A summary of the Sixth Chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya as follows: When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu entered the temple of Jagannātha, He immediately fainted. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then took Him to his home. Meanwhile, Gopīnātha Ācārya, the brother-in-law of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, met Mukunda Datta and talked to him about Caitanya Mahāprabhu's acceptance of sannyāsa and His journey to Jagannātha Purī. After hearing about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's fainting and His being carried to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, people crowded there to see the Lord. Śrīla Nityānanda Prabhu and other devotees then visited the Jagannātha temple, and when they came back to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to external consciousness. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya received everyone and distributed mahā-prasāda with great care. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then became acquainted with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and arranged accommodations at his aunt's house. His brother-in-law, Gopīnātha Ācārya, established that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Kṛṣṇa Himself, but Sārvabhauma and his many disciples could not accept this. However, Gopīnātha Ācārya convinced Sārvabhauma that no one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead without being favored by Him. He proved by śāstric quotation, quotations from the revealed scriptures, that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Kṛṣṇa Himself in person. Still, Sārvabhauma did not take these statements very seriously. Hearing all these arguments, Caitanya Mahāprabhu told His devotees that Sārvabhauma was His spiritual master and that whatever he said out of affection was for everyone's benefit.
When Sārvabhauma met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he asked Him to hear Vedānta philosophy from him. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted this proposal, and for seven days He continuously heard Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya explain the Vedānta-sūtra. However, the Lord remained very silent. Because of His silence, the Bhaṭṭācārya asked Him whether He was understanding the Vedānta philosophy, and the Lord replied, "Sir, I can understand Vedānta philosophy very clearly, but I cannot understand your explanations." There was then a discussion between the Bhaṭṭācārya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu concerning the authority of the Vedic scriptures, specifically the Upaniṣads and Vedānta-sūtra. The Bhaṭṭācārya was an impersonalist, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu proved that the Absolute Truth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He proved that the conceptions of the Māyāvādī philosophers concerning the impersonal Absolute Truth are incorrect.
The Absolute Truth is neither impersonal nor without power. The greatest mistake made by the Māyāvādī philosophers is in conceiving the Absolute Truth to be impersonal and without energy. In all the Vedas, the unlimited energies of the Absolute Truth have been accepted. It is also accepted that the Absolute Truth has His transcendental, blissful, eternal form. According to the Vedas, the Lord and the living entity are equal in quality but different quantitatively. The real philosophy of the Absolute Truth states that the Lord and His creation are inconceivably and simultaneously one and different. The conclusion is that the Māyāvādī philosophers are actually atheists. There was much discussion on this issue between Sārvabhauma and Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but despite all his endeavors, the Bhaṭṭācārya was defeated in the end.
At the request of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then explained the ātmārāma verse of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in eighteen different ways. When the Bhaṭṭācārya came to his senses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu disclosed His real identity. The Bhaṭṭācārya then recited one hundred verses in praise of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and offered his obeisances. After this, Gopīnātha Ācārya and all the others, having seen the wonderful potencies of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, became very joyful.
One morning after this incident, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu received some prasāda from Jagannātha and offered it to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. Without caring for formality, the Bhaṭṭācārya immediately partook of the mahā-prasāda. On another day, when the Bhaṭṭācārya asked Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu the best way to worship and meditate, the Lord advised him to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. On another day, the Bhaṭṭācārya wanted to change the reading of the tat te 'nukampām verse because he did not like the word mukti-pada. He wanted to substitute the word bhakti-pada. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu advised Sārvabhauma not to change the reading of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam because mukti-pada indicated the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa. Having become a pure devotee, the Bhaṭṭācārya said, "Because the meaning is hazy, I still prefer bhakti-pada." At this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and the other inhabitants of Jagannātha Purī became very pleased. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya thus became a pure Vaiṣṇava, and the other learned scholars there followed him.
naumi taṁ gauracandraṁ yaḥ
naumi—I offer my respectful obeisances; tam—unto Him; gauracandram—who is known as Lord Gauracandra; yaḥ—who; ku-tarka—by bad arguments; karkaśa-āśayam—whose heart was hard; sārvabhaumam—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; sarva-bhūmā—the Lord of everything; bhakti-bhūmānam—into a great personality of devotion; ācarat—converted.
I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Gauracandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who converted the hardhearted Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, the reservoir of all bad logic, into a great devotee.
jaya jaya gauracandra jaya nityānanda
jayādvaitacandra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya gauracandra—all glories to Lord Gaurahari; jaya nityānanda—all glories to Nityānanda Prabhu; jaya advaita-candra—all glories to Advaita Ācārya; jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—all glories to the devotees of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
All glories to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to the devotees of Lord Caitanya!
āveśe calilā prabhu jagannātha-mandire
jagannātha dekhi' preme ha-ilā asthire
āveśe—in ecstasy; calilā—went; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jagannātha-mandire—to the temple of Jagannātha; jagannātha dekhi'-seeing the Jagannātha Deity; preme—in ecstasy; ha-ilā—became; asthire—restless.
In ecstasy, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went from Āṭhāranālā to the temple of Jagannātha. After seeing Lord Jagannātha, He became very restless due to love of Godhead.
jagannātha āliṅgite calilā dhāñā
mandire paḍilā preme āviṣṭa hañā
jagannātha—Lord Jagannātha; āliṅgite—to embrace; calilā—went; dhāñā—very swiftly; mandire—in the temple; paḍilā—fell down; preme—in ecstasy; āviṣṭa—overwhelmed; hañā—becoming.
Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went swiftly to embrace Lord Jagannātha, but when He entered the temple, He was so overwhelmed with love of Godhead that He fainted on the floor.
daive sārvabhauma tāṅhāke kare daraśana
paḍichā mārite teṅho kaila nivāraṇa
daive—by chance; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; tāṅhāke—Him; kare—does; daraśana—seeing; paḍichā—the watchman in the temple; mārite—to beat; teṅho—he; kaila—did; nivāraṇa—forbidding.
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu fell down, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya happened to see Him. When the watchman threatened to beat the Lord, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya immediately forbade him.
prabhura saundarya āra premera vikāra
dekhi' sārvabhauma hailā vismita apāra
prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; saundarya—the beauty; āra—and; premera vikāra—ecstatic transformations; dekhi'-seeing; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; hailā—became; vismita—surprised; apāra—very much.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was very much surprised to see the personal beauty of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu as well as the transcendental transformations wrought on His body due to love of Godhead.
bahu-kṣaṇe caitanya nahe, bhogera kāla haila
sārvabhauma mane tabe upāya cintila
bahu-kṣaṇe—for a long time; caitanya—consciousness; nahe—there was not; bhogera—of offering food; kāla—the time; haila—it became; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; mane—in the mind; tabe—at that time; upāya—remedy; cintila—thought.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu remained unconscious for a long time. Meanwhile, the time for offering prasāda to Lord Jagannātha came, and the Bhaṭṭācārya tried to think of a remedy.
śiṣya paḍichā-dvārā prabhu nila vahāñā
ghare āni' pavitra sthāne rākhila śoyāñā
śiṣya—disciples; paḍichā—and watchmen; dvārā—by means of; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nila—brought; vahāñā—carrying; ghare—at home; āni'-bringing; pavitra—purified; sthāne—in a place; rākhila—kept; śoyāñā—lying down.
While Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was unconscious, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, with the help of the watchmen and some disciples, carried Him to his home and laid Him down in a very sanctified room.
śvāsa-praśvāsa nāhi udara-spandana
dekhiyā cintita haila bhaṭṭācāryera mana
śvāsa-praśvāsa—breathing; nāhi—there was not; udara—of the abdomen; spandana—movement; dekhiyā—seeing; cintita—full of anxiety; haila—became; bhaṭṭācāryera—of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; mana—the mind.
Examining the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sārvabhauma saw that His abdomen was not moving and that He was not breathing. Seeing His condition, the Bhaṭṭācārya became very anxious.
sūkṣma tulā āni' nāsā-agrete dharila
īṣat calaye tulā dekhi' dhairya haila
sūkṣma—fine; tulā—cotton; āni'-bringing; nāsā—of the nostril; agrete—in front; dharila—held; īṣat—slightly; calaye—moves; tulā—the cotton; dekhi'-seeing; dhairya—patience; haila—there was.
The Bhaṭṭācārya then took a fine cotton swab and put it before the Lord's nostrils. When he saw the cotton move very slightly, he became hopeful.
vasi' bhaṭṭācārya mane karena vicāra
ei kṛṣṇa-mahāpremera sāttvika vikāra
vasi'-sitting down; bhaṭṭācārya—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; mane—in his mind; karena—does; vicāra—consideration; ei—this; kṛṣṇa-mahā-premera—of ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa; sāttvika—transcendental; vikāra—transformation.
Sitting beside Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he thought, "This is a transcendental ecstatic transformation brought about by love of Kṛṣṇa."
'sūddīpta sāttvika' ei nāma ye 'pralaya'
nitya-siddha bhakte se 'sūddīpta bhāva' haya
su-uddīpta sāttvika—of the name sūddīpta-sāttvika; ei—this; nāma—named; ye—which; pralaya—devastation; nitya-siddha—eternally perfected; bhakte—in the devotee; se—that; su-uddīpta bhāva—ecstasy known as sūddīpta; haya—becomes manifest.
Upon seeing the sign of sūddīpta-sāttvika, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya could immediately understand the transcendental ecstatic transformation in the body of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Such a sign takes place only in the bodies of eternally liberated devotees.
The word sūddīpta-sāttvika is explained as follows by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura: "The Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu mentions eight kinds of transcendental transformations in the bodies of advanced devotees. These are sometimes checked by the devotee, and there are two stages of such checking, technically known as dhūmāyitā and jvalitā. The dhūmāyitā (smoking) stage is exhibited when only one or two transformations are slightly present and it is possible to conceal them. When more than two or three transcendental transformations are manifest and it is still possible to conceal them, although with great difficulty, that stage is called jvalitā (lighted). When four or five symptoms are exhibited, the dīpta (blazing) stage has been reached. When five, six or all eight symptoms are simultaneously manifest, that position is called uddīpta (inflamed). And when all eight symptoms are multiplied a thousand times and are all visible at once, the devotee is in the sūddīpta (intensely inflamed) stage. Nitya-siddha-bhakta indicates the eternally liberated associates of the Lord. Such devotees enjoy the company of the Lord in four relationships-as servant, friend, parent or conjugal lover."
'adhirūḍha bhāva' yāṅra, tāṅra e vikāra
manuṣyera dehe dekhi,--baḍa camatkāra
adhirūḍha bhāva—an ecstasy technically known as adhirūḍha; yāṅra—of whom; tāṅra—of Him; e—this; vikāra—transformation; manuṣyera—of a human being; dehe—in the body; dekhi—I see; baḍa camatkāra—very wonderful.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya considered, "The uncommon ecstatic symptoms of adhirūḍha-bhāva are appearing in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This is very wonderful! How are they possible in the body of a human being?"
Adhirūḍha-bhāva, or adhirūḍha-mahābhāva, is explained in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura quotes Rūpa Gosvāmī as follows: "The loving propensity of the āśraya (devotee) toward the viṣaya (Lord) becomes so ecstatic that even after enjoying the company of the beloved the devotee feels that his enjoyment is insufficient. At such a time, the lover sees the beloved in different ways. Such a development of ecstasy is called anurāga. When anurāga reaches its highest limit and becomes perceivable in the body, it is called bhāva. When the bodily symptoms are not very distinct, however, the emotional state is still called anurāga, not bhāva. When bhāva ecstasy is intensified, it is called mahā-bhāva. The symptoms of mahā-bhāva are visible only in the bodies of eternal associates like the gopīs."
eta cinti' bhaṭṭācārya āchena vasiyā
nityānandādi siṁha-dvāre milila āsiyā
eta cinti'-thinking like this; bhaṭṭācārya—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; āchena—was; vasiyā—sitting; nityānanda-ādi—all the devotees, headed by Nityānanda Prabhu; siṁha-dvāre—at the entrance door of the Jagannātha temple; milila—met; āsiyā—coming.
While the Bhaṭṭācārya was thinking in this way at his home, all the devotees of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, headed by Nityānanda Prabhu, approached the Siṁha-dvāra [the entrance door of the temple].
tāṅhā śune loke kahe anyonye bāt
eka sannyāsī āsi' dekhi' jagannātha
tāṅhā—at that place; śune—they hear; loke—the people in general; kahe—talk; anyonye—among themselves; bāt—topics; eka—one; sannyāsī—mendicant; āsi'-coming there; dekhi'-seeing; jagannātha—the Deity of Lord Jagannātha.
There the devotees heard the people talking about a mendicant who had come to Jagannātha Purī and seen the Deity of Jagannātha.
mūrcchita haila, cetana nā haya śarīre
sārvabhauma lañā gelā āpanāra ghare
mūrcchita—unconscious; haila—became; cetana—consciousness; nā—not; haya—there is; śarīre—in His body; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; lañā—taking Him; gelā—went; āpanāra—his own; ghare—to the home.
The people said that the sannyāsī had fallen unconscious upon seeing the Deity of Lord Jagannātha. Because His consciousness did not return, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya had taken Him to his home.
śuni' sabe jānilā ei mahāprabhura kārya
hena-kāle āilā tāhāṅ gopīnāthācārya
śuni'-hearing this; sabe—all the devotees; jānilā—could understand; ei—this; mahāprabhura—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kārya—the activities; hena-kāle—at that time; āilā—came; tāhāṅ—there; gopīnātha-ācārya—of the name Gopīnātha Ācārya.
Hearing this, the devotees could understand that they were speaking of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Just then, Śrī Gopīnātha Ācārya arrived.
nadīyā-nivāsī, viśāradera jāmātā
mahāprabhura bhakta teṅho prabhu-tattva-jñātā
nadīyā-nivāsī—an inhabitant of Nadīyā; viśāradera—of Viśārada; jāmātā—the son-in-law; mahāprabhura bhakta—a devotee of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; teṅho—he; prabhu-tattva-jñātā—a knower of the true identity of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Gopīnātha Ācārya was a resident of Nadīyā, the son-in-law of Viśārada and a devotee of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He knew the true identity of His Lordship.
mukunda-sahita pūrve āche paricaya
mukunda dekhiyā tāṅra ha-ila vismaya
mukunda-sahita—with Mukunda Datta; pūrve—previously; āche—there was; paricaya—acquaintance; mukunda—Mukunda Datta; dekhiyā—seeing; tāṅra—of him (Gopīnātha Ācārya); ha-ila—there was; vismaya—astonishment.
Gopīnātha Ācārya had previously been acquainted with Mukunda Datta, and when the Ācārya saw him at Jagannātha Purī, he was very much astonished.
mukunda tāṅhāre dekhi' kaila namaskāra
teṅho āliṅgiyā puche prabhura samācāra
mukunda—Mukunda Datta; tāṅhāre—him; dekhi'-seeing; kaila—offered; namaskāra—obeisances; teṅho—he; āliṅgiyā—embracing; puche—inquires; prabhura—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; samācāra—news.
Mukunda Datta offered obeisances unto Gopīnātha Ācārya upon meeting him. Then the Ācārya embraced Mukunda Datta and inquired about news of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
mukunda kahe,--prabhura ihāṅ haila āgamane
āmi-saba āsiyāchi mahāprabhura sane
mukunda kahe—Mukunda replies; prabhura—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ihāṅ—here; haila—there was; āgamane—coming; āmi-saba—all of us; āsiyāchi—have come; mahāprabhura—Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sane—with.
nityānanda-gosāñike ācārya kaila namaskāra
sabe meli' puche prabhura vārtā bāra bāra
nityānanda-gosāñike—unto Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; ācārya—Gopīnātha Ācārya; kaila namaskāra—offered obeisances; sabe meli'-meeting them all; puche—inquires; prabhura—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vārtā—news; bāra bāra—again and again.
As soon as Gopīnātha Ācārya saw Nityānanda Prabhu, he offered his obeisances unto Him. In this way, meeting all the devotees, he asked about news of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu again and again.
mukunda kahe,--'mahāprabhu sannyāsa kariyā
nīlācale āilā saṅge āmā-sabā lañā
mukunda kahe—Mukunda Datta replies; mahāprabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sannyāsa kariyā—after accepting the renounced order of life; nīlācale—to Jagannātha Purī; āilā—has come; saṅge—with Him; āmā-sabā—all of us; lañā—taking.
Mukunda Datta continued, "After accepting the sannyāsa order, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu has come to Jagannātha Purī and has brought all of us with Him.
āmā-sabā chāḍi' āge gelā daraśane
āmi-saba pāche āilāṅ tāṅra anveṣaṇe
āmā-sabā—all of us; chāḍi'-leaving; āge—ahead; gelā—went; daraśane—to see Lord Jagannātha; āmi-saba—all of us; pāche—behind; āilāṅ—came; tāṅra—of Him; anveṣaṇe—in search.
"Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu left our company and walked ahead to see Lord Jagannātha. We have just arrived and are now looking for Him.
anyonye lokera mukhe ye kathā śunila
sārvabhauma-gṛhe prabhu,--anumāna kaila
anyonye—among themselves; lokera—of the people in general; mukhe—in the mouths; ye—that which; kathā—talk; śunila—was heard; sārvabhauma-gṛhe—at the home of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; prabhu—the Lord; anumāna—a guess; kaila—made.
"From the talk of the people in general, we have guessed that the Lord is now at the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.
īśvara-darśane prabhu preme acetana
sārvabhauma lañā gelā āpana-bhavana
īśvara-darśane—by seeing Lord Jagannātha; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; preme—in the ecstasy of love of Godhead; acetana—unconscious; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; lañā gelā—has taken; āpana-bhavana—to his own home.
"Upon seeing Lord Jagannātha, Caitanya Mahāprabhu became ecstatic and fell unconscious, and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya has taken Him to his home in this condition.
tomāra milane yabe āmāra haila mana
daive sei kṣaṇe pāiluṅ tomāra daraśana
tomāra—of you; milane—in meeting; yabe—when; āmāra—of me; haila—there was; mana—the mind; daive—by chance; sei kṣaṇe—at that very moment; pāiluṅ—got; tomāra—your; daraśana—meeting.
"Just as I was thinking of meeting you, by chance we have actually met.
cala, sabe yāi sārvabhaumera bhavana
prabhu dekhi' pāche kariba īśvara darśana'
cala—let us go; sabe—all; yāi—we shall go; sārvabhaumera bhavana—to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; prabhu dekhi'-seeing Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; pāche—later; kariba—we shall do; īśvara darśana—seeing of Lord Jagannātha.
"First let us all go to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and see Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Later we shall come to see Lord Jagannātha."
eta śuni' gopīnātha sabāre lañā
sārvabhauma-ghare gelā haraṣita hañā
eta śuni'-hearing this; gopīnātha—Gopīnātha Ācārya; sabāre—all of them; lañā—taking with him; sārvabhauma-ghare—to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; gelā—went; haraṣita hañā—becoming very pleased.
Hearing this and feeling very pleased, Gopīnātha Ācārya immediately took all the devotees with him and approached the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.
sārvabhauma-sthāne giyā prabhuke dekhila
prabhu dekhi' ācāryera duḥkha-harṣa haila
sārvabhauma-sthāne—to the place of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; giyā—going there; prabhuke—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dekhila—all of them saw; prabhu dekhi'-seeing the Lord; ācāryera—of Gopīnātha Ācārya; duḥkha—unhappiness; harṣa—happiness; haila—there was.
Arriving at the home of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, everyone saw the Lord lying unconscious. Seeing Him in this condition, Gopīnātha Ācārya became very unhappy, but at the same time he was happy just to see the Lord.
sārvabhaume jānāñā sabā nila abhyantare
nityānanda-gosāñire teṅho kaila namaskāre
sārvabhaume—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; jānāñā—informing and taking permission; sabā—all the devotees; nila—took; abhyantare—within the house; nityānanda-gosāñire—unto Nityānanda Prabhu; teṅho—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kaila—offered; namaskāre—obeisances.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya permitted all the devotees to enter his house, and upon seeing Nityānanda Prabhu, the Bhaṭṭācārya offered Him obeisances.
sabā sahita yathā-yogya karila milana
prabhu dekhi' sabāra haila haraṣita mana
sabā sahita—with all of them; yathā-yogya—as it was befitting; karila—did; milana—meeting; prabhu dekhi'-seeing the Lord; sabāra—of all; haila—became; haraṣita—pleased; mana—the minds.
Sārvabhauma met with all the devotees and offered them a proper welcome. They were all pleased to see Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
sārvabhauma pāṭhāila sabā darśana karite
'candaneśvara' nija-putra dila sabāra sāthe
sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; pāṭhāila—sent them; sabā—all; darśana karite—to see Lord Jagannātha; candana-īśvara—of the name Candaneśvara; nija-putra—his son; dila—gave; sabāra sāthe—with all of them.
The Bhaṭṭācārya then sent them all back to see Lord Jagannātha, and he asked his own son Candaneśvara to accompany them as a guide.
jagannātha dekhi' sabāra ha-ila ānanda
bhāvete āviṣṭa hailā prabhu nityānanda
jagannātha dekhi'-seeing Lord Jagannātha; sabāra—of everyone; ha-ila—there was; ānanda—pleasure; bhāvete—in ecstasy; āviṣṭa—overwhelmed; hailā—became; prabhu nityānanda—Lord Nityānanda.
Everyone was then very pleased to see the Deity of Lord Jagannātha. Lord Nityānanda in particular was overwhelmed with ecstasy.
sabe meli' dhari tāṅre susthira karila
īśvara-sevaka mālā-prasāda āni' dila
sabe meli'-meeting all together; dhari—caught; tāṅre—Him; su-sthira—steady; karila—made; īśvara-sevaka—the priest of the Deity; mālā—garland; prasāda—offering; āni—bringing; dila—gave.
When Lord Nityānanda Prabhu nearly fainted, all the devotees caught Him and steadied Him. At that time, the priest of Lord Jagannātha brought a garland that had been offered to the Deity and offered it to Nityānanda Prabhu.
prasāda pāñā sabe hailā ānandita mane
punarapi āilā sabe mahāprabhura sthāne
prasāda pāñā—getting this honor of the garland; sabe—all of them; hailā—became; ānandita mane—pleased in the mind; punarapi—again; āilā—came back; sabe—all; mahāprabhura sthāne—to the place where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was staying.
Everyone was pleased to receive this garland worn by Lord Jagannātha. Afterwards they all returned to the place where Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was staying.
ucca kari' kare sabe nāma-saṅkīrtana
tṛtīya prahare haila prabhura cetana
ucca—very loudly; kari'-doing; kare—began; sabe—all; nāma-saṅkīrtana—chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra; tṛtīya prahare—in the forenoon; haila—there was; prabhura—of Lord Caitanya; cetana—consciousness.
All of the devotees then began to loudly chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Just before noon the Lord regained His consciousness.
huṅkāra kariyā uṭhe 'hari' 'hari' bali'
ānande sārvabhauma tāṅra laila pada-dhūli
huṅkāra kariyā—making a loud sound; uṭhe—got up; hari hari bali'-chanting Hari, Hari; ānande—in pleasure; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; tāṅra—His; laila—took; pada-dhūli—the dust of the feet.
Caitanya Mahāprabhu got up and very loudly chanted, "Hari! Hari!" Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was very pleased to see the Lord regain consciousness, and he took the dust of the Lord's lotus feet.
sārvabhauma kahe,--śīghra karaha madhyāhna
muñi bhikṣā dimu āji mahā-prasādānna
sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kahe—says; śīghra—very soon; karaha—do; madhya-ahna—midday duties; muñi—I; bhikṣā—alms; dimu—shall offer; āji—today; mahā-prasāda-anna—remnants of food offered to Lord Jagannātha.
The Bhaṭṭācārya informed all of them, "Please take your midday baths immediately. Today I shall offer you mahā-prasāda, the remnants of food offered to Lord Jagannātha."
samudra-snāna kari' mahāprabhu śīghra āilā
caraṇa pākhāli' prabhu āsane vasilā
samudra-snāna—a bath in the sea; kari'-taking; mahāprabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śīghra—very soon; āilā—returned; caraṇa—feet; pākhāli'-washing; prabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āsane—on a seat; vasilā—sat.
After bathing in the sea, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His devotees returned very soon. The Lord then washed His feet and sat down on a carpet to take lunch.
bahuta prasāda sārvabhauma ānāila
tabe mahāprabhu sukhe bhojana karila
bahuta prasāda—varieties of food offered to Lord Jagannātha; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; ānāila—caused to bring them; tabe—at that time; mahāprabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sukhe—in happiness; bhojana—lunch; karila—accepted.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya made arrangements to bring various kinds of mahā-prasāda from the Jagannātha temple. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then accepted lunch with great happiness.
suvarṇa-thālīra anna uttama vyañjana
bhakta-gaṇa-saṅge prabhu karena bhojana
suvarṇa-thālīra—on golden plates; anna—rice; uttama—first-class; vyañjana—vegetables; bhakta-gaṇa—the devotees; saṅge—with; prabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; karena—accepts; bhojana—lunch.
Caitanya Mahāprabhu was offered special rice and first-class vegetables on golden plates. He thus took lunch in the company of His devotees.
sārvabhauma pariveśana karena āpane
prabhu kahe,--more deha lāphrā-vyañjane
sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; pariveśana—distribution; karena—does; āpane—personally; prabhu kahe—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; more—unto Me; deha—please give; lāphrā-vyañjane—boiled vegetables.
While Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya personally distributed the prasāda, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested him, "Please give Me only boiled vegetables.
pīṭhā-pānā deha tumi iṅhā-sabākāre
tabe bhaṭṭācārya kahe yuḍi' dui kare
pīṭhā-pānā—cakes and condensed milk; deha—give; tumi—you; iṅhā-sabākāre—to all these devotees; tabe—at that time; bhaṭṭācārya—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kahe—said; yuḍi'-folding; dui kare—two hands.
"You can offer the cakes and other preparations made with condensed milk to all the devotees." Hearing this, the Bhaṭṭācārya folded his hands and spoke as follows.
jagannātha kaiche kariyāchena bhojana
āji saba mahāprasāda kara āsvādana
jagannātha—Lord Jagannātha; kaiche—as; kariyāchena—has accepted; bhojana—lunch; āji—today; saba—all of you; mahā-prasāda—the remnants of food offered to the Lord; kara—do; āsvādana—tasting.
"Today, all of you please try to taste the lunch just as Lord Jagannātha accepted it."
eta bali' pīṭhā-pānā saba khāoyāilā
bhikṣā karāñā ācamana karāilā
eta bali'-saying this; pīṭhā-pānā—many kinds of cakes and condensed-milk preparations; saba—all; khāoyāilā—made to eat; bhikṣā karāñā—after offering prasāda; ācamana karāilā—made them wash their hands, feet and mouths.
After saying this, he made them all eat the various cakes and condensed-milk preparations. After feeding them, he offered them water to wash their hands, feet and mouths.
ājñā māgi' gelā gopīnātha ācāryake lañā
prabhura nikaṭa āilā bhojana kariñā
ājñā māgi'-taking permission; gelā—went; gopīnātha ācāryake lañā—taking Gopīnātha Ācārya; prabhura—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nikaṭa—near; āilā—went; bhojana kariñā—after taking lunch.
Begging permission from Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His devotees, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then went with Gopīnātha Ācārya to take lunch. After finishing their lunch, they returned to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
'namo nārāyaṇāya' bali' namaskāra kaila
'kṛṣṇe matir astu' bali' gosāñi kahila
namaḥ nārāyaṇāya—I offer my respects to Nārāyaṇa; bali'-saying; namaskāra kaila—offered respects to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇe—unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; matiḥ astu—let there be attraction; bali'-saying; gosāñi—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kahila—spoke.
Offering his obeisances to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, "Namo nārāyaṇāya" ["I offer my obeisances to Nārāyaṇa"]." In return, Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, "Kṛṣṇe matir astu" ["Let your attention be on Kṛṣṇa"]."
It is the etiquette among sannyāsīs, those on the fourth platform of spiritual life, to offer respects by saying oṁ namo nārāyaṇāya ("I offer my respectful obeisances unto Nārāyaṇa"). This greeting is used especially by Māyāvādī sannyāsīs. According to the smṛti scriptures, a sannyāsī should not expect anything from anyone, nor should he consider himself identical with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Vaiṣṇava sannyāsīs never think of themselves as being one with the Lord; they always consider themselves eternal servants of Kṛṣṇa, and they want to see everyone in the world become Kṛṣṇa conscious. For this reason, a Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī always offers his blessings to everyone, saying kṛṣṇe matir astu ("May you become Kṛṣṇa conscious").
śuni' sārvabhauma mane vicāra karila
vaiṣṇava-sannyāsī iṅho, vacane jānila
śuni'-hearing this; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; mane—within the mind; vicāra karila—considered; vaiṣṇava-sannyāsī—Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī; iṅho—this person; vacane—by words; jānila—understood.
gopīnātha ācāryere kahe sārvabhauma
gosāñira jānite cāhi kāhāṅ pūrvāśrama
gopīnātha ācāryere—to Gopīnātha Ācārya; kahe—said; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; gosāñira—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jānite—to know; cāhi—I want; kāhāṅ—what; pūrva-āśrama—previous situation.
Sārvabhauma then said to Gopīnātha Ācārya, "I want to know Caitanya Mahāprabhu's previous situation."
gopīnāthācārya kahe,--navadvīpe ghara
'jagannātha'--nāma, padavī--'miśra purandara'
gopīnātha-ācārya kahe—Gopīnātha Ācārya replied; navadvīpe—in Navadvīpa; ghara—residence; jagannātha—of the name Jagannātha; nāma—named; padavī—the surname; miśra purandara—Miśra Purandara.
Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, "There was a man named Jagannātha, who was a resident of Navadvīpa, and whose surname was Miśra Purandara.
'viśvambhara'--nāma iṅhāra, tāṅra iṅho putra
nīlāmbara cakravartīra hayena dauhitra
viśvambhara—of the name Viśvambhara; nāma—the name; iṅhāra—His; tāṅra—of Jagannātha Miśra; iṅho—He; putra—son; nīlāmbara cakravartīra—of Nīlāmbara Cakravartī; hayena—is; dauhitra—grandson (daughter's son).
"Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the son of that Jagannātha Miśra, and His former name was Viśvambhara Miśra. He also happens to be the grandson of Nīlāmbara Cakravartī."
sārvabhauma kahe,--nīlāmbara cakravartī
viśāradera samādhyāyī,--ei tāṅra khyāti
sārvabhauma kahe—Sārvabhauma said; nīlāmbara cakravartī—the gentleman named Nīlāmbara Cakravartī; viśāradera—of Maheśvara Viśārada (Sārvabhauma's father); samādhyāyī—class friend; ei—this; tāṅra—of him; khyāti—acquaintance.
The Bhaṭṭācārya said, "Nīlāmbara Cakravartī was a classmate of my father, Maheśvara Viśārada. I knew him as such.
'miśra purandara' tāṅra mānya, hena jāni
pitāra sambandhe doṅhāke pūjya kari' māni
miśra purandara—Jagannātha Miśra Purandara; tāṅra—his; mānya—respectable; hena—thus; jāni—I know; pitāra sambandhe—in relationship to my father; doṅhāke—both of them (Nīlāmbara Cakravartī and Jagannātha Miśra); pūjya—respectable; kari'-thinking; māni—I accept.
"Jagannātha Miśra Purandara was respected by my father. Thus because of their relationship with my father, I respect both Jagannātha Miśra and Nīlāmbara Cakravartī."
nadīyā-sambandhe sārvabhauma hṛṣṭa hailā
prīta hañā gosāñire kahite lāgilā
nadīyā-sambandhe—in connection with Nadīyā; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; hṛṣṭa—pleased; hailā—became; prīta hañā—thus being pleased; gosāñire—unto Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kahite lāgilā—began to speak.
Hearing that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu belonged to the Nadīyā district, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya became very pleased and addressed the Lord as follows.
'sahajei pūjya tumi, āre ta' sannyāsa
ataeva haṅ tomāra āmi nija-dāsa'
sahajei—naturally; pūjya—respectable; tumi—You; āre—over and above this; ta'-certainly; sannyāsa—the renounced order of life; ataeva—therefore; haṅ—am; tomāra—Your; āmi—I; nija-dāsa—personal servant.
"You are naturally respectable. Besides, You are a sannyāsī; thus I wish to become Your personal servant."
A sannyāsī is always to be worshiped and offered all kinds of respect by the gṛhasthas (householders). Although Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was older than Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sārvabhauma respected Him as a sannyāsī and as one who had attained the topmost platform of spiritual ecstasy. Thus the Bhaṭṭācārya certainly accepted Him as his master.
śuni' mahāprabhu kaila śrī-viṣṇu smaraṇa
bhaṭṭācārye kahe kichu vinaya vacana
śuni'-hearing this; mahāprabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kaila—did; śrī-viṣṇu smaraṇa—remembering Lord Viṣṇu; bhaṭṭācārye—to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kahe—speaks; kichu—some; vinaya vacana—very humble statements.
As soon as Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard this from the Bhaṭṭācārya, He immediately remembered Lord Viṣṇu and began to speak humbly to him as follows.
vedānta paḍāo, sannyāsīra upakartā
tumi jagat-guru—you are the master of all people; sarva-loka—of all people; hita-kartā—the well-wisher; vedānta paḍāo—you teach Vedānta philosophy; sannyāsīra—of the mendicants in the renounced order of life; upakartā—the benefactor.
"Because you are a teacher of Vedānta philosophy, you are the master of all the people in the world and their well-wisher as well. You are also the benefactor of all kinds of sannyāsīs.
Because the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs teach Vedānta philosophy to their students or disciples, they are customarily called jagad-guru. This indicates that they are the benefactors of all people. Although Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was not a sannyāsī but a householder, he used to invite all the sannyāsīs to his home and offer them prasāda. Thus he was accepted as the best well-wisher and friend of all the sannyāsīs.
āmi bālaka-sannyāsī--bhānda-manda nāhi jāni
tomāra āśraya niluṅ, guru kari' māni
āmi—I; bālaka-sannyāsī—a young sannyāsī; bhānda-manda—good and bad; nāhi—not; jāni—know; tomāra—your; āśraya—shelter; niluṅ—have taken; guru—spiritual master; kari'-taking as; māni—I accept.
"I am a young sannyāsī, and I actually have no knowledge of what is good and what is bad. Therefore I am taking shelter of you and accepting you as My spiritual master.
tomāra saṅga lāgi' mora ihāṅ āgamana
sarva-prakāre karibe āmāya pālana
tomāra—your; saṅga—association; lāgi'-for the sake of; mora—My; ihāṅ—here; āgamana—arrival; sarva-prakāre—in all respects; karibe—you will do; āmāya—unto Me; pālana—maintaining.
"I have come here only to associate with you, and I am now taking shelter of you. Will you kindly maintain Me in all respects?
āji ye haila āmāra baḍa-i vipatti
tāhā haite kaile tumi āmāra avyāhati"
āji—today; ye—that which; haila—happened; āmāra—My; baḍa-i—very great; vipatti—obstacle; tāhā—that danger; haite—from; kaile—did; tumi—you; āmāra—My; avyāhati—relief.
"The incident that happened today was a great obstacle for Me, but you have kindly relieved Me of it."
bhaṭṭācārya kahe,--ekale tumi nā yāiha darśane
āmāra saṅge yābe, kimvā āmāra loka-sane
bhaṭṭācārya kahe—the Bhaṭṭācārya said; ekale—alone; tumi—You; nā—not; yāiha—go; darśane—to see the Deity; āmāra saṅge—with me; yābe—You should go; kimvā—or; āmāra loka-sane—with my men.
The Bhaṭṭācārya replied, "Do not go alone to see the Deity at the Jagannātha temple. It is better that You go with me or my men."
prabhu kahe,--'mandira bhitare nā yāiba
garuḍera pāśe rahi' darśana kariba'
prabhu kahe—Śrī Caitanya replied; mandira—the temple; bhitare—inside; nā—never; yāiba—I shall go; garuḍera—of the column known as the Garuḍa-stambha; pāśe—by the side; rahi'-staying; darśana—seeing; kariba—I shall do.
The Lord said, "I shall never enter the temple but shall always view the Lord from the side of the Garuḍa-stambha."
gopīnāthācāryake kahe sārvabhauma
'tumi gosāñire lañā karāiha daraśana
gopīnātha-ācāryake—to Gopīnātha Ācārya; kahe—says; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; tumi—you; gosāñire—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; lañā—taking; karāiha—make Him do; daraśana—seeing of Lord Jagannātha.
āmāra mātṛ-svasā-gṛha--nirjana sthāna
tāhāṅ vāsā deha, kara sarva samādhāna'
āmāra—my; mātṛ-svasā—of the aunt; gṛha—the home; nirjana sthāna—very solitary place; tāhāṅ—there; vāsā—an apartment; deha—give; kara—make; sarva—all; samādhāna—arrangements.
"Also, the apartment belonging to my maternal aunt is in a very solitary place. Make all arrangements for Him to stay there."
gopīnātha prabhu lañā tāhāṅ vāsā dila
jala, jala-pātrādika sarva sāmādhāna kaila
gopīnātha—Gopīnātha Ācārya; prabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; lañā—taking; tāhāṅ—there; vāsā—apartment; dila—gave; jala—water; jala-pātra-ādika—waterpots and other vessels; sarva—all; sāmādhāna—arrangements; kaila—made.
Thus Gopīnātha Ācārya took Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to the residential quarters and showed Him where to find water, tubs and waterpots. Indeed, he arranged everything.
āra dina gopīnātha prabhu sthāne giyā
śayyotthāna daraśana karāila lañā
āra dina—the next day; gopīnātha—Gopīnātha Ācārya; prabhu—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sthāne—to the place; giyā—going; śayyā-utthāna—the rising from bed of Lord Jagannātha; daraśana—seeing; karāila—caused; lañā—taking Him.
The next day Gopīnātha Ācārya took Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to see the early rising of Lord Jagannātha.
mukunda-datta lañā āilā sārvabhauma sthāne
sārvabhauma kichu tāṅre balilā vacane
mukunda-datta—of the name Mukunda Datta; lañā—taking; āilā—went; sārvabhauma—of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; sthāne—to the place; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; kichu—something; tāṅre—to Mukunda Datta; balilā—said; vacane—in words.
Gopīnātha Ācārya then took Mukunda Datta with him and went to Sārvabhauma's house. When they arrived, Sārvabhauma addressed Mukunda Datta as follows.
'prakṛti-vinīta, sannyāsī dekhite sundara
āmāra bahu-prīti bāḍe iṅhāra upara
prakṛti-vinīta—by nature very humble and meek; sannyāsī—renouncer; dekhite—to see; sundara—very beautiful; āmāra—my; bahu-prīti—great affection; bāḍe—increases; iṅhāra—Him; upara—upon.
"The sannyāsī is very meek and humble by nature, and His person is very beautiful to see. Consequently my affection for Him increases.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya considered Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu a very humble and meek person because although Caitanya Mahāprabhu was a sannyāsī, He still retained His brahmacārī name. The Lord took sannyāsa from Keśava Bhāratī in the Bhāratī sampradāya, in which the brahmacārīs (the assistants of the sannyāsīs) are named "Caitanya." Even after accepting sannyāsa, Caitanya Mahāprabhu retained the name "Caitanya," meaning a humble servant of a sannyāsī. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya appreciated this very much.
kon sampradāye sannyāsa karyāchena grahaṇa
kibā nāma iṅhāra, śunite haya mana'
kon sampradāye—in which community; sannyāsa—the renounced order of life; karyāchena—has made; grahaṇa—acceptance; kibā—what; nāma—name; iṅhāra—His; śunite—to hear; haya—it is; mana—my mind.
gopīnātha kahe,--nāma śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya
guru iṅhāra keśava-bhāratī mahā-dhanya
gopīnātha kahe—Gopīnātha Ācārya replied; nāma—His name; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya—of the name Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya; guru—sannyāsa-guru; iṅhāra—His; keśava-bhāratī—of the name Keśava Bhāratī; mahā-dhanya—the greatly fortunate personality.
Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, "The Lord's name is Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, and His sannyāsa preceptor is the greatly fortunate Keśava Bhāratī."
sārvabhauma kahe,--'iṅhāra nāma sarvottama
bhāratī-sampradāya iṅho--hayena madhyama'
sārvabhauma kahe—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied; iṅhāra—His; nāma—name; sarva-uttama—first-class; bhāratī-sampradāya—the community of the Bhāratī sannyāsīs; iṅho—He; hayena—becomes; madhyama—middle-class.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, " 'Śrī Kṛṣṇa' is a very good name, but He belongs to the Bhāratī community. Therefore He is a second-class sannyāsī."
gopīnātha kahe,--iṅhāra nāhi bāhyāpekṣā
ataeva baḍa sampradāyera nāhika apekṣā
gopīnātha kahe—Gopīnātha Ācārya replied; iṅhāra—of the Lord; nāhi—there is not; bāhya-apekṣā—dependence on any external formality; ataeva—therefore; baḍa—big; sampradāyera—of a community; nāhika—there is not; apekṣā—necessity.
Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, "Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu does not rely on any external formality. There is no need for Him to accept the sannyāsa order from a superior sampradāya."
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted sannyāsa from the Bhāratī sampradāya (community), which belongs to the disciplic succession of Śaṅkarācārya. Śaṅkarācārya introduced names for his sannyāsa disciples, and these are ten in number. Out of these, the surnames Tīrtha, Āśrama and Sarasvatī are considered topmost. In the monastery at Śṛṅgerī, the surname Sarasvatī is considered first class, Bhāratī second class and Purī third class. A sannyāsī who has very nicely understood the slogan tat tvam asi and who takes his bath at the confluence of the rivers Ganges, Yamunā and Sarasvatī is called a Tīrtha. A person who is very eager to accept sannyāsa, who is detached from worldly activities, who has no desire for any kind of material facilities, and who is thus saved from repeated birth and death is known as Āśrama. When a sannyāsī lives in a beautiful, solitary place in the forest and is freed from all material desires, he is called Vana. A sannyāsī who always lives in the forest and renounces all connection with the world in order to be elevated to the heavenly planets, where he can live in the Nandana-kānana, is called Araṇya. One who prefers living in the mountains engaging in the study of the Bhagavad-gītā and whose intelligence is fixed is called Giri. One who prefers living in great mountains, even among ferocious animals, to attain the summit of philosophical speculation (understanding that the essence of this material world is useless) is called Parvata. A sannyāsī who has dipped into the ocean of the Absolute Truth and collected some valuable stones of knowledge from that ocean, who never falls from the regulative principles of a sannyāsī, is called Sāgara. One who has learned the classical art of music, who engages in its culture, and who has become expert and completely aloof from material attachment is called Sarasvatī. Sarasvatī is the goddess of music and learning, and in one hand she holds a musical instrument called a vīṇā. A sannyāsī who is always engaged in music for spiritual elevation is called Sarasvatī. One who has become completely educated and is freed from all kinds of ignorance and who is never unhappy, even in a distressed condition, is called Bhāratī. One who has become very expert in absolute knowledge, who is situated in the Absolute Truth, and who always discusses the Absolute Truth is called Purī.
All these sannyāsīs are assisted by brahmacārīs, who are described as follows: One who knows his real identity and is fixed in his particular occupational duty, who is always happy in spiritual understanding, is called Svarūpa-brahmacārī. One who completely knows the Brahman effulgence and is always engaged in the practice of yoga is called Prakāśa-brahmacārī. One who has acquired absolute knowledge and who always meditates on the Absolute Truth, knowledge, the unlimited and the Brahman effulgence, thus keeping himself in transcendental bliss, is called Ānanda-brahmacārī. One who is able to distinguish between matter and spirit, who is never disturbed by material transformations, and who meditates on the unlimited, inexhaustible, auspicious Brahman effulgence is a first-class, learned brahmacārī and is named Caitanya.
When Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was talking with Gopīnātha Ācārya about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's sannyāsa community, he appreciated the first name, "Śrī Kṛṣṇa," but did not like the surname, "Caitanya," which is the name for a brahmacārī belonging to the Bhāratī community. He therefore suggested that the Lord be elevated to the Sarasvatī community. However, Gopīnātha Ācārya pointed out that the Lord does not depend on any external formality. Gopīnātha Ācārya was firmly convinced that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Kṛṣṇa Himself and therefore independent of any external ritual or formality. If one wants to engage in pure devotional service, he does not require titular superiority as a Bhāratī or a Sarasvatī.
bhaṭṭācārya kahe,--'iṅhāra prauḍha yauvana
kemate sannyāsa-dharma ha-ibe rakṣaṇa
bhaṭṭācārya kahe—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied; iṅhāra—His; prauḍha—full; yauvana—youth; kemate—how; sannyāsa-dharma—principles of a sannyāsī; ha-ibe—there will be; rakṣaṇa—protection.
The Bhaṭṭācārya inquired, "Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is in His full-fledged youthful life. How can He keep the principles of sannyāsa?
nirantara iṅhāke vedānta śunāiba
vairāgya-advaita-mārge praveśa karāiba
nirantara—continuously; iṅhāke—to Him; vedānta—Vedānta philosophy; śunāiba—I shall recite; vairāgya—of renunciation; advaita—of monism; mārge—on the path; praveśa—entrance; karāiba—I shall cause Him to make.
"I shall continuously recite Vedānta philosophy before Caitanya Mahāprabhu so that He may remain fixed in His renunciation and thus enter upon the path of monism."
According to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, among sannyāsīs the cultivation of Vedānta philosophy helps in becoming detached from sense gratification. Thus a sannyāsī can protect the prestige of wearing a loincloth (kaupīna). One has to practice sense control as well as mind control and subdue the six forces of speech, mind, anger, tongue, belly and genitals. Then one can become expert in understanding the devotional service of the Lord and thus become a perfect sannyāsī. For that purpose one must cultivate knowledge and renunciation regularly. When one is attached to material sense gratification, he cannot protect his sannyāsa order. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya suggested that by the study of vairāgya (renunciation) Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu might be saved from the clutches of full-fledged youthful desires.
kahena yadi, punarapi yoga-paṭṭa diyā
saṁskāra kariye uttama-sampradāye āniyā'
kahena—says; yadi—if; punarapi—again; yoga-paṭṭa diyā—offering Him saffron cloth; saṁskāra—reformatory process; kariye—I perform; uttama—first-class; sampradāye—to the community; āniyā—bringing.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then suggested, "If Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would like, I could bring Him into a first-class sampradāya by offering Him saffron cloth and performing the reformatory process again."
The Bhaṭṭācārya wanted to reinstate Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu into the Sarasvatī sampradāya because he did not like the Lord's belonging to the Bhāratī sampradāya or Purī sampradāya. Actually, he did not know the position of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. As the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Caitanya Mahāprabhu did not depend on an inferior or superior sampradāya. The Supreme Personality of Godhead remains in the supreme position in all circumstances.
śuni' gopīnātha-mukunda duṅhe duḥkhā hailā
gopīnāthācārya kichu kahite lāgilā
śuni'-hearing; gopīnātha-mukunda—Gopīnātha Ācārya and Mukunda Datta; duṅhe—both; duḥkhā—unhappy; hailā—became; gopīnātha-ācārya—of the name Gopīnātha Ācārya; kichu—something; kahite—to speak; lāgilā—began.
Gopīnātha Ācārya and Mukunda Datta became very unhappy when they heard this. Gopīnātha Ācārya therefore addressed Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya as follows.
'bhaṭṭācārya' tumi iṅhāra nā jāna mahimā
bhagavattā-lakṣaṇera iṅhātei sīmā
bhaṭṭācārya—my dear Bhaṭṭācārya; tumi—you; iṅhāra—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nā—not; jāna—know; mahimā—the greatness; bhagavattā—of being the Supreme Personality of Godhead; lakṣaṇera—of symptoms; iṅhātei—in Him; sīmā—the highest degree.
"My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, you do not know the greatness of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. All the symptoms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are found in Him to the highest degree."
Since the Bhaṭṭācārya was an impersonalist, he had no idea of the Absolute Truth beyond the impersonal effulgence. However, Gopīnātha Ācārya informed him that Caitanya Mahāprabhu was the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who know the Absolute Truth know it in three phases, as explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.11):
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
bhagavān iti śabdyate
"Those who are in knowledge of the nondual Absolute Truth know very clearly what is Brahman, what is Paramātmā, and what is the Supreme Personality of Godhead." The Supreme Personality of Godhead is ṣaḍ-aiśvarya-pūrṇa, complete with six opulences. Gopīnātha Ācārya emphasized that all those six opulences were completely existing in Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
tāhāte vikhyāta iṅho parama-īśvara
ajña-sthāne kichu nahe vijñera gocara'
tāhāte—therefore; vikhyāta—celebrated; iṅho—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; parama-īśvara—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ajña-sthāne—before an ignorant person; kichu—any; nahe—not; vijñera—of the person who knows; gocara—information.
Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, "Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is celebrated as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who are ignorant in this connection find the conclusion of knowledgeable men very difficult to understand."
śiṣya-gaṇa kahe,--'īśvara kaha kon pramāṇe'
ācārya kahe,--'vijña-mata īśvara-lakṣaṇe'
śiṣya-gaṇa kahe—the disciples of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said; īśvara kaha—you say the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kon pramāṇe—by what evidence; ācārya kahe—Gopīnātha Ācārya replied; vijña-mata—statements of authorized persons; īśvara-lakṣaṇe—in understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The disciples of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya retaliated, "By what evidence do you conclude that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the Supreme Lord?" Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, "The statements of authorized ācāryas who understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are proof."
Since the appearance of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, there have been many pseudo incarnations in India who do not present authorized evidence. Five hundred years ago the disciples of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, being very learned scholars, were certainly right in asking Gopīnātha Ācārya for evidence. If a person proposes that he himself is God or that someone else is an incarnation of God or God Himself, he must cite evidence from śāstra to prove his claim. Thus the request of the Bhaṭṭācārya's disciples is quite bona fide. Unfortunately, at the present moment it has become fashionable to present someone as an incarnation of God without referring to the śāstras. Before an intelligent person accepts someone as an incarnation of God, however, he must ask about the evidence. When the disciples of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya challenged Gopīnātha Ācārya, he immediately replied correctly: "We must hear the statements of great personalities in order to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Lord Kṛṣṇa is established as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by statements from authorized persons like Brahmā, Nārada, Vyāsadeva, Asita, Arjuna and many others. Similarly, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is also established as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by evidence from the same personalities. This will be explained later.
śiṣya kahe,--'īśvara-tattva sādhi anumāne'
ācārya kahe,--'anumāne nahe īśvara-jñāne
śiṣya kahe—the disciples said; īśvara-tattva—the truth of the Absolute; sādhi—derive; anumāne—by hypothesis; ācārya kahe—Gopīnātha Ācārya replied; anumāne—by hypothesis; nahe—there is not; īśvara-jñāne—real knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
The disciples of the Bhaṭṭācārya said, "We derive knowledge of the Absolute Truth by logical hypothesis." Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, "One cannot attain real knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by such logical hypothesis and argument."
The Māyāvādī philosophers in particular make certain hypotheses about the Absolute Truth. They reason that in the material world we experience that everything is created. If we trace the history of anything, we find a creator. Therefore there must be a creator of this huge cosmic manifestation. By such reasoning they come to the conclusion that a higher power has created this cosmic manifestation. The Māyāvādīs do not accept this great power to be a person. Their brains cannot accommodate the fact that this huge cosmic manifestation can be created by a person. They doubt this because as soon as they think of a person, they think of a person within the material world with limited potency. Sometimes the Māyāvādī philosophers will accept Lord Kṛṣṇa or Lord Rāma as Bhagavān, but they think of the Lord as a person having a material body. The Māyāvādīs do not understand that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, has a spiritual body. They think of Kṛṣṇa as a great personality, a human being, within whom there is the supreme impersonal power, Brahman. Therefore they finally conclude that the impersonal Brahman is the Supreme, not the personality Kṛṣṇa. This is the basis of Māyāvādī philosophy. However, from the śāstras we can understand that the Brahman effulgence is the bodily rays of Kṛṣṇa:
yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-
tad brahma niṣkalam anantam aśeṣa-bhūtaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
"I serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, the primeval Lord, the effulgence of whose transcendental body is known as the brahmajyoti. That brahmajyoti, which is unlimited, unfathomed and all-pervasive, is the cause of the creation of unlimited numbers of planets with varieties of climates and specific conditions of life." (Brahma-saṁhitā 5.40)
Māyāvādī philosophers study the Vedic literature, but they do not understand that the Absolute Truth in the last stage of realization is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. They do accept the fact that there is a creator of this cosmic manifestation, but that is anumāna (hypothesis). The Māyāvādī philosopher's logic is something like seeing smoke on a hill. When there is a forest fire on a high hill, smoke is first of all visible. The smoke is created when there is fire. Just as one can conclude that there is fire from seeing smoke, from seeing this cosmic manifestation the Māyāvādī philosophers conclude that there must be a creator.
The disciples of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya wanted evidence to show that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was actually the creator of the cosmic manifestation. Only then would they accept Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the original cause of creation. Gopīnātha Ācārya replied that one could not understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead by guesswork. As Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.25):
nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya
mūḍho 'yaṁ nābhijānāti
loko mām ajam avyayam
"I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My eternal creative potency [yogamāyā]; and so the deluded world knows Me not, who am unborn and infallible." (Bg. 7.25) The Supreme Personality of Godhead reserves the right of not being exposed to nondevotees. He can only be understood by bona fide devotees. Lord Kṛṣṇa says elsewhere in the Bhagavad-gītā (18.55), bhaktyā mām abhijānāti: "One can understand Me only by the devotional process." In the Fourth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā (4.3) Lord Kṛṣṇa says, bhakto 'si me sakhā ceti rahasyaṁ hy etad uttamam. Here Lord Kṛṣṇa informs Arjuna that He is disclosing the secrets of Bhagavad-gītā to him because he is His devotee. Arjuna was not a sannyāsī, nor was he a Vedāntist or brāhmaṇa. He was, however, a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. The conclusion is that we have to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead from the devotees. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself says, guru-kṛṣṇa-prasāde pāya bhakti-latā-bīja. (Cc. Madhya 19.151)
More evidence can be cited to show that without the mercy of a devotee or the mercy of Kṛṣṇa, one cannot understand what is Kṛṣṇa and what is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is confirmed in the next verse.
anumāna pramāṇa nahe īśvara-tattva-jñāne
kṛpā vinā īśvarere keha nāhi jāne
anumāna pramāṇa—evidence by hypothesis; nahe—there is not; īśvara-tattva-jñāne—in understanding the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kṛpā vinā—without His mercy; īśvarere—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; keha—anyone; nāhi—not; jāne—knows.
Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, "One can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead only by His mercy, not by guesswork or hypothesis."
One cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead simply by exhibiting some mundane magic. Foolish people are enchanted by magical demonstrations, and when they see a few wonderful things done by mystical power, they accept a magician as the Personality of Godhead or an incarnation. This is not the way of realization. Nor should one guess or speculate about an incarnation of God or the Personality of Godhead. One has to learn from the bona fide person or from the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, as Arjuna did, by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa Himself also gives many hints about His potencies as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead only through the evidence presented by the śāstras and the mahājanas. In any case, one must have the mercy of the Lord in order to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead by devotional service.
īśvarera kṛpā-leśa haya ta' yāhāre
sei ta' īśvara-tattva jānibāre pāre
īśvarera—of the Personality of Godhead; kṛpā-leśa—a little mercy; haya—there is; ta'-certainly; yāhāre—upon whom; sei ta'-he certainly; īśvara-tattva—the Absolute Truth; jānibāre—to know; pāre—is able.
The Ācārya continued, "If one receives but a tiny bit of the Lord's favor by dint of devotional service, he can understand the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
athāpi te deva padāmbuja-dvaya-
prasāda-leśānugṛhīta eva hi
jānāti tattvaṁ bhagavan-mahimno
na cānya eko 'pi ciraṁ vicinvan
atha—therefore; api—indeed; te—Your; deva—my Lord; pada-ambuja-dvaya—of the two lotus feet; prasāda—of the mercy; leśa—by only a trace; anugṛhītaḥ—favored; eva—certainly; hi—indeed; jānāti—one knows; tattvam—the truth; bhagavat—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahimnaḥ—of the greatness; na—never; ca—and; anyaḥ—another; ekaḥ—one; api—although; ciram—for a long period; vicinvan—speculating.
" 'My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate in order to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for many years.' "
The above verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.14.29). The Brahma-saṁhitā states, vedeṣu durlabham adurlabham ātma-bhaktau (Brahma-saṁhitā 5.33). Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is the ultimate goal of knowledge (vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ), one who is not a pure devotee and who is not engaged in the service of the Lord cannot understand Him. Lord Brahmā therefore confirms this. Vedeṣu durlabham: "It is very difficult to understand the Supreme Lord simply through one's studies." Adurlabham ātma-bhaktau: "However, it is very easy for the devotees to capture the Lord." The Lord is known as ajita (unconquerable). No one can conquer the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the Lord consents to be conquered by His devotees. That is His nature. As stated in the Padma Purāṇa:
na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ
sevonmukhe hi jihvādau
svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ
Being pleased by devotional activities, the Lord reveals Himself to His devotees. That is the way to understand Him.
The verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam quoted by Gopīnātha Ācārya was originally spoken by Lord Brahmā when he was defeated by Lord Kṛṣṇa. Lord Brahmā had stolen all the calves and cowherd boys in order to test Kṛṣṇa's power. Lord Brahmā admitted that his own extraordinary powers within the universe were not in the least comparable to the unlimited powers of Lord Kṛṣṇa. If Lord Brahmā can make a mistake in understanding Kṛṣṇa, what to speak of ordinary persons, who either misunderstand Kṛṣṇa or falsely present a so-called incarnation of Kṛṣṇa for their own sense gratification.
yadyapi jagad-guru tumi--śāstra-jñānavān
pṛthivīte nāhi paṇḍita tomāra samāna
īśvarera kṛpā-leśa nāhika tomāte
ataeva īśvara-tattva nā pāra jānite
yadyapi—although; jagat-guru—a teacher of many disciples; tumi—you; śāstra-jñānavān—well versed in Vedic knowledge; pṛthivīte—on this earth; nāhi—there is not; paṇḍita—a learned scholar; tomāra—your; samāna—equal; īśvarera—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kṛpā—of mercy; leśa—a bit; nāhika—there is not; tomāte—on you; ataeva—therefore; īśvara-tattva—the Absolute Truth (the Supreme personality of Godhead); nā pāra—are not able; jānite—to know.
Gopīnātha Ācārya then addressed Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya: "You are a great scholar and a teacher of may disciples. Indeed, there is no other scholar like you on earth. Nonetheless, because you are bereft of even a pinch of the Lord's mercy, you cannot understand Him, even though He is present in your home.
tomāra nāhika doṣa, śāstre ei kahe
pāṇḍityādye īśvara-tattva-jñāna kabhu nahe'
tomāra—your; nāhika—there is not; doṣa—fault; śāstre—the scriptures; ei—this; kahe—mention; pāṇḍitya-ādye—simply by scholarship, etc.; īśvara-tattva-jñāna—knowledge of the principles of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kabhu—ever; nahe—there is not.
"It is not your fault; it is the verdict of the scriptures. You cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead simply by scholarship."
This is a very important verse. Even big scholars cannot understand Kṛṣṇa, yet they dare comment on the Bhagavad-gītā. Reading the Bhagavad-gītā means understanding Kṛṣṇa, yet we actually see many scholars making blunders in trying to understand Kṛṣṇa. Gopīnātha Ācārya's statement is confirmed in many places in Vedic literature. In the Kaṭha Upaniṣad (1.2.23) it is stated:
nāyam ātmā pravacanena labhyo
na medhayā na bahunā śrutena
yam evaiṣa vṛṇute tena labhyas
tasyaiṣa ātmā vivṛṇute tanūṁ svām
naiṣā tarkeṇa matir āpaneyā
proktānyenaiva sujñānāya preṣṭha
yāṁ tvam āpaḥ satya-dhṛtir batāsi
tvādṛṅ no bhūyān naciketaḥ praṣṭā
The fact is that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul, cannot be attained simply by explanations, logic and erudite scholarship. One cannot understand Him simply by one's brain substance. Even by studying all Vedic literature, one cannot understand the Supreme Lord. However, if one is slightly favored by the mercy of the Lord, if the Lord is pleased, one can understand Him. But who are the candidates eligible to receive the mercy of the Lord? Only the devotees. They alone can understand what is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord reveals Himself to the sincere devotee when He is pleased with his service: svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ. One should not try to understand the Lord simply from the statements of the Vedas, nor should one uselessly attempt to decry these statements through reasoning and logic.
sārvabhauma kahe,--ācārya, kaha sāvadhāne
tomāte īśvara-kṛpā ithe ki pramāṇe
sārvabhauma kahe—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya says; ācārya—my dear Gopīnātha Ācārya; kaha—kindly speak; sāvadhāne—very carefully; tomāte—unto you; īśvara-kṛpā—mercy of the Lord; ithe—in this matter; ki pramāṇe—by what evidence.
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, "My dear Gopīnātha Ācārya, please speak with great care. What is the proof that you have received the mercy of the Lord?"
ācārya kahe,--"vastu-viṣaye haya vastu-jñāna
vastu-tattva-jñāna haya kṛpāte pramāṇa
ācārya kahe—Gopīnātha Ācārya replied; vastu-viṣaye—in the matter of the summum bonum; haya—there is; vastu-jñāna—knowledge of the Supreme; vastu-tattva—of the Absolute Truth; jñāna—knowledge; haya—is; kṛpāte—of the mercy; pramāṇa—the evidence.
Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, "Knowledge of the summum bonum, the Absolute Truth, is evidence of the mercy of the Supreme Lord."
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya informed his brother-in-law, Gopīnātha Ācārya, "The Supreme Personality of Godhead may not have shown mercy to me, but what is the proof of His having shown it to you? Kindly let us know about this." in reply to this, Gopīnātha Ācārya said that the summum bonum, the Absolute Truth, and His different potencies are identical. Therefore one can understand the substance of the Absolute Truth by the manifestation of His different potencies. The summum bonum includes all potencies in one unit. The Absolute Truth combined with different characteristics is the original substance (vastu): parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate.
Thus the Vedas state that the Absolute Truth has different potencies. When one understands the characteristics of the potencies of the Absolute Truth, one is aware of the Absolute Truth. On the material platform as well, one can understand the substance by the manifestation of its symptoms. For example, when there is heat, it is to be understood that there is fire. The heat of the fire is perceived directly. The fire may not be visible, but one can search out the fire by feeling heat. Similarly, if one can perceive the characteristics of the Absolute Truth, we can know that he has understood the substance of the Absolute Truth by the mercy of the Lord.
In the Bhagavad-gītā (7.25) it is said, nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya The Supreme Personality of Godhead reserves the right of not being exposed to everyone. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ: "The Lord reveals Himself to a devotee when He is completely satisfied by the devotee's service." Thus one cannot understand the Supreme Lord without His mercy. The Absolute Truth cannot be understood by speculation, and this is the conclusion of the Bhagavad-gītā.
iṅhāra śarīre saba īśvara-lakṣaṇa
mahā-premāveśa tumi pāñācha darśana
iṅhara—His; śarīre—in the body; saba—all; īśvara-lakṣaṇa—characteristics of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahā-prema-āveśa—absorption in transcendental ecstasy; tumi—you; pāñācha—have obtained; darśana—seeing.
Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, "You have seen the symptoms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu during His absorption in an ecstatic mood.
tabu ta' īśvara-jñāna nā haya tomāra
īśvarera māyā ei--bali vyavahāra
tabu ta'-still, however; īśvara-jñāna—knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nā—not; haya—there is; tomāra—your; īśvarera—of the Lord; māyā—the illusion; ei—this; bali—saying; vyavahāra—the general term.
"Despite directly perceiving the symptoms of the Supreme Lord in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, you cannot understand Him. This is commonly called illusion.
These uncommon symptoms of ecstatic love indicated the Supreme Person, but despite having seen all these symptoms, the Bhaṭṭācārya could not understand the Lord's transcendental nature. He was considering the Lord's pastimes to be mundane. This was certainly due to illusion.
dekhile nā dekhe tāre bahirmukha jana"
śuni' hāsi' sārvabhauma balila vacana
dekhile—even after seeing; nā—not; dekhe—sees; tāre—the Supreme Person; bahiḥ-mukha jana—a person influenced by the external energy; śuni'-hearing this; hāsi'-smiling; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; balila—said; vacana—the words.
"A person influenced by the external energy is called bahirmukha jana, a mundane person, because despite his perception, he cannot understand the real substance." Hearing Gopīnātha Ācārya say this, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya smiled and began to speak as follows.
yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ
bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ
"Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life and whose sinful actions are completely eradicated are freed from the dualities of delusion, and they engage themselves in My service with determination."
When one is actually engaged in pure devotional service, it is understood that he has already attained freedom from all reactions to sinful activities. In other words, it is to be understood that devotees are already freed from sin. A sinful person, a miscreant (duṣkṛtī, cannot engage in devotional service. Nor can one engage in devotional service simply on the basis of scholarly speculation. One has to wait for the mercy of the Lord in order to render pure devotional service.
iṣṭa-goṣṭhī vicāra kari, nā kariha roṣa
śāstra-dṛṣṭye kahi, kichu nā la-iha doṣa
iṣṭa-goṣṭhī—discussion among friends; vicāra—consideration; kari—we do; nā—not; kariha—make; roṣa—anger; śāstra-dṛṣṭye—according to the conclusion of scriptures; kahi—we speak; kichu—any; nā—not; la-iha—take; doṣa—fault.
The Bhaṭṭācārya said, "We are just having a discussion among friends and considering the points described in the scriptures. Do not become angry. I am simply speaking on the strength of the śāstras. Please don't take any offense.
mahā-bhāgavata haya caitanya-gosāñi
ei kali-kāle viṣṇura avatāra nāi
mahā-bhāgavata—a great devotee; haya—is; caitanya-gosāñi—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ei—this; kali-kāle—in the Age of Kali; viṣṇura—of Lord Viṣṇu; avatāra—incarnation; nāi—there is not.
"Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is certainly a great, uncommon devotee, but we cannot accept Him as an incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu because, according to śāstra, there is no incarnation in this Age of Kali.
ataeva 'tri-yuga' kari' kahi viṣṇu-nāma
kali-yuge avatāra nāhī,--śāstra-jñāna
ataeva—therefore; tri-yuga—the Lord, who appears in three yugas only; kari'-making; kahi—we say; viṣṇu-nāma—the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu; kali-yuge—in the Age of Kali; avatāra—incarnation; nāhi—there is not; śāstra-jñāna—the verdict of the scriptures.
"Another name for Lord Viṣṇu is Triyuga because there is no incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu in Kali-yuga. Indeed, this is the verdict of revealed scriptures."
lokān vibhāvayasi haṁsi jagat-pratīpān
dharmaṁ mahā-puruṣa pāsi yugānuvṛttaṁ
channaḥ kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo 'tha sa tvam
"My Lord, You kill all the enemies of the world in Your multifarious incarnations in the families of men, animals, demigods, ṛṣis, aquatics and so on. Thus You illuminate the worlds with transcendental knowledge. In the Age of Kali, O Mahāpuruṣa, You sometimes appear in a covered incarnation. Therefore You are known as Triyuga [one who appears in only three yugas].")
Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī has also verified that Lord Viṣṇu appears in the Age of Kali but does not act as He does in other ages. Lord Viṣṇu incarnates for two purposes: paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām. That is, He comes to engage in pastimes with His devotees and to annihilate the demons. These purposes are visible in the Satya, Tretā and Dvāpara yugas, but in Kali-yuga the Lord appears disguised. He does not directly kill demons and give protection to the faithful. Because the Lord is not directly perceived in Kali-yuga but is directly known in the other three yugas, His name is Triyuga.
śuniyā ācārya kahe duḥkhī hañā mane
śāstra-jña kariñā tumi kara abhimāne
śuniyā—hearing this; ācārya—Gopīnātha Ācārya; kahe—says; duḥkhī—unhappy; hañā—becoming; mane—in the mind; śāstra-jña—well versed in Vedic scriptures; kariñā—taking as; tumi—you; kara—do; abhimāne—pride.
Upon hearing this, Gopīnātha Ācārya became very unhappy. He said to the Bhaṭṭācārya, "You consider yourself the knower of all Vedic scriptures.
bhāgavata-bhārata dui śāstrera pradhāna
sei dui-grantha-vākye nāhi avadhāna
bhāgavata—Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; bhārata—Mahābhārata; dui—two; śāstrera—of all Vedic scriptures; pradhāna—the most prominent; sei—those; dui-grantha—of the two scriptures; vākye—in the statements; nāhi—there is not; avadhāna—attention.
"Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and the Mahābhārata are the two most important Vedic scriptures, but you have paid no attention to their statements.
sei dui kahe kalite sākṣāt-avatāra
tumi kaha,--kalite nāhi viṣṇura pracāra
sei—those; dui—two; kahe—say; kalite—in this Age of Kali; sākṣāt—direct; avatāra—incarnation; tumi—you; kaha—say; kalite—in this Age of Kali; nāhi—there is not; viṣṇura—of Lord Viṣṇu; pracāra—manifestation.
"In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and Mahābhārata it is stated that the Lord appears directly, but you say that in this age there is no manifestation or incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu.
kali-yuge līlāvatāra nā kare bhagavān
ataeva 'tri-yuga' kari' kahi tāra nāma
kali-yuge—in this Age of Kali; līlā-avatāra—a pastime incarnation; nā—not; kare—does; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ataeva—therefore; tri-yuga—of the name Triyuga (manifested in three yugas); kari'-accepting; kahi—I say; tāra nāma—His holy name.
"In this Age of Kali there is no līlā-avatāra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore He is known as Triyuga. That is one of His holy names."
A līlā-avatāra is an incarnation of the Lord who performs a variety of activities without making any special endeavor. He always has one pastime after another, all full of transcendental pleasure, and these pastimes are fully controlled by the Supreme Person. The Supreme Person is totally independent of all others in these pastimes. While teaching Sanātana Gosvāmī (Cc. Madhya 20.296-298), Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu pointed out that one cannot count the number of līlā-avatāras:
līlāvatāra kṛṣṇera nā yāya gaṇana
pradhāna kariyā kahi dig-daraśana
matsya, kūrma, raghunātha, nṛsiṁha, vāmana
varāhādi--lekhā yāṅra nā yāya gaṇana
Thus the Lord's incarnations were enumerated, including Matsya, the fish incarnation; Kūrma, the tortoise; Lord Rāmacandra; Nṛsiṁhadeva; Vāmanadeva; and Varāha, the boar incarnation. Thus there are innumerable līlā-avatāras, and all of these exhibit wonderful pastimes. Lord Varāha, the boar incarnation, lifted the entire planet earth from the depths of the Garbhodaka Ocean. The tortoise incarnation, Lord Kūrma, became a pivot for the emulsification of the whole sea, and Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva appeared as half-man, half-lion. These are some of the wonderful and uncommon features of līlā-avatāras.
In his book Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has enumerated the following twenty-five līlā-avatāras: Catuḥ-sana, Nārada, Varāha, Matsya, Yajña, Nara-Nārāyaṇa, Kapila, Dattātreya, Hayaśīrṣa (Hayagrīva), Haṁsa, Pṛśnigarbha, Ṛṣabha, Pṛthu, Nṛsiṁha, Kūrma, Dhanvantari, Mohinī, Vāmana, Paraśurāma, Rāghavendra, Vyāsa, Balarāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha and Kalki.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is not mentioned as a līlā-avatāra because He is an incarnation in disguise (channa-avatāra). In this Age of Kali there are no līlā-avatāras, but there is an incarnation of the Lord manifested in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This has been explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
pratiyuge karena kṛṣṇa yuga-avatāra
tarka-niṣṭha hṛdaya tomāra nāhika vicāra
prati-yuge—in every age or millennium; karena—makes; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; yuga-avatāra—incarnation for the age; tarka-niṣṭha—hardened by argument; hṛdaya—heart; tomāra—your; nāhika—there is not; vicāra—consideration.
Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, "There is certainly an incarnation in every age, and such an incarnation is called the yuga-avatāra. But your heart has become so hardened by logic and argument that you cannot consider all these facts.
āsan varṇās trayo hy asya
gṛhṇato 'nu-yugaṁ tanūḥ
śuklo raktas tathā pīta
idānīṁ kṛṣṇatāṁ gataḥ
āsan—there were; varṇāḥ—colors; trayaḥ—three; hi—indeed; asya—of Him; gṛhṇataḥ—accepting; anu-yugam—according to the age; tanūḥ—bodies; śuklaḥ—white; raktaḥ—red; tathā—also; pītaḥ—yellow; idānīm—at the present moment; kṛṣṇatām—blackish; gataḥ—has accepted.
" 'In the past, your son has had bodies of three different colors, according to the age. These colors were white, red and yellow. In this age [Dvāpara-yuga] He has accepted a blackish body.'
This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.8.13) was spoken by Garga Muni when he was performing the rituals at Lord Kṛṣṇa's name-giving ceremony. He states that the incarnations of the Lord in other ages had been white, red and yellow. This yellow color refers to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, whose bodily complexion was yellowish. This confirms that in the past Kali-yugas, the Lord also had incarnated in a body that was yellow in hue. It is understood that the Lord incarnates in different colors for the different yugas (Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali). Accepting the color yellow (pīta), as well as other characteristics, the Lord incarnated as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This is the verdict of all Vedic authorities.
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