, Trikāla-hastī, Vṛddhakola, Śiyālī-bhairavī, Kāverī-tīra and Kumbhakarṇa-kapāla.
Finally the Lord went to Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra, where He converted a brāhmaṇa named Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa, who, along with his family, became a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. After leaving Śrī Raṅga, Caitanya Mahāprabhu reached Ṛṣabha-parvata, where He met Paramānanda Purī, who later arrived at Jagannātha Purī. Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then proceeded farther, arriving at Setubandha Rāmeśvara. At Śrī Śaila-parvata, the Lord met Lord Śiva and his wife Durgā in the dress of a brāhmaṇa and brāhmaṇī. From there He went to Kāmakoṣṭhī-purī and later arrived at southern Mathurā. A brāhmaṇa devotee of Lord Rāmacandra's talked with Him. Then the Lord took His bath in the river Kṛtamālā. On the hill known as Mahendra-śaila, the Lord saw Paraśurāma. Then the Lord went to Setubandha and took His bath at Dhanus-tīrtha. He also visited Rāmeśvara, where He collected some papers connected with Sītādevī, whose illusory form was kidnapped by Rāvaṇa. The Lord next visited the places known as Pāṇḍya-deśa, Tāmraparṇī, Naya-tripadī, Ciyaḍatalā, Tila-kāñcī, Gajendra-mokṣaṇa, Pānāgaḍi, Cāmtāpura, Śrī Vaikuṇṭha, Malaya-parvata and Kanyā-kumārī. The Lord then met the Bhaṭṭathāris at Mallāra-deśa and saved Kālā Kṛṣṇadāsa from their clutches. The Lord also collected the Brahma-saṁhitā, Fifth Chapter, on the banks of the Payasvinī River. He then visited Payasvinī, Śṛṅgavera-purī-maṭha and Matsya-tīrtha. At the village of Uḍupī He saw the Gopāla Deity installed by Śrī Madhvācārya. He then defeated the Tattvavādīs in śāstric conversation. The Lord next visited Phalgu-tīrtha, Tritakūpa, Pañcāpsarā, Sūrpāraka and Kolāpura. At Śrī Raṅgapurī the Lord received news of Śaṅkarāraṇya's disappearance. He then went to the banks of the Kṛṣṇaveṇvā River, where He collected from among the Vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇas a book written by Bilvamaṅgala, Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta. The Lord then visited Tāptī, Māhiṣmatī-pura, Narmadā-tīra and Ṛṣyamūka-parvata. He entered Daṇḍakāraṇya and liberated the seven palm trees. From there He visited a place known as Pampā-sarovara and visited Pañcavaṭī, Nāsika, Brahmagiri and also the source of the Godāvarī River, Kuśāvarta. Thus the Lord visited almost all the holy places in South India. He finally returned to Jagannātha Purī by taking the same route, after visiting Vidyānagara again.
gauraś cakre sa vaiṣṇavān
nānā-mata—by various philosophies; grāha—like crocodiles; grastān—captured; dākṣiṇātya-jana—the inhabitants of South India; dvipān—like elephants; kṛpā-ariṇā—by His disc of mercy; vimucya—liberating; etān—all these; gauraḥ—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; cakre—converted; saḥ—He; vaiṣṇavān—to the Vaiṣṇava cult.
Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu converted the inhabitants of South India. These people were as strong as elephants, but they were in the clutches of the crocodiles of various philosophies, such as the Buddhist, Jain and Māyāvāda philosophies. With His disc of mercy the Lord delivered them all by converting them into Vaiṣṇavas, devotees of the Lord.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's converting the people of South India into Vaiṣṇavas is compared herein to Lord Viṣṇu's delivering Gajendra the elephant from the attack of a crocodile. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited southern India, almost all the residents were within the jaws of the crocodiles of Buddhist, Jain and Māyāvāda philosophy. Here Kavirāja Gosvāmī states that although these people were as strong as elephants, they were almost in the clutches of death because they were being attacked by the crocodiles of various philosophies. However, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the form of Viṣṇu mercifully saved the elephant Gajendra from the clutches of a crocodile, so He saved all the people of South India from the clutches of various philosophies by converting them into Vaiṣṇavas.
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya—all glories; śrī-caitanya—to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya—all glories; nityānanda—unto Nityānanda Prabhu; jaya advaita-candra—all glories to Advaita Prabhu; jaya—all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—to the devotees of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Śrī Advaita Prabhu! And all glories to the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!
dakṣiṇa-gamana prabhura ati vilakṣaṇa
sahasra sahasra tīrtha kaila daraśana
dakṣiṇa-gamana—touring in South India; prabhura—of the Lord; ati—very; vilakṣaṇa—extraordinary; sahasra sahasra—thousands and thousands; tīrtha—holy places; kaila—did; daraśana—visit.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's tour of South India was certainly very extraordinary because He visited many thousands of places of pilgrimage there.
sei saba tīrtha sparśi' mahā-tīrtha kaila
sei chale sei deśera loka nistārila
sei saba—all those; tīrtha—holy places; sparśi'-touching; mahā-tīrtha—into great places of pilgrimage; kaila—made them; sei chale—under that plea; sei deśera—of those countries; loka—the people; nistārila—He delivered.
On the plea of visiting all those holy places, the Lord converted many thousands of residents and thus delivered them. Simply by touching the holy places, He made them into great places of pilgrimage.
It is said: tīrthī-kurvanti tīrthāni. A tīrtha, or holy place, is a place where great saintly personalities visit or reside. Although the holy places were already places of pilgrimage, they were all purified by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's visit. Many people go to these holy places and leave their sinful activities there, thus becoming free from contamination. When these contaminations pile up, they are counteracted by the visit of great personalities like Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His strict followers. Many kinds of patients come to a hospital, which may be infected by many types of disease. Actually the hospital is always infected, but the expert physician keeps the hospital sterilized by his expert presence and management. Similarly, places of pilgrimage are always infected by the sins left by the sinners who go there, but when a personality like Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visits such a place, all contaminations vanish.
sei saba tīrthera krama kahite nā pāri
dakṣiṇa-vāme tīrtha-gamana haya pherāpheri
sei saba—all those; tīrthera—of holy places; krama—the chronological order; kahite—to tell of; nā pāri—I am unable; dakṣiṇa-vāme—left and right; tīrtha-gamana—visiting the holy places; haya—is; pherāpheri—going and coming back
I cannot chronologically record all the places of pilgrimage visited by Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. I can only summarize everything by saying that the Lord visited all holy places right and left, coming and going.
ataeva nāma-mātra kariye gaṇana
kahite nā pāri tāra yathā anukrama
ataeva—therefore; nāma-mātra—only as a token record; kariye gaṇana—I count; kahite—to tell; nā pāri—I am unable; tāra—of that; yathā—as; anukrama—chronological order.
Because it is impossible for me to record all these places in chronological order, I simply make a token gesture of recording them.
pūrvavat pathe yāite ye pāya daraśana
yei grāme yāya, se grāmera yata jana
sabei vaiṣṇava haya, kahe 'kṛṣṇa' 'hari'
anya grāma nistāraye sei 'vaiṣṇava' kari'
pūrva-vat—as done previously; pathe—on the way; yāite—while going; ye—anyone who; pāya—gets; daraśana—audience; yei—which; grāme—in the village; yāya—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu goes; se—that; grāmera—of the village; yata—all; jana—people; sabei—all of them; vaiṣṇava haya—become devotees; kahe—say; kṛṣṇa hari—the holy names of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Hari; anya grāma—other villages; nistāraye—delivers; sei—He; vaiṣṇava—devotees; kari'-making.
As previously stated, all the residents of the villages visited by Lord Caitanya became Vaiṣṇavas and began to chant "Hari" and "Kṛṣṇa." In this way, in all the villages visited by the Lord, everyone became a Vaiṣṇava, a devotee.
The holy names of Kṛṣṇa and Hari, or the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, are so spiritually powerful that even today, as our preachers go to remote parts of the world, people immediately begin chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. There cannot be anyone who can compare to Him or His potencies. However, because we are following in His footsteps and are also chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, the effect is almost as potent as during the time of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Our preachers mainly belong to European and American countries, yet by the grace of Lord Caitanya they have tremendous success wherever they go to open branches. Indeed, everywhere people are very seriously chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.
dakṣiṇa deśera loka aneka prakāra
keha jñānī, keha karmī, pāṣaṇḍī apāra
dakṣiṇa deśera—of South India; loka—people; aneka—many; prakāra—varieties; keha—someone; jñānī—philosophical speculator; keha—someone; karmī—fruitive worker; pāṣaṇḍī—nondevotees; apāra—innumerable.
In South India there were many types of people. Some were philosophical speculators, and some were fruitive workers, but in any case there were innumerable nondevotees.
sei saba loka prabhura darśana-prabhāve
nija-nija-mata chāḍi' ha-ila vaiṣṇave
sei saba loka—all those people; prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; darśana-prabhāve—by the influence of His visit; nija-nija—their own; mata—opinion; chāḍi'-giving up; ha-ila—became; vaiṣṇave—devotees.
By the influence of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all these people abandoned their own opinions and became Vaiṣṇavas, devotees of Kṛṣṇa.
vaiṣṇavera madhye rāma-upāsaka saba
keha 'tattvavādī', keha haya 'śrī-vaiṣṇava'
vaiṣṇavera madhye—amongst Vaiṣṇavas; rāma-upāsaka saba—all worshipers of Lord Śrī Rāmacandra; keha—someone; tattva-vādī—followers of Madhvācārya; keha—someone; haya—is; śrī-vaiṣṇava—devotees following the disciplic succession of Śrī Rāmānujācārya
At the time, all the South Indian Vaiṣṇavas were worshipers of Lord Rāmacandra. Some were Tattvavādīs, and some were followers of Rāmānujācārya.
Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura points out that the word "Tattvavādī" refers to the followers of Śrīla Madhvācārya. To distinguish his disciplic succession from the Māyāvādī followers of Śaṅkarācārya, Śrīla Madhvācārya named his party the Tattvavādīs. Impersonal monists are always attacked by these Tattvavādīs, who attempt to defeat their philosophy of impersonalism. Generally, they establish the supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Actually the disciplic succession of Madhvācārya is known as the Brahmā Vaiṣṇava sect; that is the sect coming down from Lord Brahmā. Consequently the Tattvavādīs, or followers of Madhvācārya, do not accept the incident of Lord Brahmā's illusion, which is recorded in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīla Madhvācārya has purposefully avoided commenting on that portion of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in which brahma-mohana, the illusion of Lord Brahmā, is mentioned. Śrīla Mādhavendra Purī was one of the ācāryas in the Tattvavāda disciplic succession, and he established the ultimate goal of transcendentalism to be attainment of pure devotional service, love of Godhead. Those Vaiṣṇavas belonging to the Gauḍīya-sampradāya, the disciplic succession following Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, are distinct from the Tattvavādīs, although they belong to the same Tattvavāda-sampradāya. The followers of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are therefore known as the Madhva-Gauḍīya-sampradāya.
The word pāṣaṇḍī refers to those who are opposed to pure devotional service. In particular, these are the Māyāvādīs, the impersonalists. A definition of pāṣaṇḍī is given in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa (1.73), wherein it is stated:
yas tu nārāyaṇaṁ devaṁ
sa pāṣaṇḍī bhaved dhruvam
A pāṣaṇḍī is one who thinks that the Supreme Lord Nārāyaṇa, the Personality of Godhead, is on the same level with the demigods, headed by Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva. The devotee never considers Lord Nārāyaṇa to be on the same platform with Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva. The Madhvācārya-sampradāya and Rāmānuja-sampradāya are mainly worshipers of Lord Rāmacandra, although the Śrī Vaiṣṇavas are supposed to be worshipers of Lord Nārāyaṇa and Lakṣmī and the Tattvavādīs are supposed to be worshipers of Lord Kṛṣṇa. At present, in most of the monasteries belonging to the Madhva-sampradāya, Lord Rāmacandra is worshiped.
In the book known as Adhyātma-rāmāyaṇa, there are statements in Chapters Twelve to Fifteen about the worship of the Deities Śrī Rāmacandra and Sītā. There it is stated that during Lord Rāmacandra's time there was a brāhmaṇa who took a vow to fast until he saw Lord Rāmacandra. Sometimes, due to business, Lord Rāmacandra was absent from His capital for a full week and could not be seen by citizens during that time. Because of his vow, the brāhmaṇa could not take even a drop of water during that week. Later, after eight or nine days, when the brāhmaṇa could see Lord Rāmacandra personally, he would break his fast. Upon observing the brāhmaṇa's rigid vow, Lord Śrī Rāmacandra ordered His younger brother Lakṣmaṇa to deliver a pair of Sītā-Rāma Deities to the brāhmaṇa. The brāhmaṇa received the Deities from Śrī Lakṣmaṇajī and worshiped Them faithfully as long as he lived. At the time of his death, he delivered the Deities to Śrī Hanumānjī, who, for many years, hung Them around his neck and served Them with all devotion. After many years, when Hanumānjī departed on the hill known as Gandha-mādana, he delivered the Deities to Bhīmasena, one of the Pāṇḍavas, and Bhīmasena brought Them to his palace, where he kept Them very carefully. The last king of the Pāṇḍavas, Kṣemakānta, worshiped the Deities in that palace. Later, the same Deities were kept in the custody of the kings of Orissa known as Gajapatis. One of the ācāryas, known as Narahari Tīrtha, who was in the disciplic succession of Madhvācārya, received these Deities from the King of Orissa.
It may be noted that these particular Deities of Rāma and Sītā have been worshiped from the time of King Ikṣvāku. Indeed, they were worshiped by the royal princes even before the appearance of Lord Rāmacandra. Later, during Lord Rāmacandra's presence, the Deities were worshiped by Lakṣmaṇa. It is said that just three months before his disappearance, Śrī Madhvācārya received these Deities and installed them in the Uḍupī temple. Since then the Deities have been worshiped by the Madhvācārya-sampradāya at that monastery. As far as the Śrī Vaiṣṇavas are concerned, beginning with Rāmānujācārya, they also worshiped Deities of Sītā-Rāma. Sītā-Rāma Deities are also being worshiped in Tirupati and other places. From the Śrī Rāmānuja-sampradāya there is another branch known as Rāmānandī or Rāmāt, and the followers of that branch also worship Deities of Sītā-Rāma very rigidly. The Rāmānuja-sampradāya Vaiṣṇavas prefer the worship of Lord Rāmacandra to that of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa.
sei saba vaiṣṇava mahāprabhura darśane
kṛṣṇa-upāsaka haila, laya kṛṣṇa-nāme
sei saba—all those; vaiṣṇava—devotees; mahāprabhura—of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; darśane—by seeing; kṛṣṇa-upāsaka—devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa; haila—became; laya—took; kṛṣṇa-nāme—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
After meeting Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all those different Vaiṣṇavas became devotees of Kṛṣṇa and began chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
rāma! rāghava! rāma! rāghava! rāma! rāghava! pāhi mām
kṛṣṇa! keśava! kṛṣṇa! keśava! kṛṣṇa! keśava! rakṣa mām
rāma—O Rāma; rāghava—O descendant of Raghu; pāhi—please protect; mām—me; kṛṣṇa—O Kṛṣṇa; keśava—O killer of Keśī; rakṣa—protect; mām—me.
" 'O Lord Rāmacandra, descendant of Mahārāja Raghu, kindly protect me! O Lord Kṛṣṇa, killer of the Keśī demon, kindly protect me!' "
ei śloka pathe paḍi' karilā prayāṇa
gautamī-gaṅgāya yāi' kaila gaṅgā-snāna
ei śloka—this Sanskrit verse; pathe—on the way; paḍi'-reciting; karilā—did; prayāṇa—going; gautamī-gaṅgāya—to the bank of the Gautamī-gaṅgā; yāi'-going; kaila—did; gaṅgā-snāna—bathing in the Ganges.
While walking on the road, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to chant this Rāma Rāghava mantra. Chanting in this way, He arrived at the banks of the Gautamī-gaṅgā and took His bath there.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says that Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī has recorded the names of the holy places visited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu but that there is no chronological order of the places visited. However, there is a notebook of Govinda dāsa's containing a chronological order and references to geographical positions. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura requests the readers to refer to that book. According to Govinda dāsa, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to Trimanda from the Gautamī-gaṅgā. From there He went to Ḍhuṇḍirāma-tīrtha, another place of pilgrimage. According to this book, after visiting the Gautamī-gaṅgā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to Mallikārjuna-tīrtha.
mallikārjuna-tīrthe yāi' maheśa dekhila
tāhāṅ saba loke kṛṣṇa-nāma laoyāila
mallikārjuna-tīrthe—to the holy place known as Mallikārjuna; yāi'-going; maheśa—the deity of Lord Śiva; dekhila—He saw; tāhāṅ—there; saba loke—all the people; kṛṣṇa-nāma—Lord Kṛṣṇa's holy name; laoyāila—He induced to chant.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then went to Mallikārjuna-tīrtha and saw the deity of Lord Śiva there. He also induced all the people to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
rāmadāsa mahādeve karila daraśana
ahovala-nṛsiṁhere karilā gamana
rāma-dāsa—Rāmadāsa; mahā-deve—of Mahādeva; karila—did; daraśana—seeing; ahovala-nṛsiṁhere—to Ahovala-nṛsiṁha; karilā—did; gamana—going.
nṛsiṁha dekhiyā tāṅre kaila nati-stuti
siddhavaṭa gelā yāhāṅ mūrti sītāpati
nṛsiṁha dekhiyā—after seeing the Lord Nṛsiṁha Deity; tāṅre—unto Him; kaila—did; nati-stuti—offering of various prayers; siddhavaṭa—to Siddhavaṭa; gelā—He went; yāhāṅ—where; mūrti—the Deity; sītā-pati—Lord Rāmacandra.
After seeing the Ahovala-nṛsiṁha Deity, Caitanya Mahāprabhu offered many prayers unto the Lord. He then went to Siddhavaṭa, where He saw the Deity of Rāmacandra, the Lord of Sītādevī.
raghunātha dekhi' kaila praṇati stavana
tāhāṅ eka vipra prabhura kaila nimantraṇa
raghu-nātha dekhi'-after seeing Lord Rāmacandra, the descendant of Mahārāja Raghu; kaila—offered; praṇati—obeisances; stavana—prayers; tāhāṅ—there; eka—one; vipra—brāhmaṇa; prabhura—to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kaila—did; nimantraṇa—invitation.
After seeing the Deity of Lord Rāmacandra, the descendant of King Raghu, the Lord offered His prayers and obeisances. Then a brāhmaṇa invited the Lord to take lunch.
sei vipra rāma-nāma nirantara laya
'rāma''rāma' vinā anya vāṇī nā kahaya
sei vipra—that brāhmaṇa; rāma-nāma—the holy name of Lord Rāmacandra; nirantara—constantly; laya—chants; rāma rāma—the holy names Rāma Rāma; vinā—without; anya—other; vāṇī—vibration; nā—does not; kahaya—speak.
That brāhmaṇa constantly chanted the holy name of Rāmacandra. Indeed, but for chanting Lord Rāmacandra's holy name, that brāhmaṇa did not speak a word.
sei dina tāṅra ghare rahi' bhikṣā kari'
tāṅre kṛpā kari' āge calilā gaurahari
sei dina—on that day; tāṅra ghare—the house of that brāhmaṇa; rahi'-staying; bhikṣā kari'-accepting prasāda; tāṅre—unto him; kṛpā kari'-showing mercy; āge—ahead; calilā—departed; gaura-hari—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
That day, Lord Caitanya remained there and accepted prasāda at his house. After bestowing mercy upon him in this way, the Lord proceeded ahead.
skanda-kṣetra-tīrthe kaila skanda daraśana
trimaṭha āilā, tāhāṅ dekhi' trivikrama
skanda-kṣetra-tīrthe—in the holy place known as Skanda-kṣetra; kaila—did; skanda daraśana—visiting Lord Skanda (Kārttikeya, son of Lord Śiva); trimaṭha—at Trimaṭha; āilā—arrived; tāhāṅ—there; dekhi'-seeing; trivikrama—a form of Lord Viṣṇu, Trivikrama.
At the holy place known as Skanda-kṣetra, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Skanda. From there He went to Trimaṭha, where He saw the Viṣṇu Deity Trivikrama.
punaḥ siddhavaṭa āilā sei vipra-ghare
sei vipra kṛṣṇa-nāma laya nirantare
punaḥ—again; siddha-vaṭa—to the place known as Siddhavaṭa; āilā—returned; sei—that; vipra-ghare—in the house of the brāhmaṇa; sei vipra—that brāhmaṇa; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; laya—chants; nirantare—constantly.
After visiting the temple of Trivikrama, the Lord returned to Siddhavaṭa, where He again visited the house of the brāhmaṇa, who was now constantly chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
bhikṣā kari' mahāprabhu tāṅre praśna kaila
''kaha vipra, ei tomāra kon daśā haila
bhikṣā kari'-after accepting lunch; mahāprabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅre—unto him; praśna kaila—asked a question; kaha vipra—My dear brāhmaṇa friend, please say; ei—this; tomāra—your; kon—what; daśā—situation; haila—became.
After finishing His lunch there, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked the brāhmaṇa, "My dear friend, kindly tell Me what your position is now.
pūrve tumi nirantara laite rāma-nāma
ebe kene nirantara lao kṛṣṇa-nāma''
pūrve—formerly; tumi—you; nirantara—constantly; laite—used to chant; rāma-nāma—the holy name of Lord Rāmacandra; ebe—now; kene—why; nirantara—constantly; lao—you chant; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.
"Formerly you were constantly chanting the holy name of Lord Rāma. Why are you now constantly chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa?"
vipra bale,--ei tomāra darśana-prabhāve
tomā dekhi' gela mora ājanma svabhāve
vipra bale—the brāhmaṇa replied; ei—this; tomāra darśana-prabhāve—by the influence of Your visit; tomā dekhi'-after seeing You; gela—went; mora—my; ā-janma—from childhood; svabhāve—nature.
The brāhmaṇa replied, "This is all due to Your influence, sir. After seeing You, I have lost my lifelong practice.
bālyāvadhi rāma-nāma-grahaṇa āmāra
tomā dekhi' kṛṣṇa-nāma āila eka-bāra
bālya-avadhi—since the days of my childhood; rāma-nāma-grahaṇa—chanting the holy name of Lord Rāmacandra; āmāra—my; tomā dekhi'-upon seeing You; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; āila—came; eka-bāra—once only.
"From my childhood I have been chanting the holy name of Lord Rāmacandra, but upon seeing You I chanted the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa just once.
sei haite kṛṣṇa-nāma jihvāte vasilā
kṛṣṇa-nāma sphure, rāma-nāma dūre gelā
sei haite—since that time; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; jihvāte—on the tongue; vasilā—was seated tightly; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; sphure—automatically comes; rāma-nāma—the holy name of Lord Rāmacandra; dūre—far away; gelā—went.
"Since then, the holy name of Kṛṣṇa has been tightly fixed upon my tongue. Indeed, since I have been chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, the holy name of Lord Rāmacandra has gone far away.
bālya-kāla haite mora svabhāva eka haya
nāmera mahimā-śāstra kariye sañcaya
bālya-kāla haite—from my childhood; mora—my; svabhāva—practice; eka—one; haya—there is; nāmera—of the holy name; mahimā—concerning the glories; śāstra—the revealed scriptures; kariye sañcaya—I collect.
"From my childhood I have been practicing this chanting and have been collecting the glories of the holy name from revealed scriptures.
ramante yogino 'nante
ramante—take pleasure; yoginaḥ—transcendentalists; anante—in the unlimited; satya-ānande—real pleasure; cit-ātmani—in spiritual existence; iti—thus; rāma—Rāma; padena—by the word; asau—He; param—supreme; brahma—truth; abhidhīyate—is called.
" 'The Supreme Absolute Truth is called Rāma because the transcendentalists take pleasure in the unlimited true pleasure of spiritual existence.'
kṛṣir bhū-vācakaḥ śabdo
ṇaś ca nirvṛti-vācakaḥ
tayor aikyaṁ paraṁ brahma
kṛṣṇa ity abhidhīyate
kṛṣiḥ—the verbal root kṛṣ; bhū—attractive existence; vācakaḥ—signifying; śabdaḥ—word; ṇaḥ—the syllable ṇa; ca—and; nirvṛti—spiritual pleasure; vācakaḥ—indicating; tayoḥ—of both; aikyam—amalgamation; param—supreme; brahma—Absolute Truth; kṛṣṇaḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa; iti—thus; abhidhīyate—is called.
" 'The word "kṛṣ" is the attractive feature of the Lord's existence, and "ṇa" means spiritual pleasure. When the verb "kṛṣ" is added to the affix "ṇa," it becomes "Kṛṣṇa," which indicates the Absolute Truth.'
paraṁ brahma dui-nāma samāna ha-ila
punaḥ āra śāstre kichu viśeṣa pāila
param brahma—the Absolute Truth; dui-nāma—two names (Rāma and Kṛṣṇa); samāna—on an equal level; ha-ila—were; punaḥ—again; āra—further; śāstre—in revealed scriptures; kichu—some; viśeṣa—specification; pāila—is found.
"As far as the holy names of Rāma and Kṛṣṇa are concerned, they are on an equal level, but for further advancement we receive some specific information from revealed scriptures.
rāma rāmeti rāmeti
rame rāme manorame
rāma—Rāma; rāma—Rāma; iti—thus; rāma—Rāma; iti—thus; rame—I enjoy; rāme—in the holy name of Rāma; manaḥ-rame—most beautiful; sahasra-nāmabhiḥ—with the one thousand names; tulyam—equal; rāma-nāma—the holy name of Rāma; vara-ānane—O lovely-faced woman.
" 'Lord Śiva addressed his wife Durgā as Varānanā and explained, "I chant the holy name of Rāma, Rāma, Rāma and thus enjoy this beautiful sound. This holy name of Rāmacandra is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Viṣṇu."'
trir-āvṛttyā tu yat phalam
ekāvṛttyā tu kṛṣṇasya
nāmaikaṁ tat prayacchati
sahasra-nāmnām—of one thousand names; puṇyānām—holy; triḥ-āvṛttyā—by thrice chanting; tu—but; yat—which; phalam—result; eka-āvṛttyā—by one repetition; tu—but; kṛṣṇasya—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāma—holy name; ekam—only one; tat—that result; prayacchati—gives.
" 'The pious results derived from chanting the thousand holy names of Viṣṇu three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.'
ei vākye kṛṣṇa-nāmera mahimā apāra
tathāpi la-ite nāri, śuna hetu tāra
ei vākye—in this statement; kṛṣṇa-nāmera—of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; mahimā—glories; apāra—unlimited; tathāpi—still; la-ite—to chant; nāri—I am unable; śuna—just hear; hetu—the reason; tāra—of that.
"According to this statement of the śāstras, the glories of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa are unlimited. Still I could not chant His holy name. Please hear the reason for this.
iṣṭa-deva rāma, tāṅra nāme sukha pāi
sukha pāñā rāma-nāma rātri-dina gāi
iṣṭa-deva—my worshipable Lord; rāma—Lord Śrī Rāmacandra; tāṅra nāme—in His holy name; sukha pāi—I get happiness; sukha pāñā—getting such transcendental happiness; rāma-nāma—the holy name of Lord Rāma; rātri-dina—day and night; gāi—I chant.
"My worshipable Lord has been Lord Rāmacandra, and by chanting His holy name I received happiness. Because I received such happiness, I chanted the holy name of Lord Rāma day and night.
tomāra darśane yabe kṛṣṇa-nāma āila
tāhāra mahimā tabe hṛdaye lāgila
tomāra darśane—by meeting You; yabe—when; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; āila—appeared; tāhāra—His; mahimā—glories; tabe—at that time; hṛdaye—in the heart; lāgila—became fixed.
"By Your appearance, Lord Kṛṣṇa's holy name also appeared, and at that time the glories of Kṛṣṇa's name awoke in my heart."
sei kṛṣṇa tumi sākṣāt--ihā nirdhārila
eta kahi' vipra prabhura caraṇe paḍila
sei—that; kṛṣṇa—the Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa; tumi—You; sākṣāt—directly; ihā—this; nirdhārila—concluded; eta kahi'-saying this; vipra—the brāhmaṇa; prabhura—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; caraṇe—at the lotus feet; padila—fell down.
The brāhmaṇa concluded, "Sir, You are that Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself. This is my conclusion." Saying this, the brāhmaṇa fell down at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
tāṅre kṛpā kari' prabhu calilā āra dine
vṛddhakāśī āsi' kaila śiva-daraśane
tāṅre—unto him; kṛpā kari'-showing mercy; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; calilā—traveled; āra dine—the next day; vṛddhakāśī—to Vṛddhakāśī; āsi'-coming; kaila—did; śiva-daraśane—visiting Lord Śiva's temple.
After showing mercy to the brāhmaṇa, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu left the next day and arrived at Vṛddhakāśī, where He visited the temple of Lord Śiva.
Vṛddhakāśī's present name is Vṛddhācalam. It is situated in the southern Arcot district on the bank of the river Maṇimukha. This place is also known as Kālahastipura. Lord Śiva's temple there was worshiped for many years by Govinda, the cousin of Rāmānujācārya.
tāhāṅ haite cali' āge gelā eka grāme
brāhmaṇa-samāja tāhāṅ, karila viśrāme
tāhāṅ haite—from there; cali'-going; āge—forward; gelā—went; eka—one; grāme—to a village; brāhmaṇa-samāja—assembly of brāhmaṇas; tāhāṅ—there; karila viśrāme—He rested.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then left Vṛddhakāśī and proceeded further. In one village He saw that most of the residents were brāhmaṇas, and He took His rest there.
prabhura prabhāve loka āila daraśane
lakṣārbuda loka āise nā yāya gaṇane
prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; prabhāve—by the influence; loka—people; āila—came; daraśane—to see Him; lakṣa-arbuda—many millions; loka—persons; āise—came; nā—not; yāya gaṇane—can be counted.
Due to the influence of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, many millions of men came just to see Him. Indeed, the assembly being unlimited, its members could not be counted.
gosāñira saundarya dekhi' tāte premāveśa
sabe 'kṛṣṇa' kahe, 'vaiṣṇava' haila sarva-deśa
gosāñira—of the Lord; saundarya—the beauty; dekhi'-seeing; tāte—in that; prema-āveśa—ecstatic love; sabe—everyone; kṛṣṇa kahe—uttered the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; vaiṣṇava—Vaiṣṇava devotees; haila—became; sarva-deśa—everyone.
The Lord's bodily features were very beautiful, and in addition He was always in the ecstasy of love of Godhead. Simply by seeing Him, everyone began chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, and thus everyone became a Vaiṣṇava devotee.
tārkika-mīmāṁsaka, yata māyāvādi-gaṇa
sāṅkhya, pātañjala, smṛti, purāṇa, āgama
tārkika—logicians; mīmāṁsaka—followers of Mīmāṁsā philosophy; yata—all; māyāvādi-gaṇa—followers of Śaṅkarācārya; sāṅkhya—followers of Kapila; pātañjala—followers of mystic yoga; smṛti—supplementary Vedic literature; purāṇa—Purāṇas; āgama—the tantra-śāstras.
There are many kinds of philosophers. Some are logicians who follow Gautama or Kaṇāda. Some follow the Mīmāṁsā philosophy of Jaimini. Some follow the Māyāvāda philosophy of Śaṅkarācārya, and others follow Kapila's Sāṅkhya philosophy or the mystic yoga system of Patañjali. Some follow the smṛti-śāstra composed of twenty religious scriptures, and others follow the Purāṇas and the tantra-śāstra. In this way there are many different types of philosophers.
nija-nija-śāstrodgrāhe sabāi pracaṇḍa
sarva mata duṣi' prabhu kare khaṇḍa khaṇḍa
nija-nija—their own; śāstra—of the scripture; udgrāhe—to establish the conclusion; sabāi—all of them; pracaṇḍa—very powerful; sarva—all; mata—opinions; duṣi'-condemning; prabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kare—does; khaṇḍa khaṇḍa—breaking to pieces.
All of these adherents of various scriptures were ready to present the conclusions of their respective scriptures, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu broke all their opinions to pieces and established His own cult of bhakti based on the Vedas, Vedānta, the Brahma-sūtra and the philosophy of acintya-bhedābheda-tattva.
sarvatra sthāpaya prabhu vaiṣṇava-siddhānte
prabhura siddhānta keha nā pāre khaṇḍite
sarvatra—everywhere; sthāpaya—establishes; prabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vaiṣṇava-siddhānte—the conclusion of the Vaiṣṇavas; prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; siddhānta—conclusion; keha—anyone; nā pāre—is not able; khaṇḍite—to defy.
hāri' hāri' prabhu-mate karena praveśa
ei-mate 'vaiṣṇava' prabhu kaila dakṣiṇa deśa
hāri' hāri'-being defeated; prabhu-mate—into the cult of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; karena praveśa—enter; ei-mate—in this way; vaiṣṇava—Vaiṣṇava devotees; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kaila—made; dakṣiṇa—South India; deśa—country.
Being thus defeated by Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all these philosophers and their followers entered into His cult. In this way Lord Caitanya made South India into a country of Vaiṣṇavas.
pāṣaṇḍī āila yata pāṇḍitya śuniyā
garva kari' āila saṅge śiṣya-gaṇa lañā
pāṣaṇḍī—nonbelievers; āila—came there; yata—all; pāṇḍitya—erudition; śuniyā—hearing; garva kari'-with great pride; āila—came there; saṅge—with; śiṣya-gaṇa—disciples; lañā—taking.
When the nonbelievers heard of the erudition of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they came to Him with great pride, bringing their disciples with them.
bauddhācārya mahā-paṇḍita nija nava-mate
prabhura āge udgrāha kari' lāgilā balite
bauddha-ācārya—the leader in Buddhist philosophy; mahā-paṇḍita—greatly learned scholar; nija—own; nava—nine; mate—philosophical conclusions; prabhura āge—before Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; udgrāha—argument; kari'-making; lāgilā—began; balite—to speak.
One of them was a leader of the Buddhist cult and was a very learned scholar. To establish the nine philosophical conclusions of Buddhism, he came before the Lord and began to speak.
yadyapi asambhāṣya bauddha ayukta dekhite
tathāpi balilā prabhu garva khaṇḍāite
yadyapi—although; asambhāṣya—not fit for discussion; bauddha—followers of Buddha's philosophy; ayukta—not fit; dekhite—to see; tathāpi—still; balilā—spoke; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; garva—pride; khaṇḍāite—to diminish.
Although the Buddhists are unfit for discussion and should not be seen by Vaiṣṇavas, Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke to them just to decrease their false pride.
tarka-pradhāna bauddha-śāstra 'nava mate'
tarkei khaṇḍila prabhu, nā pāre sthāpite
tarka-pradhāna—argumentative; bauddha-śāstra—scriptures of the Buddhist cult; nava mate—in nine basic principles; tarkei—by argument; khaṇḍila—refuted; prabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nā—not; pāre—can; sthāpite—establish.
The scriptures of the Buddhist cult are chiefly based on argument and logic, and they contain nine chief principles. Because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu defeated them in their argument, they could not establish their cult.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura states that according to the Buddhist cult there are two ways of understanding philosophy. One is called Hīnāyāna, and the other is called Mahāyānaā. Along the Buddhist path there are nine principles: (1) The creation is eternal; therefore there is no need to accept a creator. (2) This cosmic manifestation is false. (3) "I am" is the truth. (4) There is repetition of birth and death. (5) Lord Buddha is the only source of understanding the truth. (6) The principle of nirvāṇa, or annihilation, is the ultimate goal. (7) The philosophy of Buddha is the only philosophical path. (8) The Vedas are compiled by human beings. (9) Pious activities, showing mercy to others and so on are advised.
No one can attain the Absolute Truth by argument. One may be very expert in logic, and another person may be even more expert in the art of argument. Because there is so much word jugglery in logic, one can never come to the real conclusion about the Absolute Truth by argument. The followers of Vedic principles understand this. However, it is seen here that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu defeated the Buddhist philosophy by argument. Those who are preachers in ISKCON will certainly meet many people who believe in intellectual arguments. Most of these people do not believe in the authority of the Vedas. Nevertheless, they accept intellectual speculation and argument. Therefore the preachers of Kṛṣṇa consciousness should be prepared to defeat others by argument, just as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu did. In this verse it is clearly said, tarkei khaṇḍila prabhu. Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu put forward such a strong argument that they could not counter Him to establish their cult.
Their first principle is that the creation is always existing. But if this is the case, there can be no theory of annihilation. The Buddhists maintain that annihilation, or dissolution, is the highest truth. If the creation is eternally existing, there is no question of dissolution or annihilation. This argument is not very strong because by practical experience we see that material things have a beginning, a middle and an end. The ultimate aim of the Buddhist philosophy is to dissolve the body. This is proposed because the body has a beginning. Similarly, the entire cosmic manifestation is also a gigantic body, but if we accept the fact that it is always existing, there can be no question of annihilation. Therefore the attempt to annihilate everything in order to attain zero is an absurdity. By our own practical experience we have to accept the beginning of creation, and when we accept the beginning, we must accept a creator. Such a creator must possess an all-pervasive body, as pointed out in the Bhagavad-gītā (13.14):
sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṁ tat
sarvataḥ śruti-mal loke
sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati
"Everywhere are His hands and legs, His eyes, heads and faces, and He has ears everywhere. In this way the Supersoul exists, pervading everything."
The Supreme Person must be present everywhere. His body existed before the creation; otherwise He could not be the creator. If the Supreme Person is a created being, there can be no question of a creator. The conclusion is that the cosmic manifestation is certainly created at a certain time, and the creator existed before the creation; therefore the creator is not a created being. The creator is Paraṁ Brahman, or the Supreme Spirit. Matter is not only subordinate to spirit but is actually created on the basis of spirit. When the spirit soul enters the womb of a mother, the body is created by material ingredients supplied by the mother. Everything is created in the material world, and consequently there must be a creator who is the Supreme Spirit and who is distinct from matter. It is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā that the material energy is inferior and that the spiritual energy is the living entity. Both inferior and superior energies belong to a supreme person.
The Buddhists argue that the world is false, but this is not valid. The world is temporary, but it is not false. As long as we have the body, we must suffer the pleasures and pains of the body, even though we are not the body. We may not take these pleasures and pains very seriously, but they are factual nonetheless. We cannot actually say that they are false. If the bodily pains and pleasures were false, the creation would be false also, and consequently no one would take very much interest in it. The conclusion is that the material creation is not false or imaginary, but it is temporary.
The Buddhists maintain that the principle "I am" is the Ultimate Truth, but this excludes the individuality of "I" and "you." If there is no "I" and "you," or individuality, there is no possibility of argument. The Buddhist philosophy depends on argument, but there can be no argument if one simply depends on "I am." There must be a "you," or another person also. The philosophy of duality-the existence of the individual soul and the Supersoul-must be there. This is confirmed in the Second Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā (2.12), wherein the Lord says:
na tv evāhaṁ jātu nāsaṁ
na tvaṁ neme janādhipāḥ
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ
sarve vayam ataḥ param
"Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be."
We existed in the past in different bodies, and after the annihilation of this body we shall exist in another body. The principle of the soul is eternal, and it exists in this body or in another body. Even in this lifetime we experience existence in a child's body, a youth's body, a man's body and an old body. After the annihilation of the body, we acquire another body. The Buddhist cult also accepts the philosophy of transmigration, but the Buddhists do not properly explain the next birth. There are 8,400,000 species of life, and our next birth may be in any one of them; therefore this human body is not guaranteed.
According to the Buddhist's fifth principle, Lord Buddha is the only source for the attainment of knowledge. We cannot accept this, for Lord Buddha rejected the principles of Vedic knowledge. One must accept a principle of standard knowledge because one cannot attain the Absolute Truth simply by intellectual speculation. If everyone is an authority, or if everyone accepts his own intelligence as the ultimate criterion-as is presently fashionable-the scriptures will be interpreted in many different ways, and everyone will claim that his own philosophy is supreme. This has become a very great problem, and everyone is interpreting scripture in his own way and setting up his own basis of authority. Yata mata tata patha. Now everybody and anybody is trying to establish his own theory as the ultimate truth. The Buddhists theorize that annihilation, or nirvāṇa, is the ultimate goal. Annihilation applies to the body, but the spirit soul transmigrates from one body to another. If this were not the case, how can so many multifarious bodies come into existence? If the next birth is a fact, the next bodily form is also a fact. As soon as we accept a material body, we must accept the fact that that body will be annihilated and that we will have to accept another body. If all material bodies are doomed to annihilation, we must obtain a nonmaterial body, or a spiritual body, if we wish the next birth to be anything but false. How the spiritual body is attained is explained by Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (4.9):
janma karma ca me divyam
evaṁ yo vetti tattvataḥ
tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma
naiti mām eti so 'rjuna
"One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna."
This is the highest perfection-to give up one's material body and not accept another but to return home, back to Godhead. It is not that perfection means one's existence becomes void or zero. Existence continues, but if we positively want to annihilate the material body, we have to accept a spiritual body; otherwise there can be no eternality for the soul.
We cannot accept the theory that the Buddhist philosophy is the only way, for there are so many defects in that philosophy. A perfect philosophy is one that has no defects, and that is Vedānta philosophy. No one can point out any defects in Vedānta philosophy, and therefore we can conclude that Vedānta is the supreme philosophical way of understanding the truth. According to the Buddhist cult, the Vedas are compiled by ordinary human beings. If this were the case, they would not be authoritative. From the Vedic literature we understand that shortly after the creation Lord Brahmā was instructed in the Vedas. It is not that the Vedas were created by Brahmā, although Brahmā is the original person in the universe. If Brahmā did not create the Vedas but he is acknowledged as the first created being, wherefrom did Vedic knowledge come to Brahmā? Obviously the Vedas did not come from an ordinary person born in this material world. According to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, tene brahma hṛdā ya ādi-kavaye: after the creation, the Supreme Person imparted Vedic knowledge within the heart of Brahmā. There was no person in the beginning of the creation other than Brahmā, yet he did not compile the Vedas; therefore the conclusion is that the Vedas were not compiled by any created being. Vedic knowledge was given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who created this material world. This is also accepted by Śaṅkarācārya, although he is not a Vaiṣṇava.
It is stated that mercy is one of the qualities of a Buddhist, but mercy is a relative thing. We show our mercy to a subordinate or to one who is suffering more than ourselves. However, if there is a superior person present, the superior person cannot be the object of our mercy. Rather, we are objects for the mercy of the superior person. Therefore showing compassion and mercy is a relative activity. It is not the Absolute Truth. Apart from this, we also must know what actual mercy is. To give a sick man something forbidden for him to eat is not mercy. Rather, it is cruelty. Unless we know what mercy really is, we may create an undesirable situation. If we wish to show real mercy, we will preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness in order to revive the lost consciousness of human beings, the living entity's original consciousness. Since the Buddhist philosophy does not admit the existence of the spirit soul, the so-called mercy of the Buddhists is defective.
bauddhācārya 'nava praśna' saba uṭhāila
dṛḍha yukti-tarke prabhu khaṇḍa khaṇḍa kaila
bauddha-ācārya—the teacher of the Buddhist cult; nava praśna—nine different types of questions; saba—all; uṭhāila—raised; dṛḍha—strong; yukti—argument; tarke—with logic; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; khaṇḍa khaṇḍa kaila—broke into pieces.
The teacher of the Buddhist cult set forth the nine principles, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu broke them to pieces with His strong logic.
dārśanika paṇḍita sabāi pāila parājaya
loke hāsya kare, bauddha pāila lajjā-bhaya
dārśanika—philosophical speculators; paṇḍita—scholars; sabāi—all of them; pāila parājaya—were defeated; loke—people in general; hāsya kare—laugh; bauddha—the Buddhists; pāila—got; lajjā—shame; bhaya—fear.
All mental speculators and learned scholars were defeated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and when the people began to laugh, the Buddhist philosophers felt both shame and fear.
These philosophers were all atheists, for they did not believe in the existence of God. Atheists may be very expert in mental speculation and may be so-called great philosophers, but they can be defeated by a Vaiṣṇava firmly situated in his conviction and God consciousness. Following in the footsteps of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all the preachers engaged in the service of ISKCON should be very expert in putting forward strong arguments and defeating all types of atheists.
prabhuke vaiṣṇava jāni' bauddha ghare gela
sakala bauddha mili' tabe kumantraṇā kaila
prabhuke—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vaiṣṇava jāni'-knowing to be a Vaiṣṇava; bauddha—the Buddhists; ghare gela—returned home; sakala bauddha—all the Buddhists; mili'-coming together; tabe—thereafter; ku-mantraṇā—plot; kaila—made.
The Buddhists could understand that Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was a Vaiṣṇava, and they returned home very unhappy. Later, however, they began to plot against the Lord.
apavitra anna eka thālite bhariyā
prabhu-āge nila 'mahā-prasāda' baliyā
apavitra—polluted; anna—food; eka—one; thālite—plate; bhariyā—filling; prabhu-āge—in front of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nila—brought; mahā-prasāda baliyā—calling it mahā-prasāda.
Having made their plot, the Buddhists brought a plate of untouchable food before Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and called it mahā-prasāda.
The word apavitra anna refers to food that is unacceptable for a Vaiṣṇava. In other words, a Vaiṣṇava cannot accept any food offered by an avaiṣṇava in the name of mahā-prasāda. This should be a principle for all Vaiṣṇavas. When asked, "What is the behavior of a Vaiṣṇava?" Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, "A Vaiṣṇava must avoid the company of an avaiṣṇava [asat]." The word asat refers to an avaiṣṇava, that is, one who is not a Vaiṣṇava. Asat-saṅga-tyāga,-ei vaiṣṇava-ācāra (Cc. Madhya 22.87). A Vaiṣṇava must be very strict in this respect and should not at all cooperate with an avaiṣṇava. If an avaiṣṇava offers food in the name of mahā-prasāda, it should not be accepted. Such food cannot be prasāda because an avaiṣṇava cannot offer anything to the Lord. Sometimes preachers in the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement have to accept food in a home where the householder is an avaiṣṇava; however, if this food is offered to the Deity, it can be taken. Ordinary food cooked by an avaiṣṇava should not be accepted by a Vaiṣṇava. Even if an avaiṣṇava cooks food without fault, he cannot offer it to Lord Viṣṇu, and it cannot be accepted as mahā-prasāda. According to Lord Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (9.26):
patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ
yo me bhaktyā prayacchati
tad ahaṁ bhakty-upahṛtam
"If one offers Me with love and devotion a leaf, a flower, a fruit or water, I will accept it."
Kṛṣṇa can accept anything offered by His devotee with devotion. An avaiṣṇava may be a vegetarian and a very clean cook, but because he cannot offer the food he cooks to Viṣṇu, it cannot be accepted as mahā-prasāda. It is better that a Vaiṣṇava abandon such food as untouchable.
hena-kāle mahā-kāya eka pakṣī āila
ṭhoṅṭe kari' anna-saha thāli lañā gela
hena-kāle—at this time; mahā-kāya—having a large body; eka—one; pakṣī—bird; āila—appeared there; ṭhoṅṭe kari'-by the beak; anna-saha—with food; thāli—the plate; lañā—taking; gela—went away.
When the contaminated food was offered to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, a very large bird appeared on the spot, picked up the plate in its beak and flew away.
bauddha-gaṇera upare anna paḍe amedhya haiyā
bauddhācāryera māthāya thāli paḍila bājiyā
bauddha-gaṇera—all the Buddhists; upare—upon; anna—the food; paḍe—began to fall down; amedhya—untouchable; haiyā—being; bauddha-ācāryera—of the teacher of the Buddhists; māthāya—on the head; thāli—the plate; paḍila—fell down; bājiyā—making a great sound.
Indeed, the untouchable food fell upon the Buddhists, and the large bird dropped the plate on the head of the chief Buddhist teacher. When it fell on his head, it made a big sound.
terache paḍila thāli,--māthā kāṭi' gela
mūrcchita hañā ācārya bhūmite paḍila
terache—at an angle; paḍila—fell down; thāli—the plate; māthā—the head; kāṭi'-cutting; gela—went; mūrcchita—unconscious; hañā—becoming; ācārya—the teacher; bhūmite—on the ground; paḍila—fell down.
The plate was made of metal, and when its edge hit the head of the teacher, it cut him, and the teacher immediately fell to the ground unconscious.
hāhākāra kari' kānde saba śiṣya-gaṇa
sabe āsi' prabhu-pade la-ila śaraṇa
hāhā-kāra—a roaring sound; kari'-making; kānde—cry; saba—all; śiṣya-gaṇa—disciples; sabe—all of them; āsi'-coming; prabhu-pade—to the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; la-ila—took; śaraṇa—shelter.
When the teacher fell unconscious, his Buddhist disciples cried aloud and ran to the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu for shelter.
tumi ta' īśvara sākṣāt, kṣama aparādha
jīyāo āmāra guru, karaha prasāda
tumi—You; ta'-indeed; īśvara—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sākṣāt—directly; kṣama—please excuse; aparādha—offense; jīyāo—bring back to consciousness; āmāra—our; guru—spiritual master; karaha—do; prasāda—this mercy.
They all prayed to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, addressing Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself and saying, "Sir, please excuse our offense. Please have mercy upon us and bring our spiritual master back to life."
prabhu kahe,--sabe kaha 'kṛṣṇa' 'kṛṣṇa' 'hari'
guru-karṇe kaha kṛṣṇa-nāma ucca kari'
prabhu kahe—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; sabe—all of you; kaha—chant; kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa hari—the holy names of Lord Kṛṣṇa and Hari; guru-karṇe—near the ear of your spiritual master; kaha—chant; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; ucca kari'-very loudly.
The Lord then replied to the Buddhist disciples, "You should all chant the names of Kṛṣṇa and Hari very loudly near the ear of your spiritual master.
tomā-sabāra 'guru' tabe pāibe cetana
saba bauddha mili' kare kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana
tomā-sabāra—all of you; guru—the spiritual master; tabe—then; pāibe—will get; cetana—consciousness; saba bauddha—all the Buddhist disciples; mili'-coming together; kare—do; kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana—chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra.
"By this method your spiritual master will regain his consciousness." Following Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's advice, all the Buddhist disciples began to chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa congregationally.
guru-karṇe kahe sabe 'kṛṣṇa' 'rāma' 'hari'
cetana pāñā ācārya bale 'hari' 'hari'
guru-karṇe—into the ear of the spiritual master; kahe—they said; sabe—all together; kṛṣṇa rāma hari—the holy names of the Lord, namely Kṛṣṇa, Rāma and Hari; cetana—consciousness; pāñā—getting; ācārya—the teacher; bale—chanted; hari hari—the name of Lord Hari.
When all the disciples chanted the holy names Kṛṣṇa, Rāma and Hari, the Buddhist teacher regained consciousness and immediately began to chant the holy name of Lord Hari.
Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments that all the Buddhist disciples were actually initiated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu into the chanting of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, and when they chanted, they actually became different persons. At that time they were not Buddhists or atheists but Vaiṣṇavas. Consequently they immediately accepted Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's order. Their original Kṛṣṇa consciousness was revived, and they were immediately able to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa and begin worshiping the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu.
It is the spiritual master who delivers the disciple from the clutches of māyā by initiating him into the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. In this way a sleeping human being can revive his consciousness by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. In other words, the spiritual master awakens the sleeping living entity to his original consciousness so that he can worship Lord Viṣṇu. This is the purpose of dīkṣā, or initiation. Initiation means receiving the pure knowledge of spiritual consciousness.
One point to note in this regard is that the spiritual master of the Buddhists did not initiate his disciples. Rather, his disciples were initiated by Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and they in turn were able to initiate their so-called spiritual master. This is the paramparā system. The so-called spiritual master of the Buddhists was actually in the position of a disciple, and after his disciples were initiated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they acted as his spiritual masters. This was possible only because the disciples of the Buddhist ācārya received the mercy of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Unless one is favored by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in the disciplic succession, one cannot act as a spiritual master. We should take the instructions of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the spiritual master of the whole universe, to understand how one becomes a spiritual master and a disciple.
kṛṣṇa bali' ācārya prabhure karena vinaya
dekhiyā sakala loka ha-ila vismaya
kṛṣṇa bali'-chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; ācārya—the so-called spiritual master of the Buddhists; prabhure—unto Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; karena—does; vinaya—submission; dekhiyā—seeing this; sakala loka—all the people; ha-ila—became; vismaya—astonished.
When the spiritual master of the Buddhists began to chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa and submitted to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all the people who were gathered there were astonished.
ei-rūpe kautuka kari' śacīra nandana
antardhāna kaila, keha nā pāya darśana
ei-rūpe—in this way; kautuka kari'-making fun; śacīra nandana—the son of mother Śacī; antardhāna kaila—disappeared; keha—anyone; nā—does not; pāya—get; darśana—audience.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the son of Śacīdevī, then suddenly and humorously disappeared from everyone's sight, and it was impossible for anyone to find Him.
mahāprabhu cali' āilā tripati-trimalle
catur-bhuja mūrti dekhi' vyeṅkaṭādrye cale
mahāprabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; cali' āilā—arrived by walking; tripati-trimalle—at the holy places named Tirupati and Tirumala; catur-bhuja—fourhanded; mūrti—Deity; dekhi'-seeing; vyeṅkaṭa-adrye—to the holy place Veṅkaṭa Hill; cale—began to proceed.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu next arrived at Tirupati and Tirumala, where He saw a four-handed Deity. Then He next proceeded toward Veṅkaṭa Hill.
Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura has actually described the chronological order of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's visit. The Tirupati temple is sometimes called Tirupaṭura. It is situated on the northern side of Arcot in the district of Candragiri. It is a famous holy place of pilgrimage. In pursuance of His name, Veṅkaṭeśvara, the four-handed Lord Viṣṇu, the Deity of Bālājī, with His potencies named Śrī and Bhū, is located on Veṅkaṭa Hill, about eight miles from Tirupati. This Veṅkaṭeśvara Deity is in the form of Lord Viṣṇu, and the place where He is situated is known as Veṅkaṭa-kṣetra. There are many temples in southern India, but this Bālājī temple is especially opulent. A great fair is held there in the months of September and October. There is a railway station called Tirupati on the Southern Railway. Nimna-tirupati is located in the valley of the Veṅkaṭa Hill. There are several temples there also, among which are those of Govindarāja and Lord Rāmacandra.
tripati āsiyā kaila śrī-rāma daraśana
raghunātha-āge kaila praṇāma stavana
tripati āsiyā—coming to Tirupati; kaila śrī-rāma daraśana—visited the temple of Rāmacandra; raghunātha-āge—before Lord Rāmacandra; kaila—did; praṇāma—obeisances; stavana—offering prayers.
After arriving at Tirupati, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Lord Rāmacandra. He offered His prayers and obeisances before Rāmacandra, the descendant of King Raghu.
sva-prabhāve loka-sabāra karāñā vismaya
pānā-nṛsiṁhe āilā prabhu dayā-maya
sva-prabhāve—by His own influence; loka-sabāra—of all the people; karāñā—inducing; vismaya—astonishment; pānā-nṛsiṁhe—to the Lord named Pānā-nṛsiṁha; āilā—came; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dayā-maya—the most merciful.
Everywhere Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went, His influence astonished everyone. He next arrived at the temple of Pānā-nṛsiṁha. The Lord is so merciful.
Pānā-nṛsiṁha, or Pānākal-narasiṁha, is located in the district of Krishnā in the hills known as Maṅgalagiri, about seven miles from a city known as Vijayawada. One must climb six hundred steps to reach the temple. It is said that when the Lord is offered food with syrup here, He does not take more than half. Within this temple is a conchshell presented by the late king of Tanjor, and it is said that this shell was used by Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself. During the month of March, a great fair takes place in this temple.
nṛsiṁhe praṇati-stuti premāveśe kaila
prabhura prabhāve loka camatkāra haila
nṛsiṁhe—unto Lord Nṛsiṁha; praṇati-stuti—obeisances and prayers; prema-āveśe—in ecstatic love; kaila—offered; prabhura—of the Lord; prabhāve—by the influence; loka—the people; camatkāra haila—were astonished.
In great ecstatic love, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu offered obeisances and prayers unto Lord Nṛsiṁha. The people were astonished to see Lord Caitanya's influence.
śiva-kāñcī āsiyā kaila śiva daraśana
prabhāve 'vaiṣṇava' kaila saba śaiva-gaṇa
śiva-kāñcī—to the holy place named Śiva-kāñcī; āsiyā—coming; kaila—did; śiva daraśana—visiting the temple of Lord Śiva; prabhāve—by His influence; vaiṣṇava kaila—turned into Vaiṣṇavas; saba—all; śaiva-gaṇa—the devotees of Lord Śiva.
Arriving at Śiva-kāñcī, Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the deity of Lord Śiva. By His influence, He converted all the devotees of Lord Śiva into Vaiṣṇavas.
viṣṇu-kāñcī āsi' dekhila lakṣmī-nārāyaṇa
praṇāma kariyā kaila bahuta stavana
viṣṇu-kāñcī—to the holy place named Viṣṇu-kāñcī; āsi'-coming; dekhila—the Lord saw; lakṣmī-nārāyaṇa—the Deity of Lord Nārāyaṇa with mother Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune; praṇāma kariyā—after offering obeisances; kaila—made; bahuta stavana—many prayers.
The Lord then visited a holy place known as Viṣṇu-kāñcī. There He saw Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa Deities, and He offered His respects and many prayers to please Them.
premāveśe nṛtya-gīta bahuta karila
dina-dui rahi' loke 'kṛṣṇa-bhakta' kaila
prema-āveśe—in ecstatic love; nṛtya-gīta—dancing and chanting; bahuta—much; karila—performed; dina-dui—for two days; rahi'-staying; loke—the people in general; kṛṣṇa-bhakta—devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kaila—made.
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed at Viṣṇu-kāñcī for two days, He danced and performed kīrtana in ecstasy. When all the people saw Him, they were converted into devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
trimalaya dekhi' gelā trikāla-hasti-sthāne
mahādeva dekhi' tāṅre karila praṇāme
trimalaya dekhi'-after seeing Trimalaya; gelā—went; trikāla-hasti-sthāne—to the place named Trikāla-hasti; mahādeva—Lord Śiva; dekhi'-seeing; tāṅre—unto him; karila praṇāme—offered obeisances.
After visiting Trimalaya, Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to see Trikāla-hasti. There He saw Lord Śiva and offered him all respects and obeisances.
Trikāla-hasti is situated about twenty-two miles northeast of Tirupati. On its northern side is a river known as Suvarṇa-mukhī. The temple of Trikāla-hasti is located on the southern side of the river. The place is generally known as Śrī Kālahasti or Kālahasti and is famous for its temple of Lord Śiva. There he is called Vāyu-liṅga Śiva.
pakṣi-tīrtha dekhi' kaila śiva daraśana
vṛddhakola-tīrthe tabe karilā gamana
pakṣi-tīrtha dekhi'-after visiting the place known as Pakṣi-tīrtha; kaila—did; śiva daraśana—visiting the temple of Lord Śiva; vṛddhakola-tīrthe—to the holy place known as Vṛddhakola; tabe—then; karilā gamana—went.
At Pakṣi-tīrtha, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Lord Śiva. Then He went to the Vṛddhakola place of pilgrimage.
Pakṣi-tīrtha, also called Tirukāḍi-kuṇḍam, is located nine miles southeast of Ciṁlipaṭ. It has a five-hundred-foot elevation and is situated in a chain of hills known as Vedagiri or Vedācalam. There is a temple of Lord Śiva there, and the deity is known as Vedagirīśvara. Two birds come there daily to receive food from the temple priest, and it is claimed that they have been coming since time immemorial.
śveta-varāha dekhi, tāṅre namaskari'
pītāmbara-śiva-sthāne gelā gaurahari
śveta-varāha—the white boar incarnation; dekhi—seeing; tāṅre—unto Him; namaskari'-offering respect; pīta-ambara—dressed with yellow garments; śiva-sthāne—to the temple of Lord Śiva; gelā—went; gaurahari—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
At Vṛddhakola, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Śveta-varāha, the white boar incarnation. After offering Him respects, the Lord visited the temple of Lord Śiva, wherein the deity is dressed with yellow garments.
The temple of the white boar incarnation is situated at Vṛddhakola. The temple is made of stone and is located about one mile south of an oasis known as Balipīṭham. There is a Deity of the white boar incarnation, above whose head Śeṣa Nāga serves as an umbrella. The deity of Lord Śiva is known as Pītāmbara and also as Cidāmbaram. This temple is located twenty-six miles south of Cuddaloreḍā, and the deity there is also known as Ākāśa-liṅga. The deity is in the form of Lord Śiva. This temple is situated on about thirty-nine acres of land, and all this land is surrounded by a wall sixty feet high.
śiyālī bhairavī devī kari' daraśana
kāverīra tīre āilā śacīra nandana
śiyālī bhairavī—Śiyālī-bhairavī; devī—goddess; kari' daraśana—visiting; kāverīra tīre—on the bank of the river Kāverī; āilā—came; śacīra nandana—the son of mother Śacī.
After visiting the temple of Śiyālī-bhairavī [another form of the goddess Durgā], Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the son of mother Śacī, went to the bank of the river Kāverī.
Śiyālī-bhairavī is located in the Tanjoreāñ district, about forty-eight miles northeast of Tanjoreāñ City. There is a very much celebrated temple of Lord Śiva there and also a very large lake. It is said that once a small boy who was a devotee of Lord Śiva came to that temple and the goddess Durgā, known as Bhairavī, gave him her breast to suck. After visiting this temple, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the bank of the river Kāverī via the district of Tiruchchirāpalli. The Kāverī is mentioned in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.40) as a very pious river.
go-samāje śiva dekhi' āilā vedāvana
mahādeva dekhi' tāṅre karilā vandana
go-samāje—at the place named Go-samāja; śiva dekhi'-seeing the deity of Lord Śiva; āilā vedāvana—He arrived at Vedāvana; mahādeva dekhi'-seeing Lord Śiva; tāṅre—unto him; karilā vandana—offered prayers.
The Lord then visited a place known as Go-samāja, where He saw Lord Śiva's temple. He then arrived at Vedāvana, where He saw another deity of Lord Śiva and offered him prayers.
amṛtaliṅga-śiva dekhi' vandana karila
saba śivālaye śaiva 'vaiṣṇava' ha-ila
amṛta-liṅga-śiva—the Lord Śiva deity named Amṛta-liṅga; dekhi'-seeing; vandana karila—offered obeisances; saba śiva-ālaye—in all the temples of Lord Śiva; śaiva—devotees of Lord Śiva; vaiṣṇava ha-ila—became devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
Seeing the Śiva deity named Amṛta-liṅga, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu offered His obeisances. Thus He visited all the temples of Lord Śiva and converted the devotees of Lord Śiva into Vaiṣṇavas.
deva-sthāne āsi' kaila viṣṇu daraśana
śrī-vaiṣṇavera saṅge tāhāṅ goṣṭhī anukṣaṇa
deva-sthāne—to the place known as Devasthāna; āsi'-coming; kaila—did; viṣṇu daraśana—visiting the temple of Lord Viṣṇu; śrī-vaiṣṇavera saṅge—with the Vaiṣṇavas in the disciplic succession of Rāmānuja; tāhāṅ—there; goṣṭhī—discussion; anukṣaṇa—always.
At Devasthāna, Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Lord Viṣṇu, and there He talked with the Vaiṣṇavas in the disciplic succession of Rāmānujācārya. These Vaiṣṇavas are known as Śrī Vaiṣṇavas.
kumbhakarṇa-kapāle dekhi' sarovara
śiva-kṣetre śiva dekhe gaurāṅga-sundara
kumbhakarṇa-kapāle—at Kumbhakarṇa-kapāla; dekhi'-after seeing; sarovara—the lake; śiva-kṣetre—at Śiva-kṣetra; śiva—Lord Śiva; dekhe—sees; gaurāṅga-sundara—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
At Kumbhakarṇa-kapāla, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw a great lake and then the holy place named Śiva-kṣetra, where a temple of Lord Śiva is located.
Kumbhakarṇa is the name of the brother of Rāvaṇa. At the present moment the city of Kumbhakarṇa-kapāla is known as Kumbhakonṇam; it is situated twenty miles northeast of the city of Tanjoreāñ. There are twelve temples of Lord Śiva located at Kumbhakonṇam, as well as four Viṣṇu temples and one temple to Lord Brahmā. Śiva-kṣetra, within the city of Tanjoreāñ, is situated near a big lake known as Śiva-gaṅgā. At this place is a large temple of Lord Śiva known as Bṛhatīśvara-śiva-mandira.
pāpa-nāśane viṣṇu kaila daraśana
śrī-raṅga-kṣetre tabe karilā gamana
pāpa-nāśane—at the place named Pāpanāśana; viṣṇu—Lord Viṣṇu; kaila—did; daraśana—visiting; śrī-raṅga-kṣetre—to the holy place named Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra; tabe—then; karilā—did; gamana—departure.
After visiting the holy place named Śiva-kṣetra, Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at Pāpanāśana and there saw the temple of Lord Viṣṇu. Then He finally reached Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra.
According to some, the place known as Pāpanāśana was located eight miles southwest of Kumbhakonṇam. Others say that in the district of Tinebheli there is a city known as Pālamakoṭā and that Twenty miles west of there is the holy place known as Pāpanāśana, near the river Tāmraparṇī. Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra is a very famous place. Near Tiruchchirāpalli is a river named Kāverī, or Kolirana. A city known as Śrī Raṅgam is located on this river in the district of Tanjoreāñ, about ten miles west of Kumbhakonṇam. The Śrī Raṅga temple is the largest in India, and there are seven walls surrounding it. There are also seven roads leading to Śrī Raṅga. The ancient names of these roads are the road of Dharma, the road of Rājamahendra, the road of Kulaśekhara, the road of Ālināḍana, the road of Tiruvikrama, the Tirubiḍi road of Māḍamāḍi-gāisa, and the road of Aḍa-iyāvala-indāna. The temple was founded before the reign of Dharmavarma, who reigned before Rājamahendra. Many celebrated kings like Kulaśekhara, and others such as Ālabandāru, resided in the temple of Śrī Raṅgam. Yāmunācārya, Śrī Rāmānuja, Sudarśanācārya and others also supervised this temple.
The incarnation of the goddess of fortune known as Godādevī, who was one of the twelve liberated persons known as divya-sūris, was married to the Deity, Lord Śrī Raṅganātha. Later she entered into the body of the Lord. An incarnation of Kārmuka, Tirumaṅga (one of the Alwars), acquired some money by stealing and built the fourth boundary wall of Śrī Raṅgam. It is said that in the year 289 of the Age of Kali, the Alwar of the name Toṇḍaraḍippaḍi was born. While engaged in devotional service, he fell victim to a prostitute, and Śrī Raṅganātha, seeing His devotee so degraded, sent one of His servants with a golden plate to that prostitute. When the golden plate was discovered missing from the temple, there was a search, and it was found in the prostitute's house. When the devotee saw Raṅganātha's mercy upon this prostitute, his mistake was rectified. He then prepared the third boundary wall of the Raṅganātha temple and cultivated a tulasī garden there.
There was also a celebrated disciple of Rāmānujācārya's known as Kūreśa. Śrī Rāmapillā was the son of Kūreśa, and his son was Vāgvijaya Bhaṭṭa, whose son was Vedavyāsa Bhaṭṭa, or Śrī Sudarśanācārya. When Sudarśanācārya was an old man, the Mohammedans attacked the temple of Raṅganātha and killed about twelve hundred Śrī Vaiṣṇavas. At that time the Deity of Raṅganātha was transferred to the temple of Tirupati in the kingdom of Vijaya-nagara. The governor of Gingeeṅ, Goppaṇārya, brought Śrī Raṅganātha from the temple of Tirupati to a place known as Siṁha-brahma, where the Lord was situated for three years. In the year 1293 Śaka (A.D. 1372) the Deity was reinstalled in the Raṅganātha temple. On the eastern wall of the Raṅganātha temple is an inscription written by Vedānta-deśika relating how Raṅganātha was returned to the temple.
kāverīte snāna kari' dekhi' raṅganātha
stuti-praṇati kari' mānilā kṛtārtha
kāverīte—in the river known as Kāverī; snāna kari'-after bathing; dekhi'-visiting; raṅga-nātha—the Raṅganātha temple; stuti—prayers; praṇati—obeisances; kari'-offering; mānilā—thought Himself; kṛta-artha—very successful.
After bathing in the river Kāverī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw the temple of Raṅganātha and offered His ardent prayers and obeisances. Thus He felt Himself successful.
premāveśe kaila bahuta gāna nartana
dekhi' camatkāra haila saba lokera mana
prema-āveśe—in the ecstasy of love; kaila—did; bahuta—various; gāna—songs; nartana—dancing; dekhi'-seeing which; camatkāra—astonished; haila—were; saba—all; lokera—of persons; mana—minds.
In the temple of Raṅganātha, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu chanted and danced in ecstatic love of Godhead. Seeing His performance, everyone was struck with wonder.
śrī-vaiṣṇava eka,--'vyeṅkaṭa bhaṭṭa' nāma
prabhure nimantraṇa kaila kariyā sammāna
śrī-vaiṣṇava eka—a devotee belonging to the Rāmānuja-sampradāya; vyeṅkaṭa bhaṭṭa—Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa; nāma—named; prabhure—unto Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nimantraṇa—invitation; kaila—did; kariyā—offering; sammāna—great respect.
One Vaiṣṇava known as Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa then invited Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to his home with great respect.
Śrī Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa was a Vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇa and an inhabitant of Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra. He belonged to the disciplic succession of Śrī Rāmānujācārya. Śrī Raṅga is one of the places of pilgrimage in the province of Tāmil Naduś. The inhabitants of that province do not retain the name Veṅkaṭa. It is therefore supposed that Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa did not belong to that province, although he may have been residing there for a very long time. Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa was in a branch of the Rāmānuja-sampradāya known as Baḍagala-i. He had a brother in the Rāmānuja-sampradāya known as Śrīpāda Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī. The son of Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa was later known in the Gauḍīya-sampradāya as Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, and he established the Rādhāramaṇa temple in Vṛndāvana. More information about him may be found in a book known as Bhakti-ratnākara, by Narahari Cakravartī.
nija-ghare lañā kaila pāda-prakṣālana
sei jala lañā kaila sa-vaṁśe bhakṣaṇa
nija-ghare—to his own home; lañā—bringing; kaila—did; pāda-prakṣālana—washing of the feet; sei jala—that water; lañā—taking; kaila—did; sa-vaṁśe—with all the family members; bhakṣaṇa—drinking.
Śrī Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa took Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to his home. After he washed the Lord's feet, all the members of his family drank the water.
bhikṣā karāñā kichu kaila nivedana
cāturmāsya āsi' prabhu, haila upasanna
bhikṣā karāñā—after offering lunch; kichu—some; kaila—did; nivedana—submission; cāturmāsya—the period of Cāturmāsya; āsi'-coming; prabhu—my Lord; haila upasanna—has already arrived.
After offering lunch to the Lord, Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa submitted that the period of Cāturmāsya had already arrived.
cāturmāsye kṛpā kari' raha mora ghare
kṛṣṇa-kathā kahi' kṛpāya uddhāra' āmāre
cāturmāsye—during this period of Cāturmāsya; kṛpā kari'-being merciful; raha—please stay; mora ghare—at my place; kṛṣṇa-kathā—topics of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kahi'-speaking; kṛpāya—by Your mercy; uddhāra' āmāre—kindly deliver me.
Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa said, "Please be merciful to me and stay at my house during Cāturmāsya. Speak about Lord Kṛṣṇa's pastimes and kindly deliver me by Your mercy."
tāṅra ghare rahilā prabhu kṛṣṇa-kathā-rase
bhaṭṭa-saṅge goṅāila sukhe cāri māse
tāṅra ghare—in his home; rahilā—stayed; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇa-kathā-rase—enjoying the transcendental mellow of discussing Lord Kṛṣṇa's pastimes; bhaṭṭa-saṅge—with Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa; goṅāila—passed; sukhe—in happiness; cāri māse—four months.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu remained at the house of Veṅkaṭa Bhaṭṭa for four continuous months. The Lord passed His days in great happiness, enjoying the transcendental mellow of discussing Lord Kṛṣṇa's pastimes.
kāverīte snāna kari' śrī-raṅga darśana
pratidina premāveśe karena nartana
kāverīte—in the river known as Kāverī; snāna kari'-taking a bath; śrī-raṅga darśana—visiting the temple of Śrī Raṅga; prati-dina—every day; prema-āveśe—in great happiness; karena—does perform; nartana—dancing.
While there, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu took His bath in the river Kāverī and visited the temple of Śrī Raṅga. Every day the Lord also danced in ecstasy.
saundaryādi premāveśa dekhi, sarva-loka
dekhibāre āise, dekhe, khaṇḍe duḥkha-śoka
saundarya-ādi—the beauty of the body, etc.; prema-āveśa—His ecstatic love; dekhi—seeing; sarva-loka—all men; dekhibāre—to see; āise—come there; dekhe—and see; khaṇḍe duḥkha-śoka—are relieved from all unhappiness and distress.
The beauty of Lord Caitanya's body and His ecstatic love of God were witnessed by everyone. Many people used to come see Him, and as soon as they saw Him, all their unhappiness and distress vanished.
lakṣa lakṣa loka āila nānā-deśa haite
sabe kṛṣṇa-nāma kahe prabhuke dekhite
lakṣa lakṣa—many hundreds of thousands; loka—of people; āila—came there; nānā-deśa—different countries; haite—from; sabe—all of them; kṛṣṇa-nāma kahe—chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra; prabhuke—the Lord; dekhite—seeing.
Many hundreds of thousands of people from various countries came to see the Lord, and after seeing Him they all chanted the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
kṛṣṇa-nāma vinā keha nāhi kahe āra
sabe kṛṣṇa-bhakta haila,--loke camatkāra
kṛṣṇa-nāma vinā—without chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra; keha—anyone; nāhi—does not; kahe—speak; āra—anything else; sabe—all of them; kṛṣṇa-bhakta—Lord Kṛṣṇa's devotees; haila—became; loke—the people; camatkāra—astonished.
Indeed, they did not chant anything but the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, and all of them became Lord Kṛṣṇa's devotees. Thus the general populace was astonished.
śrī-raṅga-kṣetre vaise yata vaiṣṇava-brāhmaṇa
eka eka dina sabe kaila nimantraṇa
śrī-raṅga-kṣetre—in Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra; vaise—residing; yata—all; vaiṣṇava-brāhmaṇa—Vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇas; eka eka dina—every day; sabe—all of them; kaila nimantraṇa—invited the Lord.
All the Vaiṣṇava brāhmaṇas residing in Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra invited the Lord to their homes. Indeed, He had an invitation every day.
eka eka dine cāturmāsya pūrṇa haila
kataka brāhmaṇa bhikṣā dite nā pāila
eka eka dine—day by day; cāturmāsya—the period of Cāturmāsya; pūrṇa haila—became filled; kataka brāhmaṇa—some of the brāhmaṇas; bhikṣā dite—to offer Him lunch; nā—did not; pāila—get the opportunity.
Each day the Lord was invited by a different brāhmaṇa, but some of the brāhmaṇas did not get the opportunity to offer Him lunch because the period of Cāturmāsya came to an end.
sei kṣetre rahe eka vaiṣṇava-brāhmaṇa
devālaye āsi' kare gītā āvartana
sei kṣetre-in that holy place; rahe-there was; eka-one; vaiṣṇava-brāhmaṇa-a brāhmaṇa following the Vaiṣṇava cult; deva-ālaye-in the temple; āsi'-coming; kare-does; gītā-of the Bhagavad-gītā; āvartana-recitation.
In the holy place of Śrī Raṅga-kṣetra, a brāhmaṇa Vaiṣṇava used to visit the temple daily and recite the entire text of the Bhagavad-gītā.
aṣṭādaśādhyāya paḍe ānanda-āveśe
aśuddha paḍena, loka kare upahāse
aṣṭādaśa-adhyāya—eighteen chapters; paḍe—reads; ānanda-āveśe—in great ecstasy; aśuddha paḍena—could not pronounce the text correctly; loka—people in general; kare—do; upahāse—joking.
The brāhmaṇa regularly read the eighteen chapters of the Bhagavad-gītā in great transcendental ecstasy, but because he could not pronounce the words correctly, people used to joke about him.
keha hāse, keha ninde, tāhā nāhi māne
āviṣṭa hañā gītā paḍe ānandita-mane
keha hāse—someone laughs; keha ninde—someone criticizes; tāhā—that; nāhi māne—he does not care for; āviṣṭa hañā—being in great ecstasy; gītā paḍe—reads the Bhagavad-gītā; ānandita—in great happiness; mane—his mind.
Due to his incorrect pronunciation, people sometimes criticized him and laughed at him, but he did not care. He was full of ecstasy due to reading the Bhagavad-gītā and was personally very happy.
pulakāśru, kampa, sveda,--yāvat paṭhana
dekhi' ānandita haila mahāprabhura mana
pulaka—standing of the hairs of the body; aśru—tears; kampa—trembling; sveda—perspiration; yāvat—during; paṭhana—the reading of the book; dekhi'-seeing this; ānandita—very happy; haila—became; mahāprabhura—of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mana—the mind.
While reading the book, the brāhmaṇa experienced transcendental bodily transformations. His hair stood on end, tears welled in his eyes, and his body trembled and perspired as he read. Seeing this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu became very happy.
Although the brāhmaṇa could not pronounce the words very well due to illiteracy, he still experienced ecstatic symptoms while reading the Bhagavad-gītā. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very much pleased to observe these symptoms, and this indicates that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is pleased by devotion, not by erudite scholarship. Even though the words were imperfectly pronounced, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself, did not think this very serious. Rather, the Lord was pleased by the bhāva (devotion). In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.5.11) this is confirmed:
yasmin prati-ślokam abaddhavaty api
nāmāny anantasya yaśo-'ṅkitāni yat
śṛṇvanti gāyanti gṛṇanti sādhavaḥ
"On the other hand, that literature which is full of descriptions of the transcendental glories of the name, fame, forms and pastimes of the unlimited Supreme Lord is a different creation, full of transcendental words directed toward bringing about a revolution in the impious lives of this world's misdirected civilization. Such transcendental literature, even though imperfectly composed, is heard, sung and accepted by purified men who are thoroughly honest."
The purport to this verse may be considered for further information on this subject.
mahāprabhu puchila tāṅre, śuna, mahāśaya
kon artha jāni' tomāra eta sukha haya
mahāprabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; puchila—inquired; tāṅre—from him; śuna—please hear; mahā-āśaya—My dear sir; kon—what; artha—meaning; jāni'-knowing; tomāra—your; eta—so great; sukha—happiness; haya—is.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked the brāhmaṇa, "My dear sir, why are you in such ecstatic love? Which portion of the Bhagavad-gītā gives you such transcendental pleasure?"
vipra kahe,--mūrkha āmi, śabdārtha nā jāni
śuddhāśuddha gītā paḍi, guru-ājñā māni'
vipra kahe—the brāhmaṇa replied; mūrkha āmi—I am illiterate; śabda-artha—the meaning of the words; nā jāni—I do not know; śuddha-aśuddha—sometimes correct and sometimes not correct; gītā—the Bhagavad-gītā; paḍi—I read; guru-ājñā—the order of my spiritual master; māni'-accepting.
The brāhmaṇa replied, "I am illiterate and therefore do not know the meaning of the words. Sometimes I read the Bhagavad-gītā correctly and sometimes incorrectly, but in any case I am doing this in compliance with the orders of my spiritual master."
This is a good example of a person who had become so successful that he was able to capture the attention of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu even while reading the Bhagavad-gītā incorrectly. His spiritual activities did not depend on material things such as correct pronunciation. Rather, his success depended on strictly following the instructions of his spiritual master.
yasya deve parā bhaktir
yathā deve tathā gurau
tasyaite kathitā hy arthāḥ
"Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed."(Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.23)
Actually the meaning of the words of the Bhagavad-gītā or Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam are revealed to one strictly following the orders of the spiritual master. They are also revealed to one who has equal faith in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In other words, being faithful to both Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master is the secret of success in spiritual life.
arjunera rathe kṛṣṇa haya rajju-dhara
vasiyāche hāte totra śyāmala sundara
arjunera—of Arjuna; rathe—in the chariot; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; haya—is; rajju-dhara—holding the reins; vasiyāche—He was sitting there; hāte—in the hand; totra—a bridle; śyāmala—blackish; sundara—very beautiful.
The brāhmaṇa continued, "Actually I only see Lord Kṛṣṇa sitting on a chariot as Arjuna's charioteer. Taking the reins in His hands, He appears very beautiful and blackish.
arjunere kahitechena hita-upadeśa
tāṅre dekhi' haya mora ānanda-āveśa
arjunere—unto Arjuna; kahitechena—He is speaking; hita-upadeśa—good instruction; tāṅre—Him; dekhi'-seeing; haya—there is; mora—my; ānanda—transcendental happiness; āveśa—ecstasy.
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