Chapter 2
The Ecstatic Manifestations of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu
In the Second Chapter of the Madhya-līlā, the author describes the pastimes the Lord performed during the last twelve years of His life. Thus he has also described some of the pastimes of the Antya-līlā. Why he has done so is very difficult for an ordinary person to understand. The author expects that reading the pastimes of the Lord will gradually help a person awaken his dormant love of Kṛṣṇa. Actually this Caitanya-caritāmṛta was compiled by the author during very old age. Fearing he might not be able to finish the book, he has included a synopsis of the antya-līlā here in the Second Chapter. Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī has confirmed that the opinion of Svarūpa Dāmodara is authoritative in the matter of devotional service. Over and above this are the notes of Svarūpa Dāmodara, memorized by Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, who also helped in the compilation of Caitanya-caritāmṛta. After the disappearance of Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī went to Vṛndāvana. At that time the author, Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī, met Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, by whose mercy he also could memorize all the notes. In this way the author was able to complete this transcendental literature, Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.
vicchede 'smin prabhor antya-
gaurasya kṛṣṇa-viccheda-
pralāpādy anuvarṇyate
vicchede—in the chapter; asmin—this; prabhoḥ—of the Lord; antya-līlā—of the last division of His pastimes; sūtra—of a synopsis; anuvarṇane—in the matter of description; gaurasya—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇa-viccheda—of separation from Kṛṣṇa; pralāpa—craziness; ādi—other subject matters; anuvarṇyate—is being described.
While relating in synopsis form the last division of the pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in this chapter I shall describe the Lord's transcendental ecstasy, which appears like madness due to His separation from Kṛṣṇa.
In this Second Chapter, the activities of Lord Caitanya that took place after the Lord accepted sannyāsa are generally described. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is specifically mentioned here as being gaura, or of fair complexion. Kṛṣṇa is generally known to be blackish, but when He is absorbed in the thought of the gopīs, who are all of fair complexion, Kṛṣṇa Himself also becomes fair. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in particular felt separation from Kṛṣṇa very deeply, exactly like a lover who is dejected in separation from the beloved. Such feelings, which were expressed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu for nearly twelve years at the end of His pastimes, are described in brief in this Second Chapter of the Madhya-līlā.
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaitacandra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya—all glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya nityānanda—all glories to Lord Nityānanda; jaya advaitacandra—all glories to Advaita Prabhu; jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—all glories to the devotees of the Lord.
All glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaitacandra! All glories to all the devotees of the Lord!
śeṣa ye rahila prabhura dvādaśa vatsara
kṛṣṇera viyoga-sphūrti haya nirantara
śeṣa—at the end; ye—those; rahila—remained; prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dvādaśa vatsara—twelve years; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; viyoga—of separation; sphūrti—manifestation; haya—is; nirantara—always.
During His last twelve years, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu always manifested all the symptoms of ecstasy in separation from Kṛṣṇa.
śrī-rādhikāra ceṣṭā yena uddhava-darśane
ei-mata daśā prabhura haya rātri-dine
śrī-rādhikāra—of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; ceṣṭā—the activities; yena—just like; uddhava-darśane—in seeing Uddhava at Vṛndāvana; ei-mata—in this way; daśā—the condition; prabhura—of the Lord; haya—is; rātri-dine—day and night.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's state of mind, day and night, was practically identical to Rādhārāṇī's state of mind when Uddhava came to Vṛndāvana to see the gopīs.
nirantara haya prabhura viraha-unmāda
bhrama-maya ceṣṭā sadā, pralāpa-maya vāda
nirantara—constantly; haya—is; prabhura—of the Lord; viraha—of separation; unmāda—the madness; bhrama-maya—forgetful; ceṣṭā—activities; sadā—always; pralāpa-maya—full of delirium; vāda—talking.
The Lord constantly exhibited a state of mind reflecting the madness of separation. All His activities were based on forgetfulness, and His talks were always based on madness.
roma-kūpe raktodgama, danta saba hāle
kṣaṇe aṅga kṣīṇa haya, kṣaṇe aṅga phule
roma-kūpe—the pores of the body; rakta-udgama—exuding blood; danta—teeth; saba—all; hāle—loosen; kṣaṇe—in one moment; aṅga—the whole body; kṣīṇa—slender; haya—becomes; kṣaṇe—in another moment; aṅga—the body; phule—fattens.
Blood flowed from all the pores of His body, and all His teeth were loosened. At one moment His whole body became slender, and at another moment His whole body became fat.
gambhīrā-bhitare rātre nāhi nidrā-lava
bhitte mukha-śira ghaṣe, kṣata haya saba
gambhīrā-bhitare—inside the inner room; rātre—at night; nāhi—there is not; nidrā-lava—a fraction of sleep; bhitte—on the wall; mukha—mouth; śira—head; ghaṣe—grind; kṣata—injuries; haya—there are; saba—all.
The small room beyond the corridor is called the Gambhīrā. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to stay in that room, but He did not sleep for a moment. All night He used to grind His mouth and head on the wall, and His face sustained injuries all over.
tina dvāre kapāṭa, prabhu yāyena bāhire
kabhu siṁha-dvāre paḍe, kabhu sindhu-nīre
tina dvāre—the three doors; kapāṭa—completely closed; prabhu—the Lord; yāyena—goes; bāhire—outside; kabhu—sometimes; siṁha-dvāre—at the gate of the temple of Jagannātha, known as Siṁha-dvāra; paḍe—falls flat; kabhu—sometimes; sindhu-nīre—in the water of the sea.
Although the three doors of the house were always closed, the Lord would nonetheless go out and sometimes would be found at the Jagannātha Temple, before the gate known as Siṁha-dvāra. And sometimes the Lord would fall flat into the sea.
caṭaka parvata dekhi' 'govardhana' bhrame
dhāñā cale ārta-nāda kariyā krandane
caṭaka parvata—the sand hills; dekhi'-seeing; govardhanaGovardhana Hill in Vṛndāvana; bhrame—mistakes; dhāñā—running; cale—goes; ārta-nāda—wail; kariyā—making; krandane—cries.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would also run very fast across the sand hills, mistaking them for Govardhana. As He ran, He would wail and cry loudly.
Because of the winds of the sea, sometimes the sand would form dunes. Such sand dunes are called caṭaka parvata. Instead of seeing these sand dunes simply as hills of sand, the Lord would take them to be Govardhana Hill. Sometimes He would run toward these dunes at high speed, crying very loudly, expressing the state of mind exhibited by Rādhārāṇī. Thus Caitanya Mahāprabhu was absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa and His pastimes. His state of mind brought Him the atmosphere of Vṛndāvana and Govardhana Hill, and thus He enjoyed the transcendental bliss of separation and meeting.
upavanodyāna dekhi' vṛndāvana-jñāna
tāhāṅ yāi' nāce, gāya, kṣaṇe mūrcchā yā'na
upavana-udyāna—small parks; dekhi'-seeing; vṛndāvana-jñāna—took them to be the forests of Vṛndāvana; tāhāṅ—there; yāi'-going; nāce—dances; gāya—sings; kṣaṇe—in a moment; mūrcchā—unconsciousness; yā'na—goes.
Sometimes Caitanya Mahāprabhu mistook the small parks of the city for Vṛndāvana. Sometimes He would go there, dance and chant and sometimes fall unconscious in spiritual ecstasy.
kāhāṅ nāhi śuni yei bhāvera vikāra
sei bhāva haya prabhura śarīre pracāra
kāhāṅ—anywhere; nāhi—not; śuni—we hear; yei—that; bhāvera—of ecstasy; vikāra—transformation; sei—that; bhāva—ecstasy; haya—is; prabhura—of the Lord; śarīre—in the body; pracāra—manifest.
The extraordinary transformations of the body due to transcendental feelings would never have been possible for anyone but the Lord, in whose body all transformations were manifest.
The ecstatic transformations of the body as described in such exalted scriptures as the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu are practically not seen in this material world. However, these symptoms were perfectly present in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. These symptoms are indicative of mahābhāva, or the highest ecstasy. Sometimes sahajiyās artificially imitate these symptoms, but experienced devotees reject them immediately. The author admits herein that these symptoms are not to be found anywhere but in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
hasta-padera sandhi saba vitasti-pramāṇe
sandhi chāḍi' bhinna haye, carma rahe sthāne
hasta-padera—of the hands and legs; sandhi—joints; saba—all; vitasti—about eight inches; pramāṇe—in length; sandhi—joints; chāḍi'-dislocated; bhinna—separated; haye—become; carma—skin; rahe—remains; sthāne—in the place.
The joints of His hands and legs would sometimes become separated by eight inches, and they remained connected only by the skin.
hasta, pada, śira saba śarīra-bhitare
praviṣṭa haya--kūrma-rūpa dekhiye prabhure
hasta—the hands; pada—the legs; śira—head; saba—all; śarīra—the body; bhitare—within; praviṣṭa—entered; haya—is; kūrma-rūpa—like a tortoise; dekhiye—one sees; prabhure—the Lord.
Sometimes Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's hands, legs and head would all enter within His body, just like the withdrawn limbs of a tortoise.
ei mata adbhuta-bhāva śarīre prakāśa
manete śūnyatā, vākye hā-hā-hutāśa
ei mata—in this way; adbhuta—wonderful; bhāva—ecstasy; śarīre—in the body; prakāśa—manifestation; manete—in the mind; śūnyatā—vacancy; vākye—in speaking; -hā—despondency; hutāśa—disappointment.
In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to manifest wonderful ecstatic symptoms. His mind appeared vacant, and there were only hopelessness and disappointment in His words.
kāhāṅ mora prāṇa-nātha muralī-vadana
kāhāṅ karoṅ kāhāṅ pāṅ vrajendra-nandana
kāhāṅ—where; mora—My; prāṇa-nātha—Lord of the life; muralī-vadana—playing the flute; kāhāṅ—what; karoṅ—shall I do; kāhāṅ—where; pāṅ—I shall get; vrajendra-nandana—the son of Mahārāja Nanda.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to express His mind in this way, "Where is the Lord of My life, who is playing His flute? What shall I do now? Where should I go to find the son of Mahārāja Nanda?
kāhāre kahiba, kebā jāne mora duḥkha
vrajendra-nandana vinu phāṭe mora buka
kāhāre—unto whom; kahiba—I shall speak; kebā—who; jāne—knows; mora—My; duḥkha—disappointment; vrajendra-nandanaKṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja; vinu—without; phāṭe—breaks; mora—My; buka—heart.
"To whom should I speak? Who can understand My disappointment? Without the son of Nanda Mahārāja, My heart is broken."
ei-mata vilāpa kare vihvala antara
rāyera nāṭaka-śloka paḍe nirantara
ei-mata—in this way; vilāpa—lamentation; kare—does; vihvala—bewildered; antara—within; rāyera—of Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya; nāṭaka—drama; śloka—verses; paḍe—recites; nirantara—constantly.
In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu always expressed bewilderment and lamented in separation from Kṛṣṇa. At such times He used to recite the ślokas from Rāmānanda Rāya's drama known as Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka.
prema-ccheda-rujo 'vagacchati harir nāyaṁ na ca prema vā
sthānāsthānam avaiti nāpi madano jānāti no durbalāḥ
anyo veda na cānya-duḥkham akhilaṁ no jīvanaṁ vāśravaṁ
dvi-trāṇy eva dināni yauvanam idaṁ hā-hā vidhe kā gatiḥ
prema-cheda-rujaḥ—the sufferings of a broken loving relationship; avagacchati—knows; hariḥ—the Supreme Lord; na—not; ayam—this; na ca—nor; prema—love; —nor; sthāna—the proper place; asthānam—an unsuitable place; avaiti—knows; na—not; api—also; madanaḥ—Cupid; jānāti—knows; naḥ—us; durbalāḥ—very weak; anyaḥ—another; veda—knows; na—not; ca—also; anya-duḥkham—the difficulties of others; akhilam—all; naḥ—our; jīvanam—life; —or; āśravam—simply full of miseries; dvi—two; trāṇi—three; eva—certainly; dināni—days; yauvanam—youth; idam—this; -hā—alas; vidhe—O creator; —what; gatiḥ—our destination.
"[Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī used to lament:] 'Our Kṛṣṇa does not realize what we have suffered from injuries inflicted in the course of loving affairs. We are actually misused by love because love does not know where to strike and where not to strike. Even Cupid does not know of our very weakened condition. What should I tell anyone? No one can understand another's difficulties. Our life is actually not under our control, for youth will remain for two or three days and soon be finished. In this condition, O creator, what will be our destination?'
This verse is from the Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka (3.9), by Rāmānanda Rāya.
upajila premāṅkura, bhāṅgila ye duḥkha-pūra,
kṛṣṇa tāhā nāhi kare pāna
bāhire nāgara-rāja, bhitare śaṭhera kāja,
para-nārī vadhe sāvadhāna
upajila—grew up; prema-aṅkura—fructification of love of God; bhāṅgila—was broken; ye—that; duḥkha-pūra—full of miseries; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; tāhā—that; nāhi—not; kare—does; pāna—drinking; bāhire—externally; nāgara-rāja—the most attractive person; bhitare—within; śaṭhera—of a cheater; kāja—activities; para-nārī—others' wives; vadhe—kills; sāvadhāna—very careful.
[Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī spoke thus, in distress due to separation from Kṛṣṇa:] "Oh, what shall I say of My distress? After I met Kṛṣṇa My loving propensities sprouted, but upon separating from Him I sustained a great shock, which is now continuing like the sufferings of a disease. The only physician for this disease is Kṛṣṇa Himself, but He is not taking care of this sprouting plant of devotional service. What can I say about the behavior of Kṛṣṇa? Outwardly He is a very attractive young lover, but at heart He is a great cheat, very expert in killing others' wives."
sakhī he, nā bujhiye vidhira vidhāna
sukha lāgi' kailuṅ prīta, haila duḥkha viparīta,
ebe yāya, nā rahe parāṇa
sakhī he—(My dear) friend; bujhiye—I do not understand; vidhira—of the Creator; vidhāna—the regulation; sukha lāgi'-for happiness; kailuṅ—I did; prīta—love; haila—it became; duḥkha—unhappiness; viparīta—the opposite; ebe—now; yāya—going; —does not; rahe—remain; parāṇa—life.
[Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī continued lamenting about the consequences of loving Kṛṣṇa:] "My dear friend, I do not understand the regulative principles given by the Creator. I loved Kṛṣṇa for happiness, but the result was just the opposite. I am now in an ocean of distress. It must be that now I am going to die, for My vital force no longer remains. This is My state of mind.
kuṭila premā ageyāna, nāhi jāne sthānāsthāna,
bhāla-manda nāre vicārite
krūra śaṭhera guṇa-ḍore, hāte-gale bāndhi' more,
rākhiyāche, nāri' ukāśite
kuṭila—crooked; premā—love of Kṛṣṇa; ageyāna—ignorant; nāhi—does not; jāne—know; sthāna-asthāna—a suitable place or unsuitable place; bhāla-manda—what is good or what is bad; nāre—not able; vicārite—to consider; krūra—very cruel; śaṭhera—of the cheater; guṇa-ḍore—by the ropes of the good qualities; hāte—on the hands; gale—on the neck; bāndhi'-binding; more—Me; rākhiyāche—has kept; nāri'-being unable; ukāśite—to get relief.
"By nature loving affairs are very crooked. They are not entered with sufficient knowledge, nor do they consider whether a place is suitable or not, nor do they look forward to the results. By the ropes of His good qualities, Kṛṣṇa, who is so unkind, has bound My neck and hands, and I am unable to get relief.
ye madana tanu-hīna, para-drohe paravīṇa,
pāṅca bāṇa sandhe anukṣaṇa
abalāra śarīre, vindhi' kaila jarajare,
duḥkha deya, nā laya jīvana
ye madana—that Cupid; tanu-hīna—without a body; para-drohe—in putting others in difficulty; paravīṇa—very expert; pāṅca—five; bāṇa—arrows; sandhe—fixes; anukṣaṇa—constantly; abalāra—of an innocent woman; śarīre—in the body; vindhi'-piercing; kaila—made; jarajare—almost invalid; duḥkha deya—gives tribulation; —does not; laya—take; jīvana—the life.
"In My loving affairs there is a person named Madana. His qualities are thus: Personally He possesses no gross body, yet He is very expert in giving pains to others. He has five arrows, and fixing them on His bow, He shoots them into the bodies of innocent women. Thus these women become invalids. It would be better if He took My life without hesitation, but He does not do so. He simply gives Me pain.
anyera ye duḥkha mane, anye tāhā nāhi jāne,
satya ei śāstrera vicāre
anya jana kāhāṅ likhi, nā jānaye prāṇa-sakhī,
yāte kahe dhairya dharibāre
anyera—of others; ye—that; duḥkha—unhappiness; mane—in the minds; anye—others; tāhā—that; nāhi—do not; jāne—know; satya—truth; ei—this; śāstrera—of scripture; vicāre—in the judgment; anya jana—other persons; kāhāṅ—what; likhi—I shall write; jānaye—do not know; prāṇa-sakhī—My dear friends; yāte—by which; kahe—speak; dhairya dharibāre—to take patience.
"In the scriptures it is said that one person can never know the unhappiness in the mind of another. Therefore what can I say of My dear friends, Lalitā and the others? Nor can they understand the unhappiness within Me. They simply try to console Me repeatedly, saying, 'Dear friend, be patient.'
'kṛṣṇa--kṛpā-pārāvāra, kabhu karibena aṅgīkāra'
sakhī, tora e vyartha vacana
jīvera jīvana cañcala, yena padma-patrera jala,
tata dina jīve kon jana
kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛpā-pārāvāra—an ocean of mercy; kabhu—sometimes; karibena—will make; aṅgīkāra—acceptance; sakhī—My dear friend; tora—your; e—these; vyartha—untruthful; vacana—complimentary words; jīvera—of the living entity; jīvana—life; cañcala—flickering; yena—like; padma-patrera—of the leaf of the lotus flower; jala—the water; tata—so many; dina—days; jīve—lives; kon—what; jana—person.
"I say, 'My dear friends, you are asking Me to be patient, saying that Kṛṣṇa is an ocean of mercy and that some time in the future He will accept Me. However, I must say that this will not console Me. A living entity's life is very flickering. It is like water on the leaf of a lotus flower. Who will live long enough to expect Kṛṣṇa's mercy?
śata vatsara paryanta, jīvera jīvana anta,
ei vākya kaha nā vicāri'
nārīra yauvana-dhana, yāre kṛṣṇa kare mana,
se yauvana-dina dui-cāri
śata vatsara paryanta—up to one hundred years; jīvera—of the living entity; jīvana—of the life; anta—the end; ei vākya—this word; kaha—you speak; —without; vicāri'-making consideration; nārīra—of a woman; yauvana-dhana—the wealth of youthfulness; yāre—in which; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; kare—does; mana—intention; se yauvana—that youthfulness; dina—days; dui-cāri—two or four.
" 'A human being does not live more than a hundred years. You should also consider that the youthfulness of a woman, which is the only attraction for Kṛṣṇa, remains for only a few days.
agni yaiche nija-dhāma, dekhāiyā abhirāma,
pataṅgīre ākarṣiyā māre
kṛṣṇa aiche nija-guṇa, dekhāiyā hare mana,
pāche duḥkha-samudrete ḍāre
agni—fire; yaiche—like; nija-dhāma—his own place; dekhāiyā—showing; abhirāma—attractive; pataṅgīre—the flies; ākarṣiyā—attracting; māre—kills; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; aiche—in that way; nija-guṇa—His transcendental qualities; dekhāiyā—showing; hare mana—attracts our mind; pāche—in the end; duḥkha-samudrete—in an ocean of unhappiness; ḍāre—drowns.
" 'If you say that Kṛṣṇa is an ocean of transcendental qualities and therefore must be merciful some day, I can only say that He is like fire, which attracts flies by its dazzling brightness and kills them. Such are the qualities of Kṛṣṇa. By showing us His transcendental qualities, He attracts our minds, and then later, by separating from us, He drowns us in an ocean of unhappiness.' "
eteka vilāpa kari', viṣāde śrī-gaurahari,
ughāḍiyā duḥkhera kapāṭa
bhāvera taraṅga-bale, nānā-rūpe mana cale,
āra eka śloka kaila pāṭha
eteka—in this way; vilāpa—lamentation; kari'-doing; viṣāde—in moroseness; śrī-gaurahari—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ughāḍiyā—opening; duḥkhera—of unhappiness; kapāṭa—doors; bhāvera—of ecstasy; taraṅga-bale—by the force of the waves; nānā-rūpe—in various ways; mana—His mind; cale—wanders; āra eka—another one; śloka—verse; kaila—did; pāṭha—recite.
In this way, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu lamented in a great ocean of sadness, and thus He opened the doors of His unhappiness. Forced by the waves of ecstasy, His mind wandered over transcendental mellows, and in this way He recited another verse [as follows].
śrī-kṛṣṇa-rūpādi-niṣevaṇaṁ vinā
vyarthāni me 'hāny akhilendriyāṇy alam
pāṣāṇa-śuṣkendhana-bhārakāṇy aho
bibharmi vā tāni kathaṁ hata-trapaḥ
śrī-kṛṣṇa-rūpa-ādi—of the transcendental form and pastimes of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; niṣevaṇam—the service; vinā—without; vyarthāni—meaningless; me—My; ahāni—days; akhila—all; indriyāṇi—senses; alam—entirely; pāṣāṇa—dead stones; śuṣka—dry; indhana—wood; bhārakāṇi—burdens; aho—alas; bibharmi—I bear; —or; tāni—all of them; katham—how; hata-trapaḥ—without shame.
" 'My dear friends, unless I serve the transcendental form, qualities and pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, all My days and all My senses will become entirely useless. Now I am uselessly bearing the burden of My senses, which are like stone blocks and dried wood. I do not know how long I will be able to continue without shame.'
vaṁśī-gānāmṛta-dhāma, lāvaṇyāmṛta-janma-sthāna,
ye nā dekhe se cāṅda vadana
se nayane kibā kāja, paḍuka tāra muṇḍe vāja,
se nayana rahe ki kāraṇa
vaṁśī-gāna-amṛta-dhāma—the abode of the nectar derived from the songs of the flute; lāvaṇya-amṛta-janma-sthāna—the birthplace of the nectar of beauty; ye—anyone who; —not; dekhe—sees; se—that; cāṅda—moonlike; vadana—face; se—those; nayane—eyes; kibā kāja—what is the use; paḍuka—let there be; tāra—his; muṇḍe—on the head; vāja—thunderbolt; se—those; nayana—eyes; rahe—keeps; ki—what; kāraṇa—reason.
"Of what use are eyes if one does not see the face of Kṛṣṇa, which resembles the moon and is the birthplace of all beauty and the reservoir of the nectarean songs of His flute? Oh, let a thunderbolt strike his head! Why does he keep such eyes?
The moonlike face of Kṛṣṇa is the reservoir of nectarean songs and the abode of His flute. It is also the root of all bodily beauty. If the eyes of the gopīs are not engaged in seeing the beautiful face of Kṛṣṇa, it is better that they be struck by a thunderbolt. For the gopīs, to see anything but Kṛṣṇa is uninteresting and, indeed, detestful. The gopīs are never pleased to see anything but Kṛṣṇa. The only solace for their eyes is the beautiful moonlike face of Kṛṣṇa, the worshipful object of all senses. When they cannot see the beautiful face of Kṛṣṇa, they actually see everything as vacant, and they desire to be struck by a thunderbolt. They do not find any reason to maintain their eyes when they are bereft of the beauty of Kṛṣṇa.
sakhī he, śuna, mora hata vidhi-bala
mora vapu-citta-mana, sakala indriya-gaṇa,
kṛṣṇa vinu sakala viphala
sakhī he—O My dear friend; śuna—please hear; mora—My; hata—lost; vidhi-bala—the strength of providence; mora—My; vapu—body; citta—consciousness; mana—mind; sakala—all; indriya-gaṇa—senses; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; vinu—without; sakala—everything; viphala—futile.
"My dear friends, please hear Me. I have lost all providential strength. Without Kṛṣṇa, My body, consciousness and mind, as well as all My senses, are useless.
kṛṣṇera madhura vāṇī, amṛtera taraṅgiṇī,
tāra praveśa nāhi ye śravaṇe
kāṇākaḍi-chidra sama, jāniha se śravaṇa,
tāra janma haila akāraṇe
kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; madhura—sweet; vāṇī—words; amṛtera—of nectar; taraṅgiṇī—waves; tāra—of those; praveśa—entrance; nāhi—there is not; ye—which; śravaṇe—in the ear; kāṇākaḍi—of a damaged conchshell; chidra—the hole; sama—like; jāniha—please know; se—that; śravaṇa—ear; tāra—his; janma—birth; haila—was; akāraṇe—without purpose.
"Topics about Kṛṣṇa are like waves of nectar. If such nectar does not enter one's ear, the ear is no better than the hole of a damaged conchshell. Such an ear is created for no purpose.
In this connection, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura quotes the following verses from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.3.17-24):
āyur harati vai puṁsām
udyann astaṁ ca yann asau
tasyarte yat-kṣaṇo nīta
taravaḥ kiṁ na jīvanti
bhastrāḥ kiṁ na śvasanty uta
na khādanti na mehanti
kiṁ grāme paśavo 'pare
saṁstutaḥ puruṣaḥ paśuḥ
na yat-karṇa-pathopeto
jātu nāma gadāgrajaḥ
bile batorukrama-vikramān ye
na śṛṇvataḥ karṇa-puṭe narasya
jihvāsatī dārdurikeva sūta
na copagāyaty urugāya-gāthāḥ
bhāraḥ paraṁ paṭṭa-kirīṭa-juṣṭam
apy uttamāṅgaṁ na namen mukundam
śāvau karau no kurute saparyāṁ
harer lasat-kāñcana-kaṅkaṇau vā
barhāyite te nayane narāṇāṁ
liṅgāni viṣṇor na nirīkṣato ye
pādau nṛṇāṁ tau druma-janma-bhājau
kṣetrāṇi nānuvrajato harer yau
jīvañ-chavo bhāgavatāṅghri-reṇuṁ
na jātu martyo 'bhilabheta yas tu
śrī-viṣṇu-padyā manujas tulasyāḥ
śvasañ chavo yas tu na veda gandham
tad aśma-sāraṁ hṛdayaṁ batedaṁ
yad gṛhyamāṇair hari-nāma-dheyaiḥ
na vikriyetātha yadā vikāro
netre jalaṁ gātra-ruheṣu harṣaḥ
"Both by rising and setting, the sun decreases the duration of life of everyone except one who utilizes the time by discussing topics of the all-good Personality of Godhead. Do the trees not live? Do the bellows of the blacksmith not breathe? All around us, do the beasts not eat and discharge semen? Men who are like dogs, hogs, camels and asses praise those men who never listen to the transcendental pastimes of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the deliverer from evils. One who has not listened to the messages about the prowess and marvelous acts of the Personality of Godhead and has not sung or chanted loudly the worthy songs about the Lord should be considered to possess ears like the holes of snakes and a tongue like that of a frog. The upper portion of the body, though crowned with a silk turban, is only a heavy burden if not bowed down before the Personality of Godhead, who can award mukti [freedom]. And the hands, though decorated with glittering bangles, are like those of a dead man if not engaged in the service of the Personality of Godhead Hari. The eyes which do not look at the symbolic representations of the Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu [His forms, name, quality, etc.] are like those printed on the plumes of a peacock, and the legs which do not move to the holy places [where the Lord is remembered] are considered to be like tree trunks. The person who has not at any time received upon his head the dust from the feet of a pure devotee of the Lord is certainly a dead body. And the person who has never experienced the flavor of the tulasī leaves from the lotus feet of the Lord is also a dead body, although breathing. Certainly that heart is steel-framed which, in spite of one's chanting the holy name of the Lord with concentration, does not change and feel ecstasy, at which time tears fill the eyes and the hairs stand on end."
kṛṣṇera adharāmṛta, kṛṣṇa-guṇa-carita,
tāra svāda ye nā jāne, janmiyā nā maila kene,
se rasanā bheka jihvā sama
kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; adhara-amṛta—the nectar of the lips; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; guṇa—the qualities; carita—the activities; sudhā-sāra—of the essence of all nectar; svāda—the taste; vinindana—surpassing; tāra—of that; svāda—the taste; ye—anyone who; jāne—does not know; janmiyā—taking birth; maila—did not die; kene—why; se—that; rasanā—tongue; bheka—of the frog; jihvā—the tongue; sama—like.
"The nectar from the lips of Lord Kṛṣṇa and His transcendental qualities and characteristics surpass the taste of the essence of all nectar, and there is no fault in tasting such nectar. If one does not taste it, he should die immediately after birth, and his tongue is to be considered no better than the tongue of a frog.
mṛga-mada nīlotpala, milane ye parimala,
yei hare tāra garva-māna
hena kṛṣṇa-aṅga-gandha, yāra nāhi se sambandha,
sei nāsā bhastrāra samāna
mṛga-mada—the fragrance of musk; nīla-utpala—and the bluish lotus flower; milane—in mixing; ye—that; parimala—fragrance; yei—which; hare—vanquishes; tāra—of them; garva—pride; māna—and prestige; hena—such; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; aṅga—of the body; gandha—the aroma; yāra—whose; nāhi—not; se—that; sambandha—relationship; sei—such; nāsā—nose; bhastrāra—to the bellows; samāna—equal.
"One's nostrils are no better than the bellows of a blacksmith if he has not smelled the fragrance of Kṛṣṇa's body, which is like the aroma of musk combined with that of the bluish lotus flower. Indeed, such combinations are actually defeated by the aroma of Kṛṣṇa's body.
kṛṣṇa-kara-pada-tala, koṭi-candra-suśītala,
tāra sparśa yena sparśa-maṇi
tāra sparśa nāhi yāra, se yāuk chārakhāra,
sei vapu lauha-sama jāni
kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kara—the palms; pada-tala—the soles of His feet; koṭi-candra—like the light of millions of moons; su-śītala—cool and pleasing; tāra—of them; sparśa—the touch; yena—like; sparśa-maṇi—touchstone; tāra—his; sparśa—touch; nāhi—not; yāra—of whom; se—that person; yāuk—let him go; chārakhāra—to ruin; sei vapu—that body; lauha-sama—like iron; jāni—I know.
"The palms of Kṛṣṇa's hands and the soles of His feet are so cool and pleasant that they can be compared only to the light of millions of moons. One who has touched such hands and feet has indeed tasted the effects of touchstone. If one has not touched them, his life is spoiled, and his body is like iron."
kari' eta vilapana, prabhu śacī-nandana,
ughāḍiyā hṛdayera śoka
dainya-nirveda-viṣāde, hṛdayera avasāde,
punarapi paḍe eka śloka
kari'-doing; eta—such; vilapana—lamenting; prabhu—the Lord; śacī-nandana—the son of mother Śacī; ughāḍiyā—opening; hṛdayera—of the heart; śoka—the lamentation; dainya—humility; nirveda—disappointment; viṣāde—in moroseness; hṛdayera—of the heart; avasāde—in despondency; punarapi—again and again; paḍe—recites; eka—one; śloka—verse.
Lamenting in this way, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu opened the doors of grief within His heart. Morose, humble and disappointed, He recited a verse again and again with a despondent heart.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, the word dainya (humility) is explained as follows: "When unhappiness, fearfulness and the sense of having offended combine, one feels condemned. This sense of condemnation is described as dīnatā, humility. When one is subjected to such humility, he feels physically inactive, he apologizes, and his consciousness is disturbed. His mind is also restless, and many other symptoms are visible."1.
Can you look this quote up and see if it ends where we indicate?
(1) The word nirveda is also explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu: "One may feel unhappiness and separation, as well as jealousy and lamentation, due to not discharging one's duties. The despondency that results is called nirveda. When one is captured by this despondency, thoughts, tears, loss of bodily luster, humility and heavy breathing result." Viṣāda is also explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu: "When one fails to achieve his desired goal of life and repents for all his offenses, there is a state of regret called viṣāda." The symptoms of avasāda are also explained: "One hankers to revive his original condition and inquires how to do so. There are also deep thought, heavy breathing, crying and lamentation, as well as a changing of the bodily color and drying up of the tongue."
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu thirty-three such destructive symptoms are mentioned. They are expressed in words, in the eyebrows and in the eyes. These symptoms are called vyabhicārī bhāva, destructive ecstasy. If they continue, they are sometimes called sañcārī, or continued ecstasy.
yadā yāto daivān madhu-ripur asau locana-pathaṁ
tadāsmākaṁ ceto madana-hatakenāhṛtam abhūt
punar yasminn eṣa kṣaṇam api dṛśor eti padavīṁ
vidhāsyāmas tasminn akhila-ghaṭikā ratna-khacitāḥ
yadā—when; yātaḥ—entered upon; daivāt—by chance; madhu-ripuḥ—the enemy of the demon Madhu; asau—He; locana-patham—the path of the eyes; tadā—at that time; asmākam—our; cetaḥ—consciousness; madana-hatakena—by wretched Cupid; āhṛtam—stolen; abhūt—has become; punaḥ—again; yasmin—when; eṣaḥKṛṣṇa; kṣaṇam api—even for a moment; dṛśoḥ—of the two eyes; eti—goes to; padavīm—the path; vidhāsyāmaḥ—we shall make; tasmin—at that time; akhila—all; ghaṭikāḥ—indications of time; ratna-khacitāḥ—bedecked with jewels
" 'If by chance the transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa comes before My path of vision, My heart, injured from being beaten, will be stolen away by Cupid, happiness personified. Because I could not see the beautiful form of Kṛṣṇa to My heart's content, when I again see His form I shall decorate the phases of time with many jewels.' "
This verse is spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka (3.11), by Rāmānanda Rāya.
ye kāle vā svapane, dekhinu vaṁśī-vadane,
sei kāle āilā dui vairi
'ānanda' āra 'madana', hari' nila mora mana,
dekhite nā pāinu netra bhari'
ye kāle—at the time; svapane—or in dreams; dekhinu—I saw; vaṁśī-vadane—Lord Kṛṣṇa's face with His flute; sei kāle—at that time; āilā—appeared; dui—two; vairi—enemies; ānanda—pleasure; āra—and; madana—Cupid; hari'-stealing; nila—took; mora—My; mana—mind; dekhite—to see; —not; pāinu—I was able; netra—eyes; bhari'-fulfilling.
"Whenever I had the chance to see Lord Kṛṣṇa's face and His flute, even in a dream, two enemies would appear before Me. They were pleasure and Cupid, and since they took away My mind, I was not able to see the face of Kṛṣṇa to the full satisfaction of My eyes.
punaḥ yadi kona kṣaṇa, kayāya kṛṣṇa daraśana
tabe sei ghaṭī-kṣaṇa-pala
diyā mālya-candana, nānā ratna-ābharaṇa,
alaṅkṛta karimu sakala
punaḥ—again; yadi—if; kona—some; kṣaṇa—moment; kayāya—helps; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; daraśana—seeing; tabe—then; sei—that; ghaṭī-kṣaṇa-pala—seconds, moments and hours; diyā—offering; mālya-candana—garlands and sandalwood pulp; nānā—various; ratna—jewels; ābharaṇa—ornaments; alaṅkṛta—decorated; karimu—I shall make; sakala—all.
"If by chance such a moment comes when I can once again see Kṛṣṇa, then I shall worship those seconds, moments and hours with flower garlands and pulp of sandalwood and decorate them with all kinds of jewels and ornaments."
kṣaṇe bāhya haila mana, āge dekhe dui jana,
tāṅre puche,--āmi nā caitanya?
svapna-prāya ki dekhinu, kibā āmi pralāpinu,
tomarā kichu śuniyācha dainya?
kṣaṇe—in an instant; bāhya—outside; haila—became; mana—the mind; āge—in front; dekhe—sees; dui jana—two persons; tāṅre—unto them; puche—inquires; āmi—I; —not; caitanya—conscious; svapna-prāya—almost dreaming; ki—what; dekhinu—I have seen; kibā—what; āmi—I; pralāpinu—spoke in craziness; tomarā—you; kichu—something; śuniyācha—have heard; dainya—humility.
In an instant, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu regained external consciousness and saw two persons before Him. Questioning them, He asked, "Am I conscious? What dreams have I been seeing? What craziness have I spoken? Have you heard some expressions of humility?''
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu thus spoke in ecstasy, He saw two persons before Him. One was His secretary, Svarūpa Dāmodara, and the other was Rāya Rāmānanda. Coming to His external consciousness, He saw them both present, and although He was still talking in the ecstasy of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, He immediately began to question whether He was the same Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
śuna mora prāṇera bāndhava
nāhi kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana, daridra mora jīvana,
dehendriya vṛthā mora saba
śuna—kindly hear; mora—My; prāṇera—of life; bāndhava—friends; nāhi—there is none; kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana—wealth of love of Kṛṣṇa; daridra—poverty-stricken; mora—My; jīvana—life; deha-indriya—all the limbs and senses of My body; vṛthā—fruitless; mora—My; saba—all.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, "My dear friends, you are all My life and soul; therefore I tell you that I possess no wealth of love for Kṛṣṇa. Consequently My life is poverty-stricken. My limbs and senses are useless."
punaḥ kahe,--hāya hāya, śuna, svarūpa-rāmarāya,
ei mora hṛdaya-niścaya
śuni karaha vicāra, haya, naya--kaha sāra,
eta bali' śloka uccāraya
punaḥ—again; kahe—says; hāya hāya—alas; śuna—kindly hear; svarūpa-rāma-rāya—My dear Svarūpa Dāmodara and Rāmānanda Rāya; ei—this; mora—My; hṛdaya-niścaya—the certainty in My heart; śuni—hearing; karaha—just make; vicāra—judgment; haya, naya—correct or not; kaha sāra—tell Me the essence; eta bali'-saying this; śloka—another verse; uccāraya—recites.
Again He addressed both Svarūpa Dāmodara and Rāya Rāmānanda, speaking despondently, "Alas! My friends, you can now know the certainty within My heart, and after knowing My heart you should judge whether I am correct or not. You can speak of this properly." Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then began to chant another verse.
ka-i-avarahi-aṁ pemmaṁ ṇa hi hoi māṇuse loe
ja-i hoi kassa virahe hontammi ko jīa-i
ka-i-avarahi-am—without any cheating propensity, without any motive concerning the four principles of material existence (namely, religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and liberation); pemmam—love of Godhead; ṇa—never; hi—certainly; hoi—becomes; māṇuse—in human society; loe—in this world; ja-i—if; hoi—there is; kassa—whose; virahe—in separation; hontammi—is; ko—who; jīa-i—lives.
" 'Love of Godhead, devoid of cheating propensities, is not possible within this material world. If there is such a love, there cannot be separation, for if there is separation, how can one live?'
This is a verse in a common language called prākṛta, and the exact Sanskrit transformation is kaitava-rahitaṁ premā na hi bhavati mānuṣe loke yadi bhavati kasya viraho virahe saty api ko jīvati.
akaitava kṛṣṇa-prema, yena jāmbūnada-hema,
sei premā nṛloke nā haya
yadi haya tāra yoga, nā haya tabe viyoga,
viyoga haile keha nā jīyaya
akaitava kṛṣṇa-prema—unalloyed love of Kṛṣṇa; yena—like; jāmbū-nada-hema—gold from the Jāmbū River; sei premā—that love of Godhead; nṛ-loke—in the material world; haya—is not possible; yadi—if; haya—there is; tāra—with it; yoga—connection; —not; haya—is; tabe—then; viyoga—separation; viyoga—separation; haile—if there is; keha—someone; jīyaya—cannot live.
"Pure love for Kṛṣṇa, just like gold from the Jāmbū River, does not exist in human society. If it existed, there could not be separation. If separation were there, one could not live."
eta kahi' śacī-suta, śloka paḍe adbhuta,
śune duṅhe eka-mana hañā
āpana-hṛdaya-kāja, kahite vāsiye lāja,
tabu kahi lāja-bīja khāñā
eta kahi'-thus saying; śacī-suta—the son of Śrīmatī Śacīmātā; śloka—verse; paḍe—recites; adbhuta—wonderful; śune—hear; duṅhe—the two persons; eka-mana hañā—with rapt attention; āpana-hṛdaya-kāja—the activities of one's own heart; kahite—to speak; vāsiye—I feel; lāja—shameful; tabu—still; kahi—I speak; lāja-bīja—the seed of bashfulness; khāñā—finishing.
Thus speaking, the son of Śrīmatī Śacīmātā recited another wonderful verse, and Rāmānanda Rāya and Svarūpa Dāmodara heard this verse with rapt attention. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, "I feel shameful to disclose the activities of My heart. Nonetheless, I shall be done with all formalities and speak from the heart. Please hear."
na prema-gandho 'sti darāpi me harau
krandāmi saubhāgya-bharaṁ prakāśitum
vaṁśī-vilāsy-ānana-lokanaṁ vinā
bibharmi yat prāṇa-pataṅgakān vṛthā
na—never; prema-gandhaḥ—a scent of love of Godhead; asti—there is; darā api—even in a slight proportion; me—My; harau—in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; krandāmi—I cry; saubhāgya-bharam—the volume of My fortune; prakāśitum—to exhibit; vaṁśī-vilāsi—of the great flute-player; ānana—at the face; lokanam—looking; vinā—without; bibharmi—I carry; yat—because; prāṇa-pataṅgakān—My insectlike life; vṛthā—with no purpose.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, " 'My dear friends, I have not the slightest tinge of love of Godhead within My heart. When you see Me crying in separation, I am just falsely exhibiting a demonstration of My great fortune. Indeed, not seeing the beautiful face of Kṛṣṇa playing His flute, I continue to live My life like an insect, without purpose.'
dūre śuddha-prema-gandha, kapaṭa premera bandha,
seha mora nāhi kṛṣṇa-pāya
tabe ye kari krandana, sva-saubhāgya prakhyāpana,
kari, ihā jāniha niścaya
dūre—far away; śuddha-prema-gandha—a scent of pure devotional love; kapaṭa—false; premera—of love of Godhead; bandha—binding; seha—that; mora—My; nāhi—there is not; kṛṣṇa-pāya—at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; tabe—but; ye—that; kari—I do; krandana—crying; sva-saubhāgya—My own fortune; prakhyāpana—demonstration; kari—I do; ihā—this; jāniha—know; niścaya—certainly.
"Actually, My love for Kṛṣṇa is far, far away. Whatever I do is actually false. When you see Me cry, I am simply exhibiting My great fortune. Please try to understand this beyond a doubt.
yāte vaṁśī-dhvani-sukha, nā dekhi' se cāṅda mukha,
yadyapi nāhika 'ālambana'
nija-dehe kari prīti, kevala kāmera rīti,
prāṇa-kīṭera kariye dhāraṇa
yāte—in which; vaṁśī-dhvani-sukha—the happiness of hearing the playing of the flute; dekhi'-not seeing; se—that; cāṅda mukha—moonlike face; yadyapi—although; nāhika—there is not; 'ālambana'-the meeting of the lover and beloved; nija—own; dehe—in the body; kari—I do; prīti—affection; kevala—only; kāmera—of lust; rīti—the way; prāṇa—of life; kīṭera—of the fly; kariye—I do; dhāraṇa—continuing.
"Even though I do not see the moonlike face of Kṛṣṇa playing on His flute and although there is no possibility of My meeting Him, still I take care of My own body. That is the way of lust. In this way, I maintain My flylike life.
In this connection, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that the lovable Supreme Lord is the supreme shelter. The Lord is the supreme subject, and the devotees are the object. The coming together of a subject and object is called ālambana. The object hears, and the subject plays the flute. That the object cannot see the moonlike face of Kṛṣṇa and has no eagerness to see Him is the sign of being without ālambana. Externally imagining such a thing simply satisfies one's lusty desires, and thus one lives without purpose.
kṛṣṇa-premā sunirmala, yena śuddha-gaṅgā-jala,
sei premā--amṛtera sindhu
nirmala se anurāge, nā lukāya anya dāge,
śukla-vastre yaiche masī-bindu
kṛṣṇa-premā—love of Kṛṣṇa; su-nirmala—without material contamination; yena—exactly like; śuddha-gaṅgā-jala—the pure water of the Ganges; sei premā—that love; amṛtera sindhu—the ocean of nectar; nirmala—pure; se—that; anurāge—attraction; lukāya—does not conceal; anya—other; dāge—spot; śukla-vastre—on white cloth; yaiche—as; masī-bindu—a spot of ink.
"Love for Lord Kṛṣṇa is very pure, just like the waters of the Ganges. That love is an ocean of nectar. That pure attachment to Kṛṣṇa does not conceal any spot, which would appear just like a spot of ink on a white cloth.
Unalloyed love of Kṛṣṇa is just like a big sheet of white cloth. Absence of attachment is compared to a black spot on that white cloth. Just as the black spot is prominent, so the absence of love of Godhead is prominent on the platform of pure love of Godhead.
śuddha-prema-sukha-sindhu, pāi tāra eka bindu,
sei bindu jagat ḍubāya
kahibāra yogya naya, tathāpi bāule kaya,
kahile vā kebā pātiyāya
śuddha-prema—unalloyed love; sukha-sindhu—an ocean of happiness; pāi—if I get; tāra—of that; eka—one; bindu—drop; sei bindu—that drop; jagat—the whole world; ḍubāya—drowns; kahibāra—to speak; yogya naya—is not fit; tathāpi—still; bāule—a madman; kaya—speaks; kahile—if spoken; —or; kebā pātiyāya—who believes.
"Unalloyed love of Kṛṣṇa is like an ocean of happiness. If someone gets one drop of it, the whole world can drown in that drop. It is not befitting to express such love of Godhead, yet a madman must speak. However, even though he speaks, no one believes him."
ei mata dine dine, svarūpa-rāmānanda-sane,
nija-bhāva karena vidita
bāhye viṣa-jvālā haya, bhitare ānanda-maya,
kṛṣṇa-premāra adbhuta carita
ei mata—in this way; dine dine—day after day; svarūpaSvarūpa Dāmodara; rāmānandaRāmānanda Rāya; sane—with; nija—own; bhāva—ecstasy; karena—makes; vidita—known; bāhye—externally; viṣa-jvālā haya—there is suffering from poisonous effects; bhitare—within; ānanda-maya—transcendental ecstasy; kṛṣṇa-premāra—of love of Kṛṣṇa; adbhuta—wonderful; carita—characteristic.
In this way, Lord Caitanya used to revel in ecstasy day after day and exhibit these ecstasies before Svarūpa and Rāmānanda Rāya. Externally there appeared severe tribulation, as if He were suffering from poisonous effects, but internally He was experiencing bliss. This is characteristic of transcendental love of Kṛṣṇa.
ei premā-āsvādana, tapta-ikṣu-carvaṇa,
mukha jvale, nā yāya tyajana
sei premā yāṅra mane, tāra vikrama sei jāne,
viṣāmṛte ekatra milana
ei—this; premā—love of Kṛṣṇa; āsvādana—tasting; tapta—hot; ikṣu-carvaṇa—chewing sugarcane; mukha jvale—the mouth burns; yāya tyajana—still not possible to give up; sei—that; premā—love of Godhead; yāṅra mane—in someone's mind; tāra—of that; vikrama—the power; sei jāne—he knows; viṣa-amṛte—poison and nectar; ekatra—in oneness; milana—meeting.
If one tastes such love of Godhead, he can compare it to hot sugarcane. When one chews hot sugarcane, his mouth burns, yet he cannot give it up. Similarly, if one has but a little love of Godhead, he can perceive its powerful effects. It can only be compared to poison and nectar mixed together.
pīḍābhir nava-kāla-kūṭa-kaṭutā-garvasya nirvāsano
nisyandena mudāṁ sudhā-madhurimāhaṅkāra-saṅkocanaḥ
premā sundari nanda-nandana-paro jāgarti yasyāntare
jñāyante sphuṭam asya vakra-madhurās tenaiva vikrāntayaḥ
pīḍābhiḥ—by the sufferings; nava—fresh; kāla-kūṭa—of poison; kaṭutā—of the severity; garvasya—of pride; nirvāsanaḥ—banishment; nisyandena—by pouring down; mudām—happiness; sudhā—of nectar; madhurimā—of the sweetness; ahaṅkāra—the pride; saṅkocanaḥ—minimizing; premā—love; sundari—beautiful friend; nanda-nandana-paraḥ—fixed upon the son of Mahārāja Nanda; jāgarti—develops; yasya—of whom; antare—in the heart; jñāyante—are perceived; sphuṭam—explicitly; asya—of that; vakra—crooked; madhurāḥ—and sweet; tena—by him; eva—alone; vikrāntayaḥ—the influences.
Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu spoke, " 'My dear beautiful friend, if one develops love of Godhead, love of Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja, all the bitter and sweet influences of this love will manifest in one's heart. Such love of Godhead acts in two ways. The poisonous effects of love of Godhead defeat the severe and fresh poison of the serpent. Yet there is simultaneously transcendental bliss, which pours down and defeats the pride of nectar and diminishes its value. In other words, love of Kṛṣṇa is so powerful that it simultaneously defeats the poisonous effects of a snake, as well as the happiness derived from pouring nectar on one's head. It is perceived as doubly effective, simultaneously poisonous and nectarean.' "
This verse is spoken by Paurṇamāsī to Nāndīmukhī in the Vidagdha-mādhava (2.18), by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
ye kāle dekhe jagannātha-śrīrāma-subhadrā-sātha,
tabe jāne--āilāma kurukṣetra
saphala haila jīvana, dekhiluṅ padma-locana,
juḍāila tanu-mana-netra
ye kāle—at that time when; dekhe—He sees; jagannātha—Lord Jagannātha; śrī-rāmaBalarāma; subhadrāSubhadrā; sātha—with; tabe—at that time; jāne—knows; āilāma—I have come; kurukṣetra—to the pilgrimage site known as Kurukṣetra; sa-phala—successful; haila—has become; jīvana—life; dekhiluṅ—I have seen; padma-locana—the lotus eyes; juḍāila—pacified; tanu—body; mana—mind; netra—eyes.
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would see Jagannātha along with Balarāma and Subhadrā, He would immediately think that He had reached Kurukṣetra, where all of them had come. He would think that His life was successful because He had seen the lotus-eyed one, whom, if seen, pacifies the body, mind and eyes.
garuḍera sannidhāne, rahi' kare daraśane,
se ānandera ki kahiba ba'le
garuḍa-stambhera tale, āche eka nimna khāle,
se khāla bharila aśru-jale
garuḍeraGaruḍa; sannidhāne—near; rahi'-staying; kare—does; daraśane—seeing; se ānandera—of that bliss; ki—what; kahiba—I shall say; ba'le—on the strength; garuḍa—of the statue of Garuḍa; stambhera—of the column; tale—underneath; āche—there is; eka—one; nimna—low; khāle—ditch; se khāla—that ditch; bharila—became filled; aśru-jale—with the water of tears.
Staying near the Garuḍa-stambha, the Lord would look upon Lord Jagannātha. What can be said about the strength of that love? On the ground beneath the column of the Garuḍa-stambha was a deep ditch, and that ditch was filled with the water of His tears.
In front of the temple of Jagannātha is a column on which the statue of Garuḍa is situated. It is called the Garuḍa-stambha. At the base of that column is a ditch, and that ditch was filled with the tears of the Lord.
tāhāṅ haite ghare āsi', māṭīra upare vasi',
nakhe kare pṛthivī likhana
hā-hā kāhāṅ vṛndāvana, kāhāṅ gopendra-nandana,
kāhāṅ sei vaṁśī-vadana
tāhāṅ haite—from there; ghare āsi'-coming back home; māṭīra—the ground; upare—upon; vasi'-sitting; nakhe—by the nails; kare—does; pṛthivī—on the surface of the earth; likhana—marking; -hā—alas; kāhāṅ—where is; vṛndāvanaVṛndāvana; kāhāṅ—where; gopa-indra-nandana—the son of the King of the cowherd men; kāhāṅ—where; sei—that; vaṁśī-vadana—the person with the flute.
When coming from the Jagannātha temple to return to His house, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to sit on the ground and mark it with His nails. At such times He would be greatly morose and would cry, "Alas, where is Vṛndāvana? Where is Kṛṣṇa, the son of the King of the cowherd men? Where is that person who plays the flute?"
kāhāṅ se tri-bhaṅga-ṭhāma, kāhāṅ sei veṇu-gāna,
kāhāṅ sei yamunā-pulina
kāhāṅ se rāsa-vilāsa, kāhāṅ nṛtya-gīta-hāsa,
kāhāṅ prabhu madana-mohana
kāhāṅ—where; se—that; tri-bhaṅga-ṭhāma—figure curved in three places; kāhāṅwhere; sei—that; veṇu-gāna—sweet song of the flute; kāhāṅ—where; sei—that; yamunā-pulina—bank of the Yamunā River; kāhāṅ—where; se—that; rāsa-vilāsa—the rāsa dance; kāhāṅ—where; nṛtya-gīta-hāsa—dancing, music and laughing; kāhāṅ—where; prabhu—My Lord; madana-mohana—the enchanter of Madana (Cupid).
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu used to lament by saying, "Where is Śrī Kṛṣṇa, whose form is curved in three places? Where is the sweet song of His flute, and where is the bank of the Yamunā? Where is the rāsa dance? Where is that dancing, singing, and laughing? Where is My Lord, Madana-mohana, the enchanter of Cupid?"
uṭhila nānā bhāvāvega, mane haila udvega,
kṣaṇa-mātra nāre goṅāite
prabala virahānale, dhairya haila ṭalamale,
nānā śloka lāgilā paḍite
uṭhila—arose; nānā—various; bhāva-āvega—forces of emotion; mane—in the mind; haila—there was; udvega—anxiety; kṣaṇa-mātra—even for a moment; nāre—not able; goṅāite—to pass; prabala—powerful; viraha-anale—in the fire of separation; dhairya—patience; haila—became; ṭalamale—tottering; nānā—various; śloka—verses; lāgilā—began; paḍite—to recite.
In this way various ecstatic emotions evolved, and the Lord's mind filled with anxiety. He could not escape even for a moment. In this way, because of fierce feelings of separation, His patience began to totter, and He began to recite various verses.
amūny adhanyāni dināntarāṇi
hare tvad-ālokanam antareṇa
anātha-bandho karuṇaika-sindho
hā hanta hā hanta kathaṁ nayāmi
amūni—all those; adhanyāni—inauspicious; dina-antarāṇi—other days; hare—O My Lord; tvat—of You; ālokanam—seeing; antareṇa—without; anātha-bandho—O friend of the helpless; karuṇā-eka-sindho—O only ocean of mercy; hanta—alas; hanta—alas; katham—how; nayāmi—shall I pass.
" 'O My Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, O friend of the helpless! You are the only ocean of mercy! Because I have not met You, My inauspicious days and nights have become unbearable. I do not know how I shall pass the time.'
This is a verse from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (41), by Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura.
tomāra darśana-vine, adhanya e rātri-dine,
ei kāla nā yāya kāṭana
tumi anāthera bandhu, apāra karuṇā-sindhu,
kṛpā kari' deha daraśana
tomāra—Your; darśana—audience; vine—without; adhanya—inauspicious; e—this; rātri-dine—night and day; ei kāla—this time; yāya—does not go; kāṭana—passing; tumi—You; anāthera bandhu—friend of the helpless; apāra—unlimited; karuṇā-sindhu—ocean of mercy; kṛpā kari'-showing mercy; deha—kindly give; daraśana—audience.
"All these inauspicious days and nights are not passing, for I have not met You. It is difficult to know how to pass all this time. But You are the friend of the helpless and an ocean of mercy. Kindly give Me Your audience, for I am in a precarious position."
uṭhila bhāva-cāpala, mana ha-ila cañcala,
bhāvera gati bujhana nā yāya
adarśane poḍe mana, kemane pāba daraśana,
kṛṣṇa-ṭhāñi puchena upāya
uṭhila—arose; bhāva-cāpala—restlessness of ecstatic emotion; mana—mind; ha-ila—became; cañcala—agitated; bhāvera—of ecstatic emotion; gati—the course; bujhana—understanding; yāya—not possible; adarśane—without seeing; poḍe—burns; mana—the mind; kemane—how; pāba—I shall get; daraśana—audience; kṛṣṇa-ṭhāñi—from Kṛṣṇa; puchena—inquires; upāya—the means.
In this way, the Lord's restlessness was awakened by ecstatic feelings, and His mind became agitated. No one could understand what course such ecstasy would take. Because Lord Caitanya could not meet the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, His mind burned. He began to ask Kṛṣṇa of the means by which He could reach Him.
tvac-chaiśavaṁ tri-bhuvanādbhutam ity avehi
mac-cāpalaṁ ca tava vā mama vādhigamyam
tat kiṁ karomi viralaṁ muralī-vilāsi
mugdhaṁ mukhāmbujam udīkṣitum īkṣaṇābhyām
tvat—Your; śaiśavam—early age; tri-bhuvana—within the three worlds; adbhutam—wonderful; iti—thus; avehi—know; mat-cāpalam—My unsteadiness; ca—and; tava—of You; —or; mama—of Me; —or; adhigamyam—to be understood; tat—that; kim—what; karomi—I do; viralam—in solitude; muralī-vilāsi—O player of the flute; mugdham—attractive; mukha-ambujam—lotuslike face; udīkṣitum—to see sufficiently; īkṣaṇābhyām—by the eyes.
" 'O Kṛṣṇa, O flute-player, the sweetness of Your early age is wonderful within these three worlds. You know My unsteadiness, and I know Yours. No one else knows about this. I want to see Your beautiful attractive face somewhere in a solitary place, but how can this be accomplished?'
This is another quote from the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (32), of Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura.
tomāra mādhurī-bala, tāte mora cāpala,
ei dui, tumi āmi jāni
kāhāṅ karoṅ kāhāṅ yāṅ, kāhāṅ gele tomā pāṅ,
tāhā more kaha ta' āpani
tomāra—Your; mādhurī-bala—strength of sweetness; tāte—in that; mora—My; cāpala—impotence; ei—these; dui—two; tumi—You; āmi—I; jāni—know; kāhāṅ—where; karoṅ—I do; kāhāṅ—where; yāṅ—I go; kāhāṅ—where; gele—by going; tomā—You; pāṅ—I can get; tāhā—that; more—unto Me; kaha—please speak; ta' āpani—You.
"My dear Kṛṣṇa, only You and I know the strength of Your beautiful features and, because of them, My unsteadiness. Now, this is My position; I do not know what to do or where to go. Where can I find You? I am asking You to give directions."
nānā-bhāvera prābalya, haila sandhi-śābalya,
bhāve-bhāve haila mahā-raṇa
autsukya, cāpalya, dainya, roṣāmarṣa ādi sainya,
premonmāda--sabāra kāraṇa
nānā—various; bhāvera—of ecstasies; prābalya—the force; haila—there was; sandhi—meeting; śābalya—contradiction; bhāve-bhāve—between ecstasies; haila—there was; mahā-raṇa—a great fight; autsukya—eagerness; cāpalya—impotence; dainya—humility; roṣa-amarṣa—anger and impatience; ādi—all these; sainya—soldiers; prema-unmāda—madness in love; sabāra—of all; kāraṇa—the cause.
Because of the various kinds of ecstasy, contradictory states of mind occurred, and this resulted in a great fight between different types of ecstasy. Anxiety, impotence, humility, anger and impatience were all like soldiers fighting, and the madness of love of Godhead was the cause.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu it is stated that when similar ecstasies from separate causes meet, they are called svarūpa-sandhi. When opposing elements meet, whether they arise from a common cause or different causes, their conjunction is called bhinna-rūpa-sandhi, the meeting of contradictory ecstasies. The simultaneous joining of different ecstasies-fear and happiness, regret and happiness-is called meeting (sandhi). The word śābalya refers to different types of ecstatic symptoms combined together, like pride, despondency, humility, remembrance, doubt, impatience caused by insult, fear, disappointment, patience and eagerness. The friction that occurs when these combine is called śābalya. Similarly, when the desire to see the object is very prominent, or when one is unable to tolerate any delay in seeing the desired object, the incapability is called autsukya, or eagerness. If such eagerness is present, one's mouth dries up and one becomes restless. One also becomes full of anxiety, and hard breathing and patience are observed. Similarly, the lightness of heart caused by strong attachment and strong agitation of the mind is called impotence (cāpalya). Failure of judgment, misuse of words, and obstinate activities devoid of anxiety are observed. Similarly, when one becomes too angry at the other party, offensive and abominable speech occurs, and this anger is called roṣa. When one becomes impatient due to being scolded or insulted, the resultant state of mind is called amarṣa. In this state of mind, one perspires, acquires a headache, fades in bodily color and experiences anxiety and an urge to search out the remedy. The bearing of a grudge, aversion and chastisement are all visible symptoms.
matta-gaja bhāva-gaṇa, prabhura deha--īkṣu-vana,
gaja-yuddhe vanera dalana
prabhura haila divyonmāda, tanu-manera avasāda,
bhāvāveśe kare sambodhana
matta-gajamad elephant; bhāva-gaṇa—symptoms of ecstasy; prabhura—of the Lord; deha—body; ikṣu-vana—sugarcane forest; gaja-yuddhe—in the fight of the elephants; vanera—of the forest; dalana—trampling; prabhura—of the Lord; haila—was; divya-unmāda—transcendental madness; tanu-manera—of the mind and body; avasāda—despondency; bhāva-āveśe—on account of absorption in ecstasy; kare—does; sambodhana—addressing.
The body of the Lord was just like a field of sugarcane into which the mad elephants of ecstasy entered. There was a fight amongst the elephants, and in the process the entire field of sugarcane was destroyed. Thus transcendental madness was awakened in the body of the Lord, and He experienced despondency in mind and body. In this ecstatic condition, He began to speak as follows.
he deva he dayita he bhuvanaika-bandho
he kṛṣṇa he capala he karuṇaika-sindho
he nātha he ramaṇa he nayanābhirāma
hā hā kadā nu bhavitāsi padaṁ dṛśor me
he deva—O Lord; he dayita—O most dear; he bhuvana-eka-bandho—O only friend of the universe; he kṛṣṇa—O Lord Kṛṣṇa; he capala—O restless one; he karuṇa-eka-sindho—O ocean of mercy; he nātha—O My Lord; he ramaṇa—O My enjoyer; he nayana-abhirāma—O most beautiful to My eyes; —alas; kadā—when; nu—certainly; bhavitā asi—will You be; padam—the dwelling place; dṛśoḥ me—of My vision.
" 'O My Lord! O dearest one! O only friend of the universe! O Kṛṣṇa, O restless one, O ocean of mercy! O My Lord, O My enjoyer, O beloved to My eyes! Alas, when will You again be visible to Me?' "
This is text 40 of Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta.
unmādera lakṣaṇa, karāya kṛṣṇa-sphuraṇa,
bhāvāveśe uṭhe praṇaya māna
solluṇṭha-vacana-rīti, māna, garva, vyāja-stuti,
kabhu nindā, kabhu vā sammāna
unmādera lakṣaṇa—the symptoms of madness; karāya—causes; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; sphuraṇa—impetus; bhāva-āveśe—in an ecstatic condition; uṭhe—awakens; praṇaya—love; māna—disdain; solluṇṭha-vacana—of disrespect by sweet words; rīti—the way; māna—honor; garva—pride; vyāja-stuti—indirect prayer; kabhu—sometimes; nindā—blasphemy; kabhu—sometimes; —or; sammāna—honor.
The symptoms of madness served as an impetus for remembering Kṛṣṇa. The mood of ecstasy awoke love, disdain, defamation by words, pride, honor and indirect prayer. Thus Śrī Kṛṣṇa was sometimes blasphemed and sometimes honored.
The word unmāda is explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu as extreme joy, misfortune and bewilderment in the heart due to separation. Symptoms of unmāda are laughing like a madman, dancing, singing, performing ineffectual activities, talking nonsense, running, shouting and sometimes working in contradictory ways. The word praṇaya is explained thus: When there is a possibility of receiving direct honor but it is avoided, that love is called praṇaya. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, in his Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, explains the word māna thus: When the lover feels novel sweetness by exchanging hearty loving words but wishes to hide his feelings by crooked means, māna is experienced.
tumi deva--krīḍā-rata, bhuvanera nārī yata,
tāhe kara abhīṣṭa krīḍana
tumi mora dayita, mote vaise tomāra cita,
mora bhāgye kaile āgamana
tumi—You; deva—the Supreme Lord; krīḍā-rata—engaged in Your pastimes; bhuvanera—of all the universes; nārī—women; yata—all; tāhe—in those pastimes; kara—You do; abhīṣṭa—desired; krīḍana—acting; tumi—You; mora—My; dayita—merciful; mote—to Me; vaise—rest; tomāra—Your; cita—mind; mora—My; bhāgye—by fortune; kaile—You have made; āgamana—appearance.
"My dear Lord, You are engaged in Your pastimes, and You utilize all the women in the universe according to Your desire. You are so kind to Me. Please divert Your attention to Me, for by fortune You have appeared before Me.
bhuvanera nārī-gaṇa, sabā' kara ākarṣaṇa,
tāhāṅ kara saba samādhāna
tumi kṛṣṇa--citta-hara, aiche kona pāmara,
tomāre vā kebā kare māna
bhuvanera—of all the universe; nārī-gaṇa—women; sabā'-all; kara—You do; ākarṣaṇa—attraction; tāhāṅ—there; kara—You made; saba—all; samādhāna—adjustment; tumi—You; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; citta-hara—the enchanter of the mind; aiche—in that way; kona—some; pāmara—debauchee; tomāre—You; —or; kebā—who; kare—does; māna—honor.
"My dear Lord, You attract all the women of the universe, and You make adjustments for all of them when they appear. You are Lord Kṛṣṇa, and You can enchant everyone, but on the whole, You are nothing but a debauchee. Who can honor You?
tomāra capala-mati, ekatra nā haya sthiti,
tā'te tomāra nāhi kichu doṣa
tumi ta' karuṇā-sindhu, āmāra parāṇa-bandhu,
tomāya nāhi mora kabhu roṣa
tomāra—Your; capala-mati—restless mind; ekatra—in one place; —never; haya—is; sthiti—established; tā'te—in that; tomāra—Your; nāhi—there is not; kichu—any; doṣa—fault; tumi—You are; ta'-certainly; karuṇā-sindhu—the ocean of mercy; āmāra—My; parāṇa-bandhu—friend of the heart; tomāya—toward You; nāhi—there is not; mora—My; kabhu—any time; roṣa—anger.
"My dear Kṛṣṇa, Your mind is always restless. You cannot remain in one place, but You are not at fault for this. You are actually the ocean of mercy, the friend of My heart. Therefore I have no reason to be angry with You.
tumi nātha--vraja-prāṇa, vrajera kara paritrāṇa,
bahu kārye nāhi avakāśa
tumi āmāra ramaṇa, sukha dite āgamana,
e tomāra vaidagdhya-vilāsa
tumi—You; nātha—the master; vraja-prāṇa—the life of Vrajabhūmi (Vṛndāvana); vrajera—of Vraja; kara—do; paritrāṇa—deliverance; bahu—many; kārye—in activities; nāhi—there is not; avakāśa—rest; tumi—You; āmāra—My; ramaṇa—enjoyer; sukha—happiness; dite—to give; āgamana—appearing; e—this; tomāra—Your; vaidagdhya-vilāsa—activities of expert transactions.
"My dear Lord, You are the master and the life and soul of Vṛndāvana. Kindly arrange for the deliverance of Vṛndāvana. We have no leisure hours away from our many activities. Actually, You are My enjoyer. You have appeared just to give Me happiness, and this is one of Your expert activities.
The word vaidagdhya means that one is very expert, learned, humorous, cunning, beautiful and expert in manifesting caricatures.
mora vākya nindā māni, kṛṣṇa chāḍi' gelā jāni,
śuna, mora e stuti-vacana
nayanera abhirāma, tumi mora dhana-prāṇa,
hā-hā punaḥ deha daraśana
mora—My; vākya—words; nindā—blasphemy; māni—accepting; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; chāḍi'-giving up; gelā—went away; jāni—I know; śuna—hear; mora—My; e—this; stuti-vacana—words of praise; nayanera—of the eyes; abhirāma—the satisfaction; tumi—You are; mora—My; dhana-prāṇa—wealth and life; -hā—alas; punaḥ—again; deha—give Me; daraśana—audience.
"Taking My words as defamation, Lord Kṛṣṇa has left Me. I know that He is gone, but kindly hear My prayers in praise. You are the satisfaction of My eyes. You are My wealth and My life. Alas, please give Me your audience once again."
stambha, kampa, prasveda, vaivarṇya, aśru, svara-bheda,
deha haila pulake vyāpita
hāse, kānde, nāce, gāya, uṭhi' iti uti dhāya,
kṣaṇe bhūme paḍiyā mūrcchita
stambha—being stunned; kampa—trembling; prasveda—perspiration; vaivarṇya—fading away of the color; aśru—tears; svara-bheda—choking of the voice; deha—body; haila—was; pulake—in joy; vyāpita—pervaded; hāse—laughs; kānde—cries; nāce—dances; gāya—sings; uṭhi'-getting up; iti uti—here and there; dhāya—runs; kṣaṇe—sometimes; bhūme—on the ground; paḍiyā—falling down; mūrcchita—unconscious.
There were different transformations of the body of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu: being stunned, trembling, perspiring, fading away of color, weeping, and choking of the voice. In this way His whole body was pervaded by transcendental joy. As a result, sometimes Caitanya Mahāprabhu would laugh, sometimes cry, sometimes dance and sometimes sing. Sometimes He would get up and run here and there, and sometimes fall on the ground and lose consciousness.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, eight kinds of transcendental change taking place in the body are described. Stambha, being stunned, refers to the mind's becoming transcendentally absorbed. In that state, the peaceful mind is placed on the life air, and different bodily transformations are manifest. These symptoms are visible in the body of an advanced devotee. When life becomes almost inactive, it is called "stunned." The emotions resulting from this condition are joy, fear, astonishment, moroseness and anger. In this condition the power of speech is lost, and there is no movement in the hands and legs. Otherwise, being stunned is a mental condition. Many other symptoms are visible on the entire body in the beginning. These are very subtle, but gradually they become very apparent. When one cannot speak, naturally one's active senses are arrested, and the knowledge-acquiring senses are rendered inoperative. Kampa, trembling of the body, is mentioned in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu as a result of a special kind of fear, anger and joy. This is called vepathu, or kampa. When the body begins to perspire because of joy, fear and anger combined, this is called sveda. Vaivarṇya is described as a change in the bodily color. It is caused by a combination of moroseness, anger and fear. When these emotions are experienced, the complexion turns pale and the body becomes lean and thin. Aśru is explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu as a combination of joy, anger and moroseness that causes water to flow from the eyes without effort. When there is joy and there are tears in the eyes, the temperature of the tears is cold, but when there is anger, the tears are hot. In both cases, the eyes are restless, the eyeballs are red and there is itching. These are all symptoms of aśru. When there is a combination of moroseness, astonishment, anger, joy and fear, there is a choking in the voice. This choking is called gadgada. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu refers to gadgada-ruddhayā girā, or "a faltering voice." In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, pulaka is described as joy, encouragement and fear. When these combine, the hairs on the body stand on end, and this bodily state is called pulaka.
mūrcchāya haila sākṣātkāra, uṭhi' kare huhuṅkāra,
kahe--ei āilā mahāśaya
kṛṣṇera mādhurī-guṇe, nānā bhrama haya mane,
śloka paḍi' karaye niścaya
mūrcchāya—in the swoon; haila—there was; sākṣātkāra—direct meeting; uṭhi'-getting up; kare—does; hu-huṅ-kāra—tumultuous sound; kahe—says; ei—thus; āilā—He has come; mahā-āśaya—the great personality; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; mādhurī—sweetness; guṇe—by qualities; nānā—various; bhrama—mistakes; haya—are; mane—in the mind; śloka—the verse; paḍi'-reciting; karaye—does; niścaya—ascertainment.
When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was thus unconscious, He happened to meet the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Consequently He got up and immediately made a tumultuous sound, very loudly declaring, "Now Kṛṣṇa, the great personality, is present." In this way, because of Kṛṣṇa's sweet qualities, Caitanya Mahāprabhu made different types of mistakes in His mind. Thus by reciting the following verse, He ascertained the presence of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
māraḥ svayaṁ nu madhura-dyuti-maṇḍalaṁ nu
mādhuryam eva nu mano-nayanāmṛtaṁ nu
veṇī-mṛjo nu mama jīvita-vallabho nu
kṛṣṇo 'yam abhyudayate mama locanāya
māraḥ—Cupid; svayam—personally; nu—whether; madhura—sweet; dyuti—of effulgence; maṇḍalam—encirclement; nu—whether; mādhuryam—sweetness; eva—even; nu—certainly; manaḥ-nayana-amṛtam—nectar for the mind and eyes; nu—whether; veṇī-mṛjaḥ—loosening of the hair; nu—whether; mama—My; jīvita-vallabhaḥ—the pleasure of the life and soul; nu—whether; kṛṣṇaḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa; ayam—this; abhyudayate—manifests; mama—My; locanāya—for the eyes.
In the attitude of Rādhārāṇī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu addressed the gopīs, " 'My dear friends, where is that Kṛṣṇa, Cupid personified, who has the effulgence of a kadamba flower, who is sweetness itself, the nectar of My eyes and mind, He who loosens the hair of the gopīs, who is the supreme source of transcendental bliss and My life and soul? Has He come before My eyes again?' "
This is another verse from the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (68).
kibā ei sākṣāt kāma, dyuti-bimba mūrtimān,
ki mādhurya svayaṁ mūrtimanta
kibā mano-netrotsava, kibā prāṇa-vallabha,
satya kṛṣṇa āilā netrānanda
kibā—whether; ei—this; sākṣāt—directly; kāma—Cupid; dyuti-bimba—reflection of the effulgence; mūrtimān—personified; ki—whether; mādhurya—sweetness; svayam—personally; mūrtimanta—personified; kibā—whether; manaḥ-netra-utsava—festival of the mind and eyes; kibā—whether; prāṇa-vallabha—My life and soul; satya—truly; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; āilā—has come; netra-ānanda—the pleasure of My eyes.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then would begin to talk like this: "Is Cupid personified present with the effulgence and reflection of the kadamba tree? Is He the same person, personified sweetness, who is the pleasure of My eyes and mind, who is My life and soul? Has Kṛṣṇa actually come before My eyes ?"
guru--nānā bhāva-gaṇa, śiṣya--prabhura tanu-mana,
nānā rīte satata nācāya
nirveda, viṣāda, dainya, cāpalya, harṣa, dhairya, manyu,
ei nṛtye prabhura kāla yāya
guru—the teacher; nānā—various; bhāva-gaṇa—ecstasies; śiṣya—disciples; prabhura—of Lord Caitanya; tanu-mana—body and mind; nānā—various; rīte—in ways; satata—always; nācāya—causes to dance; nirveda—despondency; viṣāda—moroseness; dainya—humility; cāpalya—restlessness; harṣa—joy; dhairya—endurance; manyu—anger; ei—this; nṛtye—in dancing; prabhura—of the Lord; kāla—time; yāya—passes.
As the spiritual master chastises the disciple and teaches him the art of devotional service, so all the ecstatic symptoms of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu-including despondency, moroseness, humility, restlessness, joy, endurance and anger-all instructed His body and mind. In this way, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu passed His time.
caṇḍīdāsa, vidyāpati, rāyera nāṭaka-gīti,
karṇāmṛta, śrī-gīta-govinda
svarūpa-rāmānanda-sane, mahāprabhu rātri-dine,
gāya, śune--parama ānanda
caṇḍīdāsa—the poet Caṇḍīdāsa; vidyāpati—the poet Vidyāpati; rāyera—of the poet Rāya Rāmānanda; nāṭaka—the Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka; gīti—songs; karṇāmṛta—the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta of Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura; śrī-gīta-govinda—the Gīta-govinda, by Jayadeva Gosvāmī; svarūpaSvarūpa Dāmodara; rāmānanda-sane—with Rāya Rāmānanda; mahāprabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; rātri-dine—day and night; gāya—sings; śune—hears; parama ānanda—with great pleasure.
He also passed His time reading the books and singing the songs of Caṇḍīdāsa and Vidyāpati, and listening to quotations from the Jagannātha-vallabha-nāṭaka, Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta and Gīta-govinda. Thus in the association of Svarūpa Dāmodara and Rāya Rāmānanda, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu passed His days and nights chanting and hearing with great pleasure.
purīra vātsalya mukhya, rāmānandera śuddha-sakhya,
govindādyera śuddha-dāsya-rasa
gadādhara, jagadānanda, svarūpera mukhya rasānanda,
ei cāri bhāve prabhu vaśa
purīra—of Paramānanda Purī; vātsalya—paternal affection; mukhya—chiefly; rāmānandera—of Rāya Rāmānanda; śuddha-sakhya—pure fraternity; govinda-ādyera—of Govinda and others; śuddha-dāsya-rasa—the pure and unalloyed mellow of service; gadādharaGadādhara Paṇḍita; jagadānandaJagadānanda Paṇḍita; svarūpera—of Svarūpa Dāmodara; mukhya—chiefly; rasa-ānanda—tasting the pleasure of conjugal love; ei—these; cāri—in four; bhāve—ecstatic conditions; prabhu—the Lord; vaśa—became obliged.
Among His associates, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu enjoyed paternal loving affection from Paramānanda Purī, friendly affection with Rāmānanda Rāya, unalloyed service from Govinda and others, and humors of conjugal love with Gadādhara, Jagadānanda and Svarūpa Dāmodara. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu enjoyed all these four mellows, and thus He remained obliged to His devotees.
Paramānanda Purī is said to have been Uddhava in Vṛndāvana. His affections with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu were on the platform of paternal love. This was because Paramānanda Purī happened to be the Godbrother of the spiritual master of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Similarly, Rāmānanda Rāya, who is considered an incarnation of Arjuna and by some an incarnation of Viśākhādevī, enjoyed unalloyed fraternal love with the Lord. Unalloyed personal service was enjoyed by Govinda and others. In the presence of His most confidential devotees like Gadādhara Paṇḍita, Jagadānanda and Svarūpa Dāmodara, Caitanya Mahāprabhu enjoyed the ecstatic conditions of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in Her conjugal relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Absorbed in these four transcendental mellows, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu resided in Jagannātha Purī, feeling very much obliged to His devotees.
līlāśuka--martya-jana, tāṅra haya bhāvodgama,
īśvare se--ki ihā vismaya
tāhe mukhya-rasāśraya, ha-iyāchena mahāśaya,
tāte haya sarva-bhāvodaya
līlā-śukaBilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura; martya-jana—a person of this world; tāṅra—of him; haya—there is; bhāva-udgama—manifestation of different ecstasies; īśvare—in the Supreme Lord; se—that; ki—what; ihā—here; vismaya—astonishing; tāhe—in that; mukhya—chief; rasa-āśraya—mellows,; ha-iyāchena—has become; mahā-āśaya—the great personality Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāte—therefore; haya—there is; sarva-bhāva-udaya—a manifestation of all ecstasies.
Līlāśuka [Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura] was an ordinary human being, yet he developed many ecstatic symptoms in his body. What, then, is so astonishing about these symptoms' being manifest in the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead? In the ecstatic mood of conjugal love, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was on the highest platform; therefore, all the exuberant ecstasies were naturally visible in His body.
Līlāśuka is Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura Gosvāmī. He was a South Indian, a brāhmaṇa, and his former name was Śilhaṇa Miśra. When he was a householder, he became attracted to a prostitute named Cintāmaṇi, but eventually he took her advice and became renounced. Thus he wrote a book named Śānti-śataka, and later, by the mercy of Lord Kṛṣṇa and the Vaiṣṇavas, he became a great devotee. Thus he became famous as Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura Gosvāmī. On that elevated platform he wrote a book named Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta, which is very famous amongst Vaiṣṇavas. Since he exhibited so many ecstatic symptoms, people used to call him Līlāśuka.
pūrve vraja-vilāse, yei tina abhilāṣe,
yatneha āsvāda nā haila
śrī-rādhāra bhāva-sāra, āpane kari' aṅgīkāra,
sei tina vastu āsvādila
pūrve—formerly; vraja-vilāse—in the pastimes of Vṛndāvana; yei tina—those three; abhilāṣe—in desires; yatneha—by great endeavor; āsvāda—taste; haila—there was not; śrī-rādhāra—of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; bhāva-sāra—the essence of the ecstasy; āpane—personally; kari'-making; aṅgīkāra—acceptance; sei—those; tina vastu—three subjects; āsvādila—tasted.
During His previous pastimes in Vṛndāvana, Lord Kṛṣṇa desired to enjoy the three different types of ecstasy, but despite great endeavor, He could not taste them. Such ecstasies are the monopoly of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Therefore, in order to taste them, Śrī Kṛṣṇa accepted the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī in the form of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
āpane kari' āsvādane, śikhāila bhakta-gaṇe,
prema-cintāmaṇira prabhu dhanī
nāhi jāne sthānāsthāna, yāre tāre kaila dāna,
āpane—personally; kari'-doing; āsvādane—tasting; śikhāila—He taught; bhakta-gaṇe—to His direct disciples; prema-cintāmaṇira—of the touchstone of love of Godhead; prabhu—the Lord; dhanī—capitalist; nāhi—does not; jāne—know; sthāna-asthāna—the proper place or improper place; yāre—to whomever; tāre—to him; kaila—made; dāna—charity; mahāprabhu—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dātā-śiromaṇi—the most munificent personality.
By personally tasting the mellows of love of Godhead, Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught His direct disciples the process. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is a wealthy capitalist possessing the touchstone of love of God. Not considering whether one is a proper or improper recipient, He gives His treasure to anyone and everyone. Thus He is the most munificent.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's capital is the touchstone of love of Godhead, and consequently He is a great owner of that transcendental treasure. After making unlimited amounts of gold, the touchstone remains the same. Similarly, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, although distributing love of Godhead unlimitedly, still remained the supreme owner of this transcendental opulence. His devotees, who learned it from Him, also had to distribute it munificently all over the world. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, following in the footsteps of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His confidential devotees, is also trying to distribute love of Godhead all over the world through the chanting of the holy names of the Lord-Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.
ei gupta bhāva-sindhu, brahmā nā pāya eka bindu,
hena dhana vilāila saṁsāre
aiche dayālu avatāra, aiche dātā nāhi āra,
guṇa keha nāre varṇibāre
ei—this; gupta—confidential; bhāva-sindhu—ocean of ecstasies; brahmā—Lord Brahmā; —does not; pāya—get; eka—one; bindu—drop; hena—such; dhana—wealth; vilāila—distributed; saṁsāre—all over the world; aiche—such; dayālu—merciful; avatāra—incarnation; aiche—such; dātā—charitable donor; nāhi—there is not; āra—anyone else; guṇa—this quality; keha—anyone; nāre—not able; varṇibāre—to describe.
No one, not even Lord Brahmā, can ascertain or even taste a drop of this confidential ocean of ecstasy, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, out of His causeless mercy, has distributed this love of Godhead all over the world. Thus there cannot be any incarnation more munificent than Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. There is no greater donor. Who can describe His transcendental qualities?
kahibāra kathā nahe, kahile keha nā bujhaye,
aiche citra caitanyera raṅga
sei se bujhite pāre, caitanyera kṛpā yāṅre,
haya tāṅra dāsānudāsa-saṅga
kahibāra kathā nahe—not a subject matter to describe freely; kahile—if spoken; keha—someone; bujhaye—not understands; aiche—in that way; citra—wonderful; caitanyera—of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; raṅga—pastimes; sei se—whoever; bujhite—to understand; pāre—is able; caitanyera—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛpā—the mercy; yāṅre—unto whom; haya—becomes; tāṅra—His; dāsa-anudāsa-saṅga—association with the servant of the servant.
Such topics are not to be discussed freely because if they are, no one will understand them. Such are the wonderful pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Unto one who is able to understand, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has shown mercy by giving him the association of the servant of His own servant.
An ordinary person cannot understand the transcendental ecstasies in the mode of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Unfit persons who utilize them are perverted into the sahajiyā, bāula and other sampradāyas. Thus the teachings are perverted. Even learned scholars in the academic field cannot understand the transcendental bliss and ecstasy exhibited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His pure devotees. One must be fit to understand the purport of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's activities.
caitanya-līlā-ratna-sāra, svarūpera bhāṇḍāra,
teṅho thuilā raghunāthera kaṇṭhe
tāhāṅ kichu ye śuniluṅ, tāhā ihāṅ vistāriluṅ,
bhakta-gaṇe diluṅ ei bheṭe
caitanya-līlā—the pastimes of Lord Caitanya; ratna-sāra—the topmost jewel; svarūpera—of Svarūpa Dāmodara; bhāṇḍāra—of the storehouse; teṅho—he; thuilā—kept; raghunāthera kaṇṭhe—in the throat of Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; tāhāṅ—there; kichu ye—whatever little; śuniluṅ—I have heard; tāhā—that only; ihāṅ—in this book; vistāriluṅ—I have described; bhakta-gaṇe—to the pure devotees; diluṅ—I gave; ei—this; bheṭe—presentation.
The pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are the topmost of jewels. They have been kept in the storehouse of Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī, who has explained them to Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, who has repeated them to me. Whatever little I have heard from Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī I have described in this book, which is presented to all devotees.
All the activities of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu were noted by His personal secretary Svarūpa Dāmodara and repeated to Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, who memorized them. Whatever Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī heard is recorded in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta. This is called the paramparā system, from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to Svarūpa Dāmodara to Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī to Kavirāja Gosvāmī. Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī has distributed this information in his book Caitanya-caritāmṛta. In other words, Caitanya-caritāmṛta is the essence of the instruction given through the paramparā system of the disciplic succession stemming from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
yadi keha hena kaya, grantha kaila śloka-maya,
itara jane nāribe bujhite
prabhura yei ācaraṇa, sei kari varṇana,
sarva-citta nāri ārādhite
yadi-if; keha-someone; hena-thus; kaya-says; grantha-this book; kaila-is made; śloka-maya-with various Sanskrit verses; itara-ordinary; jane-persons; nāribe bujhite-will not be able to understand; prabhura-of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; yei-whatever; ācaraṇa-activities; sei-that; kari-I do; varṇana-description; sarva-citta-all hearts; nāri-I am unable; ārādhite-to please.
If one says that Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta is full of Sanskrit verses and therefore not understandable by a common man, I reply that what I have described are the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and that for me to satisfy everyone is not possible.
Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī and one who follows in his footsteps do not have to cater to the public. Their business is simply to satisfy the previous ācāryas and describe the pastimes of the Lord. One who is able to understand can relish this exalted transcendental literature, which is actually not meant for ordinary persons like scholars and literary men. Generally, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's pastimes recorded in Caitanya-caritāmṛta are studied in universities and scholastic circles from a literary and historical point of view, but actually Caitanya-caritāmṛta is not a subject matter for research workers or literary scholars. It is simply meant for those devotees who have dedicated their lives to the service of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
nāhi kāhāṅ savirodha, nāhi kāhāṅ anurodha,
sahaja vastu kari vivaraṇa
yadi haya rāgoddeśa, tāhāṅ haye āveśa,
sahaja vastu nā yāya likhana
nāhi—there is not; kāhāṅ—anywhere; sa-virodha—opposing element; nāhi—there is not; kāhāṅ—anywhere; anurodha—acceptance of someone's opinion; sahaja—simple; vastu—substance; kari—I do; vivaraṇa—description; yadi—if; haya—there is; rāga-uddeśa—someone's attraction or obstruction; tāhāṅ—there; haye—becoming; āveśa—involved; sahaja—simple; vastu—substance; yāya—is not possible; likhana—the writing.
In this Caitanya-caritāmṛta there is no contradictory conclusion, nor is anyone else's opinion accepted. I have written this book to describe the simple substance as I have heard it from superiors. If I become involved in someone's likes and dislikes, I cannot possibly write the simple truth.
The simplest thing for human beings is to follow their predecessors. Judgment according to mundane senses is not a very easy process. Whatever is awakened by attachment to one's predecessor is the way of devotional service as indicated by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The author says, however, that he cannot consider the opinions of those who become attracted or repelled by such things, because one cannot write impartially in that way. In other words, the author is stating that he did not inject personal opinion in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta. He has simply described his spontaneous understanding from superiors. If he had been carried away by someone's likes and dislikes, he could not have written of such a sublime subject matter in such an easy way. The actual facts are understandable to real devotees. When these facts are recorded, they are very congenial to the devotees, but one who is not a devotee cannot understand. Such is the subject matter for realization. Mundane scholarship and its concomitant attachments and detachments cannot arouse spontaneous love of Godhead. Such love cannot be described by a mundane scholar.
yebā nāhi bujhe keha, śunite śunite seha,
ki adbhuta caitanya-carita
kṛṣṇe upajibe prīti, jānibe rasera rīti,
śunilei baḍa haya hita
yebā—whoever; nāhi—does not; bujhe—understand; keha—someone; śunite śunite—hearing and hearing; seha—he; ki—what; adbhuta—wonderful; caitanya-carita—pastimes of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇe—unto Kṛṣṇa; upajibe—will develop; prīti—love; jānibe—he will understand; rasera—of transcendental mellows; rīti—the ways; śunilei—simply by hearing; baḍa—great; haya—there is; hita—benefit.
If one does not understand in the beginning but continues to hear again and again, the wonderful effects of Lord Caitanya's pastimes will bring love for Kṛṣṇa. Gradually one will come to understand the loving affairs between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs and other associates of Vṛndāvana. Everyone is advised to continue to hear over and over again in order to greatly benefit.
bhāgavata--śloka-maya, ṭīkā tāra saṁskṛta haya,
tabu kaiche bujhe tri-bhuvana
ihāṅ śloka dui cāri, tāra vyākhyā bhāṣā kari,
kene nā bujhibe sarva-jana

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