Chapter 23
Life's Ultimate Goal-Love of Godhead
The following summary study of the Twenty-third Chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In this chapter Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu describes the symptoms of emotion and love and the awakening of one's original loving relationship with the Lord, as well as the characteristics of a devotee who has actually attained that stage. He then describes the gradual increase of love of God up to the point of mahābhāva. He then describes the five divisions of attraction and how they continue. He also describes the mellow derived from conjugal love, which is the supreme emotion. Conjugal love is divided into two categories-svakīya and parakīya. Svakīya refers to loving affairs between husband and wife, and parakīya refers to loving affairs between two lovers. There are a number of descriptions in this connection. There is also a description of the sixty-four transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has twenty-five transcendental qualities.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then describes those candidates who are eligible to taste the mellows of devotional service. Their fundamental natures and their varieties are also described. The Lord also informs Sanātana Gosvāmī about all the confidential paraphernalia of devotional service. He gives a description of Goloka Vṛndāvana, where the Lord is engaged in His eternal pastimes described in the Hari-vaṁśa. There is also an opposing and favorable description of keśa-avatāra. All these instructions are mentioned herein.
In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu blessed Sanātana Gosvāmī, placing His own hand on his head. Thus Sanātana received the power to describe these subjects in books like Hari-bhakti-vilāsa.
cirād adattaṁ nija-gupta-vittaṁ
svaprema-nāmāmṛtam atyudāraḥ
āpāmaraṁ yo vitatāra gauraḥ
kṛṣṇo janebhyas tam ahaṁ prapadye
cirāt—for a long time; adattam—not given; nija-gupta-vittam—His own personal confidential property; sva-prema—of love for Him; nāma—of the holy name; amṛtam—the ambrosia; ati-udāraḥ—most munificent; ā-pāmaram—even down to the lowest of men; yaḥ—one who; vitatāra—distributed; gauraḥ—Śrī Gaurasundara; kṛṣṇaḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself; janebhyaḥ—to the people in general; tam—to Him; aham—I; prapadye—offer obeisances.
The most munificent Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Gaurakṛṣṇa, distributed to everyone-even the lowest of men-His own confidential treasury in the form of the nectar of love of Himself and the holy name. This was never given to the people at any time before. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.
jaya jaya gauracandra jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya—all glories; gauracandra—to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya—all glories; nityānanda—to Nityānanda Prabhu; jaya—all glories; advaita-candra—to Advaita Ācārya; jaya—all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—to the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
All glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu!
ebe śuna bhakti-phala 'prema'-prayojana
yāhāra śravaṇe haya bhakti-rasa-jñāna
ebe śuna—now hear; bhakti-phala—the result of practice of devotional service; prema—love of Godhead; prayojana—the ultimate goal of life; yāhāra śravaṇe—by hearing of which; haya—there is; bhakti-rasa-jñāna—transcendental knowledge of the mellows of devotional service.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, "Now hear, O Sanātana, about the result of devotional service, which is love of Godhead, life's ultimate goal. If one hears this description, he will be enlightened in the transcendental mellows of devotional service.
kṛṣṇe rati gāḍha haile 'prema'-abhidhāna
kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasera ei 'sthāyi-bhāva'-nāma
kṛṣṇe—unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; rati—affection; gāḍha—deep; haile—when it becomes; prema-abhidhāna—called love of God; kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasera—of the mellows of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa; ei—this sthāyi-bhāva-nāma—called sthāyi-bhāva.
"When affection for Kṛṣṇa becomes deeper, one attains love of Godhead in devotional service. Such a position is called sthāyi-bhāva, permanent enjoyment of the mellows of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa.
rucibhiś citta-masṛṇya-
kṛd asau bhāva ucyate
śuddha-sattva—by unadultered goodness; viśeṣa—distinguished; ātmā—whose nature; prema—of love of God; sūrya—like the sun; aṁśu—a ray; sāmya-bhāk—which is similar to; rucibhiḥ—by different tastes; citta—of the heart; masṛṇya—softness; kṛt—which causes; asau—that softness; bhāvaḥ—emotion; ucyate—is called.
" 'When devotional service is situated on the transcendental platform of pure goodness, it is like a ray of the sunlight of love for Kṛṣṇa. At such a time, devotional service causes the heart to be softened by various tastes, and it is called bhāva [emotion].'
This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.1).
e dui,--bhāvera 'svarūpa', 'taṭastha' lakṣaṇa
premera lakṣaṇa ebe śuna, sanātana
ei dui—these two; bhāvera—of emotion; sva-rūpa—constitutional; taṭastha—marginal; lakṣaṇa—symptoms; premera—of love; lakṣaṇa—the symptoms; ebe—now; śuna—hear; sanātana—O Sanātana.
"Bhāva [emotion] has two different symptoms-constitutional and marginal. Now, My dear Sanātana, listen to the symptoms of love.
The word śuddha-sattva-viśeṣātmā means "situated on the transcendental platform of pure goodness." In this way the soul is purified of all material contamination, and this position is called svarūpa-lakṣaṇa, the constitutional symptom of bhāva, emotion. By various tastes, one's heart is softened, and there is an awakening of one's loving propensity to render spontaneous service to the Lord. This is called taṭastha-lakṣaṇa, the marginal symptom of bhāva.
samyaṅ masṛṇita-svānto
bhāvaḥ sa eva sāndrātmā
budhaiḥ premā nigadyate
samyak—completely; masṛṇita-svāntaḥ—which makes the heart soft; mamatva—of a sense of ownership; atiśaya-aṅkitaḥ—marked with an abundance; bhāvaḥ—emotion; saḥ—that; eva—certainly; sāndra-ātmā—whose nature is very condensed; budhaiḥ—by learned persons; premā—love of Godhead; nigadyate—is described.
" 'When that bhāva softens the heart completely, becomes endowed with a great feeling of possessiveness in relation to the Lord and becomes very much condensed and intensified, it is called prema [love of Godhead] by learned scholars.
This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.1).
ananya-mamatā viṣṇau
mamatā prema-saṅgatā
bhaktir ity ucyate bhīṣma-
ananya-mamatā—having a sense of relationships with no others; viṣṇau—in Lord Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa; mamatā—the sense of ownership; prema-saṅgatā—endowed only with love; bhaktiḥ—devotional service; iti—thus; ucyate—is said; bhīṣma—by Bhīṣma; prahlāda—by Prahlāda Mahārāja; uddhava—by Uddhava; nāradaiḥ—and by Nārada.
" 'When one develops an unflinching sense of ownership or possessiveness in relation to Lord Viṣṇu, or, in other words, when one thinks Viṣṇu and no one else to be the only object of love, such an awakening is called bhakti [devotion] by exalted persons like Bhīṣma, Prahlāda, Uddhava and Nārada.'
This verse, quoted from the Nārada-pañcarātra, is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.2).
kona bhāgye kona jīvera 'śraddhā' yadi haya
tabe sei jīva 'sādhu-saṅga' ye karaya
kona bhāgye—by some good fortune; kona jīvera—of some living entity; śraddhā yadi haya—if there is faith; tabe—then; sei jīva—that living entity; sādhu-saṅga—association with devotees; ye—certainly; karaya—makes.
"If, by good fortune, a living entity develops faith in Kṛṣṇa, he begins to associate with devotees.
sādhu-saṅga haite haya 'śravaṇa-kīrtana'
sādhana-bhaktye haya 'sarvānartha-nivartana'
sādhu-saṅga haite—from association with devotees; haya—there is; śravaṇa-kīrtana—hearing, chanting and so on; sādhana-bhaktye—by devotional service; haya—there is; sarva—all; anartha-nivartana—disappearance of unwanted thing.
"When one is encouraged in devotional service by the association of devotees, one becomes free from all unwanted contamination by following the regulative principles and chanting and hearing.
anartha-nivṛtti haile bhaktye 'niṣṭhā' haya
niṣṭhā haite śravaṇādye 'ruci' upajaya
anartha-nivṛtti—disappearance of all unwanted contamination; haile—when there is; bhaktye—in devotional service; niṣṭhā—firm faith; haya—there is; niṣṭhā haite—from such firm faith; śravaṇa-ādye—in hearing, chanting and so on; ruci—taste; upajaya—awakens.
"When one is freed from all unwanted contamination, he advances with firm faith. When firm faith in devotional service awakens, a taste for hearing and chanting also awakens.
ruci haite bhaktye haya 'āsakti' pracura
āsakti haite citte janme kṛṣṇe prīty-aṅkura
ruci haite—from such a taste; bhaktye—in devotional service; haya—there is; āsakti—attachment; pracura—deep; āsakti haite—from attachment; citte—within the heart; janme—appears; kṛṣṇe—for Kṛṣṇa; prīti-aṅkura—the seed of affection.
"After taste is awakened, a deep attachment arises, and from that attachment the seed of love for Kṛṣṇa grows in the heart.
sei 'bhāva' gāḍha haile dhare 'prema'-nāma
sei premā 'prayojana' sarvānanda-dhāma
sei bhāva—that emotional condition; gāḍha haile—when it becomes intensified; dhare—takes; prema-nāma—the name love of Godhead; sei premā—that love of Godhead; prayojana—the ultimate goal of life; sarva-ānanda-dhāma—the reservoir of all pleasure.
"When that ecstatic emotional stage intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. Such love is life's ultimate goal and the reservoir of all pleasure.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura summarizes this growth of love of Godhead as a gradual process. A person becomes interested in devotional service by some good fortune. Eventually he becomes interested in pure devotional service without material contamination. At that point, a person wants to associate with devotees. As a result of this association, he becomes more and more interested in discharging devotional service and hearing and chanting. The more one is interested in hearing and chanting, the more he is purified of material contamination. Liberation from material contamination is called anartha-nivṛtti, indicating a diminishing of all unwanted things. This is the test of development in devotional service. If one actually develops the devotional attitude, he must be freed from the material contamination of illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating. These are the preliminary symptoms. When one is freed from all material contamination, his firm faith awakens in devotional service. When firm faith develops, a taste arises, and by that taste, one becomes attached to devotional service. When this attachment intensifies, the seed of love of Kṛṣṇa fructifies. This position is called prīti or rati (affection) or bhāva (emotion). When rati intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. This love of Godhead is actually life's highest perfection and the reservoir of all pleasure.
Thus devotional life is divided into two stages-sādhana-bhakti and bhāva-bhakti. Sādhana-bhakti refers to the development of devotional service through the regulative principles. The basic principle for the execution of devotional service is faith. Above that, there is association with devotees, and after that there is initiation by a bona fide spiritual master. After initiation, when one follows the regulative principles of devotional service, one becomes freed from all unwanted things. In this way one becomes firmly fixed and gradually develops a taste for devotional service. The more the taste grows, the more one desires to render service to the Lord. In this way one becomes attached to a particular mellow in the Lord's service-śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and madhura. As a result of such attachment, bhāva develops. Bhāva-bhakti is the platform of purified goodness. By such purified goodness, one's heart melts in devotional service. Bhāva-bhakti is the first seed of love of Godhead. This emotional stage is there before one attains pure love. When that emotional stage intensifies, it is called prema-bhakti, or transcendental love of Godhead. This gradual process is also described in the following two verses found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.15-16).
TEXTS 14-15
ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-
saṅgo 'tha bhajana-kriyā
tato 'nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt
tato niṣṭhā rucis tataḥ
athāsaktis tato bhāvas
tataḥ premābhyudañcati
sādhakānām ayaṁ premṇaḥ
prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ
ādau—in the beginning; śraddhā—firm faith, or disinterest in material affairs and interest in spiritual advancement; tataḥ—thereafter; sādhu-saṅgaḥ—association with pure devotees; atha—then; bhajana-kriyā—performance of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa (surrendering to the spiritual master and being encouraged by the association of devotees, so that initiation takes place); tataḥ—thereafter; anartha-nivṛttiḥ—the diminishing of all unwanted habits; syāt—there should be; tataḥ—then; niṣṭhā—firm faith; ruciḥ—taste; tataḥ—thereafter; atha—then; āsaktiḥ—attachment; tataḥ—then; bhāvaḥ—emotion of affection; tataḥ—thereafter; prema—love of God; abhyudañcati—arises; sādhakānām—of the devotees practicing Kṛṣṇa consciousness; ayam—this; premṇaḥ—of love of Godhead; prādurbhāve—in the appearance; bhavet—is; kramaḥ—the chronological order.
" 'In the beginning there must be faith. Then one becomes interested in associating with pure devotees. Thereafter one is initiated by the spiritual master and executes the regulative principles under his orders. Thus one is freed from all unwanted habits and becomes firmly fixed in devotional service. Thereafter, one develops taste and attachment. This is the way of sādhana-bhakti, the execution of devotional service according to the regulative principles. Gradually emotions intensify, and finally there is an awakening of love. This is the gradual development of love of Godhead for the devotee interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.'
satāṁ prasaṅgān mama vīrya-saṁvido
bhavanti hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ
taj-joṣaṇād āśv apavarga-vartmani
śraddhā ratir bhaktir anukramiṣyati
satām—of the devotees; prasaṅgāt—bu the intimate association; mama—of Me; vīrya-saṁvidaḥ—talks full of spiritual potency; bhavanti—appear; hṛt—to the heart; karṇa—and to the ears; rasa-āyanāḥ—a source of sweetness; kathāḥ—talks; tat—of them; joṣaṇāt—from proper cultivation; āśu—quickly; apavarga—of liberation; vartmani—on the path; śraddhā—faith; ratiḥ—attraction; bhaktiḥ—love; anukramiṣyati—will follow one after another.
" 'The spiritually powerful message of Godhead can be properly discussed only in a society of devotees, and it is greatly pleasing to hear in that association. If one hears from devotees, the way of transcendental experience quickly opens to him, and gradually he attains firm faith that in due course develops into attraction and devotion.'
This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.25.25).
yāṅhāra hṛdaye ei bhāvāṅkura haya
tāṅhāte eteka cihna sarva-śāstre kaya
yāṅhāra—of whom; hṛdaye—in the heart; ei—this; bhāva-aṅkura—seed of emotion; haya—there is; tāṅhāte—in him; eteka—these; cihna—symptoms; sarva-śāstre—all revealed scriptures; kaya—say.
"If one actually has the seed of transcendental emotion in his heart, the symptoms will be visible in his activities. That is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.
TEXTS 18-19
kṣāntir avyartha-kālatvaṁ
viraktir māna-śūnyatā
āśā-bandhaḥ samutkaṇṭhā
nāma-gāne sadā ruciḥ
āsaktis tad-guṇākhyāne
prītis tad-vasati-sthale
ity ādayo 'nubhāvāḥ syur
jāta-bhāvāṅkure jane
kṣāntiḥ—forgiveness; avyartha-kālatvam—being free from wasting time; viraktiḥ—detachment; māna-śūnyatā—absence of false prestige; āśā-bandhaḥ—hope; samutkaṇṭhā—eagerness; nāma-gāne—in chanting the Holy names; sadā—always; ruciḥ—taste; āsaktiḥ—attachment; tat—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; guṇa-ākhyāne—in describing the transcendental qualities; prītiḥ—affection; tat—His; vasati-sthale—in places of residence (the temple or holy places); iti—thus; ādayaḥ—and so on; anubhāvāḥ—the signs; syuḥ—are; jāta—developed; bhāva-aṅkure—whose seed of ecstatic emotion; jane—in a person.
" 'When the seed of ecstatic emotion for Kṛṣṇa fructifies, the following nine symptoms manifest in one's behavior: forgiveness, concern that time should not be wasted, detachment, absence of false prestige, hope, eagerness, a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord, attachment to descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord, and affection for those places where the Lord resides-that is, a temple or a holy place like Vṛndāvana. These are all called anubhāva, subordinate signs of ecstatic emotion. They are visible in a person in whose heart the seed of love of God has begun to fructify.'
These two verses are found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.25-26).
ei nava prīty-aṅkura yāṅra citte haya
prākṛta-kṣobhe tāṅra kṣobha nāhi haya
ei—this; nava—nine; prīti-aṅkura—fructification of the seed of love; yāṅra—of whom; citte—in the mind; haya—there is; prākṛta—material; kṣobhe—in agitation; tāṅra—his; kṣobha—agitation; nāhi haya—there is not.
"If love for Kṛṣṇa in a seedling state has fructified in one's heart, one is not agitated by material things.
taṁ mopayātaṁ pratiyantu viprā
gaṅgā ca devī dhṛta-cittam īśe
dvijopasṛṣṭaḥ kuhakas takṣako vā
daśatv alaṁ gāyata viṣṇu-gāthāḥ
tam—him; —me; upayātam—surrendered; pratiyantu—you may know; viprāḥ—O brāhmaṇas; gaṅgā—mother Ganges; ca—and; devī—the demigoddess; dhṛta—offered; cittam—whose mind; īśe—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dvija-upasṛṣṭaḥ—created by the brāhmaṇa; kuhakaḥ—some trickery; takṣakaḥ—snake-bird; —or; daśatu—let it bite; alam—never mind; gāyata—chant; viṣṇu-gāthāḥ—the holy names of Lord Viṣṇu.'
" 'O brāhmaṇas, just accept me as a completely surrendered soul, and let mother Ganges, the representative of the Lord, also accept me in that way, for I have already taken the lotus feet of the Lord into my heart. Let the snakebird-or whatever magical thing the brāhmaṇa created-bite me at once. I only desire that you all continue singing the deeds of Lord Viṣṇu.'
This is a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.19.15) spoken by Mahārāja Parīkṣit while he was sitting on the bank of the Ganges expecting to be bitten by a snakebird summoned by the curse of a brāhmaṇa boy named Śṛṅgi, who was the son of a great sage named Śamīka. News of the curse was conveyed to the King, who prepared for his imminent death. Many great saintly persons, sages, brāhmaṇas, kings and demigods came to see him in his last days. Mahārāja Parīkṣit, however, was not at all afraid of being bitten by the snake-bird. Indeed, he requested all the great personalities assembled to continue chanting the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu.
kṛṣṇa-sambandha vinā kāla vyartha nāhi yāya
kṛṣṇa-sambandha vinā—without a connection with Kṛṣṇa; kāla—time; vyartha—useless; nāhi yāya—does not become.
"Not a moment should be lost. Every moment should be utilized for Kṛṣṇa or connected with Him.
Mahārāja Parīkṣit's expression of anxiety is explained in this verse. He says, "Let whatever is destined to happen take place. It doesn't matter. Just let me see that not a moment of my time is wasted without a relationship with Kṛṣṇa." One has to tolerate all obstacles on the path of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and one has to see that not a moment of his life is wasted outside of Kṛṣṇa's service.
vāgbhiḥ stuvanto manasā smarantas
tanvā namanto 'py aniśaṁ na tṛptāḥ
bhaktāḥ śravan-netra-jalāḥ samagram
āyūr harer eva samarpayanti
vāgbhiḥ—by words; stuvantaḥ—offering prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; manasā—by the mind; smarantaḥ—remembering; tanvā—by the body; namantaḥ—offering obeisances; api—although; aniśam—all the time; na tṛptāḥ—not satisfied; bhaktāḥ—the devotees; śravat—shedding; netra-jalāḥ—tears from the eyes; samagram—the whole; āyūḥ—life; hareḥ—to Kṛṣṇa; eva—only; samarpayanti—dedicate.
" 'With their words, they offer prayers to the Lord. With their minds, they always remember the Lord. With their bodies, they offer obeisances to the Lord. Despite all these activities, they are still not satisfied. This is the nature of pure devotees. Shedding tears from their eyes, they dedicate their whole lives to the Lord's service.'
This verse from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.29).
bhukti, siddhi, indriyārtha tāre nāhi bhāya
bhukti—material enjoyment; siddhi—mystic power; indriya-artha—the objects of the senses; tāre—unto him; nāhi bhāya—do not appeal.
"In the material field, people are interested in material enjoyment, mystic power and sense gratification. However, these things do not appeal to the devotee at all.
yo dustyajān dāra-sutān
suḥrd-rājyaṁ hṛdi spṛśaḥ
jahau yuvaiva malavad
yaḥ—who (Bharata Mahārāja); dustyajān—difficult to give up; dāra-sutān—wife and children; suḥrt—friends; rājyam—kingdom; hṛdi spṛśaḥ—dear to the core of the heart; jahau—gave up; yuvā—youthful; eva—at that time; malavat—like stool; uttamaḥ-śloka-lālasaḥ—being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
" 'King Bharata was very eager to attain the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, who is called uttama-śloka because poems and prayers are offered to Him for His favor. In his youth, King Bharata gave up his attractive wife and children, as well as his beloved friends and opulent kingdom, just as one gives up stool after passing it.'
These are the signs of virakti (detachment) found in a person who has developed bhāva, the preliminary stage of love of Godhead; This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (5.14.43).
'sarvottama' āpanāke 'hīna' kari māne
sarva-uttama—although standing above all; āpanāke—himself; hīna kari—as the lowest; māne—considers.
"Although a pure devotee's standard is above all, he still considers himself to be in the lowest stage of life.
harau ratiṁ vahann eṣa
narendrāṇāṁ śikhāmaṇiḥ
bhikṣām aṭann ari-pure
śva-pākam api vandate
harau—toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ratim—affection; vahan—carrying; eṣaḥ—this one; nara-indrāṇām—of all the kings; śikhā-maṇiḥ—brilliant crown jewel; bhikṣām—begging alms; aṭan—wandering for; ari-pure—even in the city of enemies; śva-pākam—the fifth-grade caṇḍālas; api—even; vandate—worships.
" 'Bharata Mahārāja always carried affection for Kṛṣṇa within his heart. Although Bharata Mahārāja was the crown jewel of kings, he was still wandering about and begging alms in the city of his enemies. He was even offering respects to caṇḍālas, low-class men who eat dogs.'
This is a quotation from Padma Purāṇa.
'kṛṣṇa kṛpā karibena'--dṛḍha kari' jāne
kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛpā karibena—will show His mercy; dṛḍha kari'-making firm; jāne—he believes.
"A fully surrendered devotee always hopes that Lord Kṛṣṇa will be kind to him. This hope is very firm in him.
na premā śravaṇādi-bhaktir api vā yogo 'thavā vaiṣṇavo
jñānaṁ vā śubha-karma vā kiyad aho saj-jātir apy asti vā
hīnārthādhika-sādhake tvayi tathāpy acchedya-mūlā satī
he gopī-jana-vallabha vyathayate hā hā mad-āśaiva mām
na—not; premā—love of Godhead; śravaṇa-ādi—consisting of chanting, hearing and so on; bhaktiḥ—devotional service; api—also; —or; yogaḥ—the power of mystic yoga; athavā—or; vaiṣṇavaḥ—befitting a devotee; jñānam—knowledge; —or; śubha-karma—pious activities; —or; kiyat—a little; aho—O my Lord; sat-jātiḥ—birth in a good family; api—even; asti—there is; —or; hīna-artha-adhika-sādhake—who bestows greater benedictions upon one who is fallen and possesses no good qualities; tvayi—unto You; tathāpi—still; acchedya-mūlā—whose root is uncuttable; satī—being; he—O; gopī-jana-vallabha—most dear friend of the gopīs; vyathayate—gives pain; —alas; mat—my; āśā—hope; eva—certainly; mām—to me.
" 'O my Lord, I do not have any love for You, nor am I qualified for discharging devotional service by chanting and hearing. Nor do I possess the mystic power of a Vaiṣṇava, knowledge or pious activities. Nor do I belong to a very high-caste family. On the whole, I do not possess anything. Still, O beloved of the gopīs, because You bestow Your mercy on the most fallen, I have an unbreakable hope that is constantly in my heart. That hope is always giving me pain.'
This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.35).
samutkaṇṭhā haya sadā lālasā-pradhāna
samutkaṇṭhā—eagerness; haya—is; sadā—always; lālasā—ardent desire; pradhāna—chiefly characterized by.
"This eagerness is chiefly characterized by an ardent desire to associate with the Lord.
tvac-chaiśavaṁ tri-bhuvanādbhutam ity avehi
mac-cāpalaṁ ca tava vā mama vādhigamyam
tat kiṁ karomi viralaṁ muralī-vilāsi
mugdhaṁ mukhāmbujam udīkṣitum īkṣaṇābhyām
tvat—Your; śaiśavam—early age; tri-bhuvana—within the three worlds; adbhutam—wonderful; iti—thus; avehi—know; mat-cāpalam—My unsteadiness; ca—and; tava—of You; —or; mama—of Me; —or; adhigamyam—to bu understood; tat—that; kim—what; karomi—I do; viralam—in solitude; muralī-vilāsi—O player of the flute; mugdham—attractive; mukha-ambujam—lotuslike face; udīkṣitum—to see sufficiently; īkṣaṇābhyām—by the eyes.
" 'O Kṛṣṇa, O flute player, the sweetness of Your early age is wonderful within these three worlds. You know My unsteadiness, and I know Yours. No one else knows about this. I want to see Your beautiful, attractive face somewhere in a solitary place, but how can this be accomplished?'
This is a verse from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (32).
nāma-gāne sadā ruci, laya kṛṣṇa-nāma
nāma-gāne—in chanting the holy names; sadā—constantly; ruci—taste,relish; laya—takes; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra.
"Due to having great relish for the holy name, one is inclined to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra constantly.
dṛg-indīvarādya govinda
tava madhura-svara-kaṇṭhī
gāyati nāmāvalīṁ bālā
rodana-bindu—with teardrops; maranda—like the nectar or juice of flowers; syandi—pouring; dṛk-indīvarā—whose lotus eyes; ādya—today; govinda—O my Lord Govinda; tava—Your; madhura-svara-kaṇṭhī—who has a very sweet voice; gāyati—sings; nāma-āvalīm—holy names; bālā—this young girl (Rādhikā).
" 'O Govinda, this youthful girl named Rādhikā is today constantly pouring forth tears like nectar falling from flowers. She is also singing Your holy name in a sweet voice.'
This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.38).
kṛṣṇa-guṇākhyāne haya sarvadā āsakti
kṛṣṇa-guṇa-ākhyāne—in describing the transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa; haya—there is; sarvadā—always; āsakti—attachment.
"At this stage of bhāva, a devotee has awakened the tendency to chant and describe the transcendental qualities of the Lord. He has attachment for this process.
madhuraṁ madhuraṁ vapur asya vibhor
madhuraṁ madhuraṁ vadanaṁ madhuram
madhu-gandhi mṛḍu-smitam etad aho
madhuraṁ madhuraṁ madhuraṁ madhuram
madhuram—sweet; madhuram—sweet; vapuḥ—the transcendental form; asya—His; vibhoḥ—of the Lord; madhuram—sweet; madhuram—sweet; vadanam—face; madhuram—more sweet; madhu-gandhi—the fragrance of honey; mṛḍu-smitam—soft smiling; etat—this; aho—oh; madhuram—sweet; madhuram—sweet; madhuram—sweet; madhuram—still more sweet.
" 'O my Lord, the transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is very sweet, and His face is even sweeter than His body. The soft smile on His face, which is like the fragrance of honey, is sweeter still.'
This is a verse quoted from Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura's Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (92).
kṛṣṇa-līlā-sthāne kare sarvadā vasati
kṛṣṇa-līlā-sthāne—in the place where Kṛṣṇa has His pastimes; kare—makes; sarvadā—always; vasati—abode.
"A devotee absorbed in ecstatic emotion for Kṛṣṇa always resides in a place where Kṛṣṇa's pastimes were performed.
kadāhaṁ yamunā-tīre
nāmāni tava kīrtayan
udbāṣpaḥ puṇḍarīkākṣa
racayiṣyāmi tāṇḍavam
kadā—when; aham—I; yamunā-tīre—on the bank of the Yamunā; nāmāni—holy names; tava—Your; kīrtayan—chanting; udbāṣpaḥ—full of tears; puṇḍarīka-akṣa—O lotus-eyed one; racayiṣyāmi—I shall create; tāṇḍavam—dancing like a madman.
" 'O Lord Puṇḍarīkākṣa, while chanting Your holy name with tears in my eyes, when shall I dance in ecstasy on the bank of the Yamunā?'
This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.156).
kṛṣṇe 'ratira' cihna ei kailuṅ vivaraṇa
'kṛṣṇa-premera' cihna ebe śuna sanātana
kṛṣṇe—for Kṛṣṇa; ratira—of attraction; cihna—the symptoms; ei—all these; kailuṅ vivaraṇa—I have described; kṛṣṇa-premera—of love for Lord Kṛṣṇa; cihna—the symptoms; ebe—now; śuna sanātana—please hear, Sanātana.
"These are the symptoms of a person who has developed attraction [bhāva] for Kṛṣṇa. Now let me describe the symptoms of a person who is actually elevated to love of Kṛṣṇa. O Sanātana, please hear this from Me.
yāṅra citte kṛṣṇa-premā karaye udaya
tāṅra vākya, kriyā, mudrā vijñeha nā bujhaya
yāṅra citte—in whose heart; kṛṣṇa-premā—love of Kṛṣṇa; karaye udaya—awakens; tāṅra—his; vākya—words; kriyā—activities; mudrā—symptoms; vijñeha—even a learned scholar; bujhaya—does not understand.
"Even the most learned man cannot understand the words, activities and symptoms of a person situated in love of Godhead.
dhanyasyāyaṁ nava-premā
yasyonmīlati cetasi
antarvāṇibhir apy asya
mudrā suṣṭhu sudurgamā
dhanyasya—of a most fortunate person; ayam—this; navaḥ—new; premā—love of Godhead; yasya—of whom; unmīlati—manifests; cetasi—in the heart; antarvāṇibhiḥ—by persons well versed in śāstras; api—even; asya—of him; mudrā—symptoms; suṣṭhu—exceedingly; sudurgamā—difficult to understand.
" 'Even a most learned scholar cannot understand the activities and symptoms of an exalted personality in whose heart love of Godhead has awakened.'
This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.17).
evaṁvrataḥ sva-priya-nāma-kīrtyā
jātānurāgo druta-citta uccaiḥ
hasaty atho roditi rauti gāyaty
unmādavan nṛtyati loka-bāhyaḥ
evam-vrataḥ—when one thus engages in a vow to chant and dance; sva—own; priya—very dear; nāma—the holy name; kīrtyā—by chanting; jāta—in this way develops; anurāgaḥ—attachment; druta-cittaḥ—very eagerly; uccaiḥ—loudly; hasati—laughs; atho—also; roditi—cries; rauti—becomes agitated; gāyati—chants; unmāda-vat—like a madman; nṛtyati—dances; loka-bāhyaḥ—not caring for outsiders.
" 'When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants just like a madman, not caring for outsiders.'
This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.40).
premā krame bāḍi' haya--sneha, māna, praṇaya
rāga, anurāga, bhāva, mahābhāva haya
premā—love of God; krame—gradually; bāḍi'-increasing; haya—is; sneha—affection; māna—indignation due to affection; praṇaya—love; rāga—attachment; anurāga—subattachment; bhāva—ecstasy; mahā-bhāva—exalted ecstasy; haya—is.
"Love of Godhead increases and is manifest as affection, counter-love, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and sublime ecstasy.
bīja, ikṣu, rasa, guḍa tabe khaṇḍa-sāra
śarkarā, sitā-michari, śuddha-michari āra
bīja—seeds; ikṣu—sugarcane plants; rasa—juice; guḍa—molasses; tabe—then; khaṇḍa-sāra—crude sugar; śarkarā—sugar; sitā-michari—sugar candy; śuddha-michari—rock candy; āra—also.
"This development is compared to sugarcane seeds, sugarcane plants, sugarcane juice, molasses, crude sugar, refined sugar, sugar candy and rock candy.
ihā yaiche krame nirmala, krame bāḍe svāda
rati-premādira taiche bāḍaye āsvāda
ihā—this; yaiche—like; krame—by succession; nirmala—pure; krame—gradually; bāḍe—increases; svāda—taste; rati—from attachment; prema-ādira—of love of Godhead and so on; taiche—in that way; bāḍaye—increases; āsvāda—taste.
"Just as the taste of sugar increases as it is gradually purified, one should understand that when love of Godhead increases from rati, which is compared to the beginning seed, its taste increases.
adhikāri-bhede rati--pañca parakāra
śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, madhura āra
adhikāri—of possessor; bhede—according to differences; rati—attachment; pañca parakāra—five varieties; śānta—neutral; dāsya—servitude; sakhya—friendship; vātsalya—paternal love; madhura—conjugal love; āra—also.
"According to the candidate possessing these transcendental qualities [sneha, māna and so on], there are five transcendental mellows-neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental love and conjugal love.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, rati (attraction) is thus described:
vyaktaṁ masṛṇitevāntar-
lakṣyate rati-lakṣaṇam
mumukṣu-prabhṛtīnaṁ ced
bhaved eṣā ratir na hi
kintu bāla-camatkāra-
kārī tac-cihna-vīkṣayā
abhijñena subodho 'yaṁ
raty-ābhāsaḥ prakīrtitaḥ
The real symptoms of the fructification of the seed of love (rati) are manifest because the heart is melted. When such symptoms are found among speculators and fruitive actors, they cannot be accepted as real symptoms of attachment. Foolish people without knowledge of devotional service praise such symptoms of attachment even when they are based on something other than a desire to serve Kṛṣṇa. However, one who is expert in devotional service calls such symptoms rati-ābhāsa, a mere glimpse of attachment.
ei pañca sthāyī bhāva haya pañca 'rasa'
ye-rase bhakta 'sukhī', kṛṣṇa haya 'vaśa'
ei pañca—these five kinds of transcendental mellow; sthāyī bhāva—permanent ecstatic moods; haya—become; pañca rasa—five kinds of transcendental mellow; ye-rase—in a particular mellow; bhakta sukhī—a devotee becomes happy; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; haya—becomes; vaśa—under the control.
"These five transcendental mellows exist permanently. The devotee may be attracted to one of these mellows, and thus he becomes happy. Kṛṣṇa also becomes inclined toward such a devotee and comes under his control.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, sthāyi-bhāva, permanent ecstasy, is thus described:
aviruddhān viruddhāṁś ca
bhāvān yo vaśatāṁ nayan
su-rājeva virājeta
sa sthāyī bhāva ucyate
sthāyī bhāvo 'tra sa proktaḥ
śrī-kṛṣṇa-viṣayā ratiḥ
These moods (bhāvas) bring under control the favorable ecstasies (such as laughing) and unfavorable ecstasies (such as anger). When these continue to remain as kings, they are called sthāyi-bhāva, or permanent ecstasies. Continuous ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa is called permanent ecstasy.
premādika sthāyi-bhāva sāmagrī-milane
kṛṣṇa-bhakti rasa-rūpe pāya pariṇāme
prema-ādika—love of Godhead, beginning with śānta, dāsya and so on; sthāyi-bhāva—the permanent ecstasies; sāmagrī-milane—by mixing with other ingredients; kṛṣṇa-bhakti—devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa; rasa-rūpe—composed of transcendental mellows; pāya—becomes; pariṇāme—by transformation.
"When the permanent ecstasies [neutrality, servitorship and so on] are mixed with other ingredients, devotional service in love of Godhead is transformed and becomes composed of transcendental mellows.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, the following definition is given:
athāsyāḥ keśava-rater
lakṣitāyā nigadyate
paramā rasa-rūpatā
vibhāvair anubhāvaiś ca
sāttvikair vyabhicāribhiḥ
svādyatvaṁ hṛdi bhaktānām
ānītā śravaṇādibhiḥ
eṣā kṛṣṇa-ratiḥ sthāyī
bhāvo bhakti-raso bhavet
Love for Kṛṣṇa, Keśava, as previously described, reaches the supreme state of being composed of mellows when its ingredients are fulfilled. By means of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika and vyabhicārī, hearing and chanting are activated, and the devotee is able to taste love for Kṛṣṇa. Then attachment for Kṛṣṇa, or permanent ecstasy (sthāyi-bhāva), becomes the mellow of devotional service (bhakti-rasa).
vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika, vyabhicārī
sthāyi-bhāva 'rasa' haya ei cāri mili'
vibhāva—special ecstasy; anubhāva—subordinate ecstasy; sāttvika—natural ecstasy; vyabhicārī—transitory ecstasy; sthāyi-bhāva—permanent ecstasy; rasa—mellow; haya—becomes; ei cāri—these four; mili'-meeting.
"The permanent ecstasy becomes a more and more tasteful transcendental mellow through the mixture of special ecstasy, subordinate ecstasy, natural ecstasy and transitory ecstasy.
dadhi yena khaṇḍa-marica-karpūra-milane
'rasālākhya' rasa haya apūrvāsvādane
dadhi—yogurt; yena—as if; khaṇḍa—sugar candy; marica—black pepper; karpūra—camphor; milane—being mixed; rasāla-ākhya—known os delicious; rasa—mellow; haya—becomes; apūrva-āsvādane—by an unprecedented taste.
"Yogurt mixed with sugar candy, black pepper and camphor is very palatable and tasty. Similarly, when permanent ecstasy mixes with other ecstatic symptoms, it becomes unprecedentedly tasty.
dvividha 'vibhāva',--ālambana, uddīpana
vaṁśī-svarādi--'uddīpana', kṛṣṇādi--'ālambana'
dvi-vidha—two kinds; vibhāva—particular ecstasy; ālambana—the support; uddīpana—awakening; vaṁśī-svara-ādi—such as the vibration of the flute; uddīpana—exciting; kṛṣṇa-ādiKṛṣṇa and others; ālambana—the support.
"There are two kinds of particular ecstasies [vibhāva]. One is called the support, and the other is called the awakening. The vibration of Kṛṣṇa's flute is an example of the awakening, and Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself is an example of the support.
'anubhāva'--smita, nṛtya, gītādi udbhāsvara
stambhādi--'sāttvika' anubhāvera bhitara
anubhāva—subordinate ecstasy; smita—smiling; nṛtya—dancing; gīta-ādi—songs and so on; udbhāsvara—symptoms of bodily manifestation; stambha-ādi—being stunned and others; sāttvika—natural; anubhāvera bhitara—within the category of subordinate ecstasies.
"The subordinate ecstasies are smiling, dancing and singing, as well as different manifestations in the body. The natural ecstasies, such as being stunned, are considered among the subordinate ecstasies [anubhāva].
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, vibhāva is described as follows:
tatra jñeyā vibhāvās tu
te dvidhālambanā eke
tathaivoddīpanāḥ pare
"The cause bringing about the tasting of love for Kṛṣṇa is called vibhāva. Vibhāva is divided into two categories-ālambana (support) and uddīpana (awakening)."
In the Agni Purāṇa it is stated:
vibhāvyate hi raty-ādir
yatra yena vibhāvyate
vibhāvo nāma sa dvedhā-
"That which causes love for Kṛṣṇa to appear is called vibhāva. That has two divisions-ālambana [in which love appears] and uddīpana [by which love appears]."
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, the following is stated about ālambana:
kṛṣṇaś ca kṛṣṇa-bhaktāś ca
budhair ālambanā matāḥ
raty-āder viṣayatvena
tathādhāratayāpi ca
"The object of love is Kṛṣṇa, and the container of that love is the devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Both of them are called by the learned scholars ālambana-the foundations." Similarly, uddīpana is described:
uddīpanās tu te proktā
bhāvam uddīpayanti ye
"Those things which awaken ecstatic love are called uddīpana."
te tu śrī-kṛṣṇa-candrasya
guṇāś ceṣṭāḥ prasādhanam
Mainly this awakening is made possible by the qualities and activities of Kṛṣṇa, as well as by His mode of decoration and the way His hair is arranged.
smitāṅga-saurabhe vaṁśa-
"Kṛṣṇa's smile, the fragrance of His transcendental body, His flute, bugle, ankle bells, conchshell, the marks on His feet, His place of residence, His favorite plant [tulasī], His devotees, and the observance of fasts and vows connected to His devotion all awaken the symptoms of ecstatic love."
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, anubhāva is described as follows:
anubhāvās tu citta-stha-
bhāvānām avabodhakāḥ
te bahir vikriyā prāyāḥ
proktā udbhāsvarākhyayā
The many external ecstatic symptoms or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind, and which are also called udbhāsvara, are the anubhāvas, or subordinate ecstatic expressions of love. Some of these are dancing, falling down and rolling on the ground, singing and crying very loudly, bodily contortions, loud vibrations, yawning, deep breathing, disregard for others, the frothing of saliva, mad laughter, spitting, hiccups and other similar symptoms. All these symptoms are divided into two divisions-śīta and kṣepaṇa. Singing, yawning and so on are called śīta. Dancing and bodily contortions are called kṣepaṇa.
The Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu describes udbhāsvara as follows:
udbhāsante svadhāmnīti
proktā udbhāsvarā budhaiḥ
sraṁsanaṁ gātra-moṭanam
jṛmbhā ghrāṇasya phullatvaṁ
niśvāsādyāś ca te matāḥ
The ecstatic symptoms manifest in the external body of a person in ecstatic love are called by learned scholars udbhāsvara. Some of these are a slackening of the belt and a dropping of clothes and hair. Others are bodily contortions, yawning, a trembling of the front portion of the nostrils, heavy breathing, hiccupping and falling down and rolling on the ground. These are the external manifestations of emotional love. Stambha and other symptoms are described in Madhya-līlā (14.167).
nirveda-harṣādi--tetriśa 'vyabhicārī'
saba mili' 'rasa' haya camatkārakārī
nirveda-harṣa-ādi—complete despondency, jubilation and so on; tetriśa—thirty-three; vyabhicārī-transitory elements; saba mili'-all meeting together; rasa-the mellows; haya-becomes; camatkārakārī-a cause of wonder.
"There are other ingredients beginning with complete despondency and jubilation. Altogether there are thirty-three varieties, and when these combine, the mellow becomes very wonderful.
Nirveda, harṣa, and other symptoms are explained in Madhya-līlā (14.167). The transitory elements (vyabhicārī) are described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu as follows:
athocyante trayas triṁśad-
bhāvā ye vyabhicāriṇaḥ
caranti sthāyinaṁ prati
vāg-aṅga-sattva-sūcyā ye
jñeyās te vyabhicāriṇaḥ
sañcārayanti bhāvasya
gatiṁ sañcāriṇo 'pi te
unmajjanti nimajjanti
ūrmivad vardhayanty enaṁ
yānti tad-rūpatāṁ ca te
There are thirty-three transitory elements known as vyabhicārī-ecstatic emotions. They especially wander about the permanent sentiments as assistants. They are to be known by words, by different symptoms seen in the limbs and in other parts of the body, and by the peculiar conditions of the heart. Because they set in motion the progress of the permanent sentiments, they are specifically called sañcārī, or impelling principles. These impelling principles rise up and fall back in the permanent sentiments of ecstatic love like waves in an ocean of ecstasy. Consequently they are called vyabhicāri.
pañca-vidha rasa--śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya
madhura-nāma śṛṅgāra-rasa--sabāte prābalya
pañca-vidha rasa—five kinds of mellows; śānta—neutrality; dāsya—servitorship; sakhya—friendship; vātsalya—paternal affection; madhura—sweet; nāma—named; śṛṅgāra-rasa—the conjugal mellow; sabāte—among all of them; prābalya—predominant.
"There are five transcendental mellows-neutrality, servitorship, friendship, paternal affection and conjugal love, which is also known as the mellow of sweetness. Conjugal love excels all others.
śānta-rase śānti-rati 'prema' paryanta haya
dāsya-rati 'rāga' paryanta krameta bāḍaya
śānta-rase—in the mellow of neutrality; śānti-rati—spiritual attachment in peacefulness; prema paryanta—up to love of Godhead; haya—is; dāsya-rati—attachment in servitude; rāga—spontaneous love; paryanta—up to; krameta—gradually; bāḍaya—increases.
"The position of neutrality increases up to the point where one can appreciate love of Godhead. The mellow of servitorship gradually increases to the point of spontaneous love of Godhead.
sakhya-vātsalya-rati pāya 'anurāga'-sīmā
subalādyera 'bhāva' paryanta premera mahimā
sakhya—in friendship; vātsalya—in paternal affection; rati—affection; pāya—obtains; anurāga-sīmā—up to the limit of subordinate spontaneous love; subala-ādyera—of friends like Subala and others; bhāva—ecstatic love; paryanta—up to; premera mahimā—the glory of the love of Godhead.
"After the mellow of servitorship, there are the mellows of friendship and paternal love, which increase to subordinate spontaneous love. The greatness of the love found in friends like Subala extends to the standard of ecstatic love of Godhead.
Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that the mellow of neutrality increases to simple love of Godhead. In the mellow of servitorship, love of Godhead increases beyond that to affection, counter-love (anger based on love), love and attachment. Similarly, the mellow of friendship increases to affection, counter-love, love, attachment and subattachment. It is the same with the mellow of paternal affection. The special feature of the mellow of friendship exhibited by personalities like Subala is that it increases from fraternal affection to counter-love, to spontaneous attachment, to subordinate attachment, and finally to the ecstasy where all the ecstatic symptoms continuously exist.
śānta-ādi rasera 'yoga', 'viyoga'--dui bheda
sakhya-vātsalye yogādira aneka vibheda
śānta-ādi rasera—of the mellows beginning from neutrality; yoga—connection; viyoga—separation; dui bheda—two divisions; sakhya—in the mellow of friendship; vātsalye—in paternal affection; yoga-ādira—of connection and separation; aneka vibheda—many varieties.
"There are two divisions of each of the five mellows-yoga [connection] and viyoga [separation]. Among the mellows of friendship and parental affection, there are many divisions of connection and separation.
In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, these divisions are described:
prabhedau kathitāv ubhau
In the mellows of bhakti-yoga, there are two stages-ayoga and yoga. Ayoga is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu:
saṅgābhāvo harer dhīrair
ayoga iti kathyate
ayoge tvan-manaskatvaṁ
sarveṣāṁ kathitāḥ kriyāḥ
Learned scholars in the science of bhakti-yoga say that when there is an absence of association with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, separation takes place. In the stage of ayoga (separation), the mind is filled with Kṛṣṇa consciousness and is fully absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa. In that stage, the devotee searches out the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is said that in that stage of separation, all the devotees in the different mellows are always active in thinking of ways to attain Kṛṣṇa's association.
The word yoga (connection) is thus described:
kṛṣṇena saṅgamo yas tu
sa yoga iti kīrtyate
"When one meets Kṛṣṇa directly, that is called yoga."
In the transcendental mellows of neutrality and servitorship, there are similar divisions of yoga and viyoga, but they are not variegated. The divisions of yoga and viyoga are always existing in the five mellows. However, in the transcendental mellows of friendship and paternal affection, there are many varieties of yoga and viyoga. The varieties of yoga are thus described:
yogo 'pi kathitaḥ siddhis
tuṣṭiḥ sthitir iti tridhā
Yoga (connection) is of three types-success, satisfaction and permanence. The divisions of ayoga (separation) are thus described:
utkaṇṭhitaṁ viyogaś cety
ayogo 'pi dvidhocyate
Thus ayoga has two divisions-longing and separation.
'rūḍha', 'adhirūḍha' bhāva--kevala 'madhure'
mahiṣī-gaṇera 'rūḍha', 'adhirūḍha' gopikā-nikare
rūḍha—advanced; adhirūḍha—highly advanced; bhāva—ecstasy; kevala—only; madhure—in the transcendental mellow of conjugal love; mahiṣī-gaṇera—of the queens of Dvārakā; rūḍha—advanced; adhirūḍha—highly advanced; gopikā-nikare—among the gopīs.
"Only in the conjugal mellow are there two ecstatic symptoms called rūḍha [advanced] and adhirūḍha [highly advanced]. The advanced ecstasy is found among the queens of Dvārakā, and the highly advanced ecstasies are found among the gopīs.
The adhirūḍha ecstasies are explained in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi:
rūḍhoktebhyo 'nubhāvebhyaḥ
kām apy āptā viśiṣṭatām
yatrānubhāvā dṛśyante
so 'dhirūḍho nigadyate
The very sweet attraction of conjugal love increases through affection, counter-love, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and highly advanced ecstasy (mahābhāva). The platform of mahābhāva includes rūḍha and adhirūḍha. These platforms are possible only in conjugal love. Advanced ecstasy is found in Dvārakā, whereas highly advanced ecstasy is found among the gopīs.
adhirūḍha-mahābhāva--dui ta' prakāra
sambhoge 'mādana', virahe 'mohana' nāma tāra
adhirūḍha-mahābhāva—highly advanced ecstasy; dui ta' prakāra—two varieties; sambhoge—in actually meeting; mādanamādana; virahe—in separation; mohanamohana; nāma—the names; tāra—of them.
"Highly advanced ecstasy is divided into two categories-mādana and mohana. Meeting together is called mādana, and separation is called mohana.
'mādane' cumbanādi haya ananta vibheda
'udghūrṇā', 'citra-jalpa' 'mohane' dui bheda
mādane—in the stage of mādana; cumbana-ādi—kissing and similar activities; haya—are; ananta vibheda—unlimited divisions; udghūrṇā—unsteadiness; citra-jalpa—various mad talks; mohane—the stage of mohana, dui bheda—two divisions.
"On the mādana platform there are kissing and many other symptoms, which are unlimited. In the mohana stage, there are two divisions-udghūrṇā [unsteadiness] and citra-jalpa [varieties of mad emotional talks].
For further information, see Madhya-līlā (1.87).
citra-jalpera daśa aṅga--prajalpādi-nāma
'bhramara-gītā'ra daśa śloka tāhāte pramāṇa
citra-jalpera—of the mad talks; daśa—ten; aṅga—parts; prajalpa-ādi-nāma—named prajalpa and so on; bhramara-gītāra—of Rādhārāṇī's talks with the bumblebee (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Canto Ten, Chapter Forty-seven); daśa śloka—ten verses; tāhāte—in that matter; pramāṇa—the evidence.
"Mad emotional talks include ten divisions, called prajalpa and other names. An example of this is the ten verses spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī called 'song to the bumblebee.'
Imaginative mad talks known as citra-jalpa can be divided into ten categories-prajalpa, parijalpa, vijalpa, ujjalpa, sañjalpa, avajalpa, abhijalpa, ājalpa, pratijalpa and sujalpa. There are no English equivalents for these different features of jalpa (imaginative talk).
udghūrṇā, vivaśa-ceṣṭā--divyonmāda-nāma
virahe kṛṣṇa-sphūrti, āpanāke 'kṛṣṇa'-jñāna
udghūrṇā—unsteadiness; vivaśa-ceṣṭā—boastful activities; divya-unmāda-nāma—named transcendental madness; virahe—in separation; kṛṣṇa-sphūrti—manifestation of Kṛṣṇa; āpanāke—oneself; kṛṣṇa-jñāna—thinking as Kṛṣṇa.
"Udghūrṇā [unsteadiness] and vivaśa-ceṣṭā [boastful activities] are aspects of transcendental madness. In separation from Kṛṣṇa, one experiences the manifestation of Kṛṣṇa, and one thinks oneself to be Kṛṣṇa.
'sambhoga'-'vipralambha'-bhede dvividha śṛṅgāra
sambhogera ananta aṅga, nāhi anta tāra
sambhoga—of meeting (enjoyment together); vipralambha—of separation; bhede—in two divisions; dvi-vidha śṛṅgāra—two kinds of conjugal love; sambhogera—of the stage of sambhoga, or meeting; ananta aṅga—unlimited parts; nāhi—not; anta—an end; tāra—of that.
"In conjugal love [śṛṅgāra] there are two departments-meeting and separation. On the platform of meeting, there are unlimited varieties that are beyond description.
Vipralambha is described in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi:
yūnor ayuktayor bhāvo
yuktayor vātha yo mithaḥ
anavāptau prakṛṣyate
sa vipralambho vijñeyaḥ
na vinā vipralambhena
sambhogaḥ puṣṭim aśnute
When the lover and the beloved meet, they are called yukta (connected). Previous to their meeting, they are called ayukta (not connected). Whether connected or not connected, the ecstatic emotion arising due to not being able to embrace and kiss each other as desired is called vipralambha. This vipralambha helps nourish emotions at the time of meeting. Similarly, sambhoga is thus described:
ānukūlyān niṣevayā
yūnor ullāsam ārohan
bhāvaḥ sambhoga īryate
"Meeting each other and embracing each other are aimed at bringing about the happiness of both the lover and the beloved. When this stage becomes increasingly jubilant, the resultant ecstatic emotion is called sambhoga." When awakened, sambhoga is divided into four categories:
(1) pūrva-rāga-anantara-after pūrva-rāga (attachment prior to meeting), sambhoga is called brief (saṅkṣipta);
(2) māna-anantara-after māna (anger based on love), sambhoga is called encroached (saṅkīrṇa);
(3) kiñcid-dūra-pravāsa-anantara-after being a little distance away for some time, sambhoga is called accomplished (sampanna);
(4) sudūra-pravāsa-anantara-after being far away, sambhoga is called perfection (samṛddhimān).
The meetings of the lovers that take place in dreams also have these four divisions.
'vipralambha' catur-vidha--pūrva-rāga, māna
pravāsākhya, āra prema-vaicittya-ākhyāna
vipralambha—separation; catuḥ-vidha—four divisions; pūrva-rāgapūrva-rāga; mānamāna; pravāsākhya—known as pravāsa; āra—and; prema-vaicittyaprema-vaicittya; ākhyāna—calling.
"Vipralambha has four divisions-pūrva-rāga, māna, pravāsa, and prema-vaicittya.
Pūrva-rāga is described in Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi:
ratir yā saṅgamāt pūrvaṁ
tayor unmīlati prājñaiḥ
pūrva-rāgaḥ sa ucyate
When attachment produced in both the lover and beloved before their meeting by seeing, hearing and so on becomes very palatable by the mixture of four ingredients, such as vibhāva and anubhāva, this is called pūrva-rāga.
The word māna is also described:
dampatyor bhāva ekatra
sator apy anuraktayoḥ
nirodhī māna ucyate
Māna is a word used to indicate the mood of the lover and the beloved experienced whether they are in one place or in different places. This mood obstructs their looking at one another and embracing one another, despite the fact that they are attached to one another.
Pravāsa is also explained as follows:
pūrva-saṅga-tayor yūnor
bhaved deśāntarādibhiḥ
vyavadhānaṁ tu yat prājñaiḥ
sa pravāsa itīryate
Pravāsa is a word used to indicate the separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated. This separation is due to their being in different places.
Similarly, prema-vaicittya is explained:
priyasya sannikarṣe 'pi
yā viśeṣa-dhiyārtis tat
prema-vaicittyam ucyate
Prema-vaicittya is a word used to indicate an abundance of love that brings about grief from fear of separation, although the lover is present.
rādhikādye 'pūrva-rāga' prasiddha 'pravāsa', 'māne'
'prema-vaicittya' śrī-daśame mahiṣī-gaṇe
rādhikādye—in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the other gopīs; pūrva-rāga—feelings before union; prasiddha—celebrated; pravāsa māne—also pravāsa and māna; prema-vaicittya—feelings of fear of separation; śrī-daśame—in the Tenth Canto; mahiṣī-gaṇe—among the queens.
"Of the four kinds of separation, three [pūrva-rāga, pravāsa and māna] are celebrated in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs. In Dvārakā, among the queens, feelings of prema-vaicittya are very prominent.
kurari vilapasi tvaṁ vīta-nidrā na śeṣe
svapiti jagati rātryām īśvaro gupta-bodhaḥ
vayam iva sakhī kaccid gāḍha-nirviddha-cetā
kurari—O female osprey; vilapasi—are lamenting; tvam—you; vīta-nidrā—without sleep; na—not; śeṣe—rest; svapiti—sleeps; jagati—in the world; rātryām—at night; īśvaraḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa; gupta-bodhaḥ—whose consciousness is hidden; vayam—we; iva—like; sakhī—O dear friend; kaccid—whether; gāḍha—deeply; nirviddha-cetā—pierced in the heart; nalina-nayana—of the lotus-eyed Lord; hāsa—smiling; udāra—liberal; līlā-īkṣitena—by the playful glancing.
" 'My dear friend kurarī, it is now night, and Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is sleeping. You yourself are not asleep or resting but are lamenting. Should I presume that you, like us, are affected by the smiling, liberal, playful glances of the lotus eyed Kṛṣṇa? If so, your heart is deeply pierced. Is that why you are showing these signs of sleepless lamentation?'
This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.90.15). Although the queens were with Kṛṣṇa, they were still thinking of losing His company.
vrajendra-nandana kṛṣṇa--nāyaka-śiromaṇi
nāyikāra śiromaṇi--rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī
vrajendra-nandana kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda; nāyaka-śiromaṇi—best of all heroes; nāyikāra śiromaṇi—the best of all heroines; rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
"Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead who appeared as the son of Nanda Mahārāja, is the supreme hero in all dealings. Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost heroine in all dealings.
nāyakānāṁ śiroratnaṁ
kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam
yatra nityatayā sarve
virājante mahā-guṇāḥ
nāyakānām—of all heroes; śiroratnam—the crown jewel; kṛṣṇaḥ—Lord Kṛṣṇa; tu—but; bhagavān svayam—the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself; yatra—in whom; nityatayā—with permanence; sarve—all; virājante—exist; mahā-guṇāḥ—transcendental qualities.
" 'Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, and He is the crown jewel of all heroes. In Kṛṣṇa, all transcendental good qualities are permanently situated.'
This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.17).
devī kṛṣṇamayī proktā
rādhikā para-devatā
sarva-lakṣmīmayī sarva-
kāntiḥ sammohinī parā
devī—who shines brilliantly; kṛṣṇa-mayī—nondifferent from Lord Kṛṣṇa; proktā—called; rādhikā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; para-devatā—most worshipable; sarva-lakṣmī-mayī—presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; sarva-kāntiḥ—in whom all splendor exists; sammohinī—whose character completely bewilders Lord Kṛṣṇa; parā—the superior energy.
" 'The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attraction to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.'
This text is found in the Bṛhad-gautamīya-tantra.
ananta kṛṣṇera guṇa, cauṣaṭṭi--pradhāna
eka eka guṇa śuni' juḍāya bhakta-kāṇa
ananta—unlimited; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; guṇa—qualities; cauṣaṭṭi—sixty-four; pradhāna—chief ones; eka eka—one by one; guṇa—qualities; śuni'-hearing; juḍāya—satisfies; bhakta-kāṇa—the ears of the devotees.
"The transcendental qualities of Lord Kṛṣṇa are unlimited. Out of these, sixty-four are considered prominent. The ears of the devotees are satisfied simply by hearing all these qualities one after the other.
ayaṁ netā suramyāṅgaḥ
ruciras tejasā yukto
balīyān vayasānvitaḥ
ayam—this (Kṛṣṇa); netā—supreme hero; suramya-aṅgaḥ—having the most beautiful transcendental body; sarva-sat-lakṣaṇa—all-auspicious bodily marks; anvitaḥ—endowed with; ruciraḥ—possessing radiance very pleasing to the eyes; tejasā—with all power; yuktaḥ—bestowed; balīyān—very strong; vayasa-anvitaḥ—having a youthful age.
" 'Kṛṣṇa, the supreme hero, has the most beautiful transcendental body. This body possesses all good features. It is radiant and very pleasing to the eyes. His body is powerful, strong and youthful.
This verse and the following six verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.23-29).
satya-vākyaḥ priyaṁ vadaḥ
vāvadūkaḥ supāṇḍityo
buddhimān pratibhānvitaḥ
vividha—various; adbhuta—wonderful; bhāṣā-vit—knower of languages; satya-vākyaḥ—whose words are truthful; priyam vadaḥ—who speaks very pleasingly; vāvadūkaḥ—expert in speaking; su-pāṇḍityaḥ—very learned; buddhimān—very wise; pratibhā-anvitaḥ—genius.
" 'Kṛṣṇa is the linguist of all wonderful languages. He is a truthful and very pleasing speaker. He is expert in speaking, and He is a very wise, learned scholar and a genius.
vidagdhaś caturo dakṣaḥ
kṛtajñaḥ sudṛḍha-vrataḥ
śāstra-cakṣuḥ śucir vaśī
vidagdhaḥ—expert in artistic enjoyment; caturaḥ—cunning; dakṣaḥ—expert; kṛta-jñaḥ—grateful; sudṛḍha-vrataḥ—firmly determined; deśa—of country; kāla—time; supātra—of fitness; jñaḥ—a knower; śāstra-cakṣuḥ—expert in the authoritative scriptures; śuciḥ—very clean and neat; vaśī—serf-controlled.
" 'Kṛṣṇa is very expert in artistic enjoyment. He is highly cunning, expert, grateful and firmly determined in His vows. He knows how to deal according to time, person and country, and He sees through the scriptures and authoritative books. He is very clean and self-controlled.
sthiro dāntaḥ kṣamā-śīlo
gambhīro dhṛtimān samaḥ
vadānyo dhārmikaḥ śūraḥ
karuṇo mānya-mānakṛt
sthiraḥ—steady; dāntaḥ—having controlled senses; kṣamā-śīlaḥ—forgiving; gambhīraḥ—grave; dhṛtimān—calm, never bereft of intelligence; samaḥ—equal; vadānyaḥ—magnanimous; dhārmikaḥ—religious; śūraḥ—chivalrous; karuṇaḥ—kind; mānya-mānakṛt—respectful to the respectable.
" 'Lord Kṛṣṇa is steady, His senses are controlled, and He is forgiving, grave and calm. He is also equal to all. Moreover, He is magnanimous, religious, chivalrous and kind. He is always respectful to respectable people.
dakṣiṇo vinayī hrīmān
sukhī bhakta-suhṛt prema-
vaśyaḥ sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ
dakṣiṇaḥ—simple and liberal; vinayī—humble; hrīmān—bashful when glorified; śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ—protector of the surrendered soul; sukhīalways happy; bhakta-suhṛt—well-wisher of the devotees; prema-vaśyaḥ—submissive to love; sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ—all-auspicious.
" 'Kṛṣṇa is very simple and liberal, He is humble and bashful, and He is the protector of the surrendered soul. He is very happy, and He is always the well-wisher of His devotee. He is all-auspicious, and He is submissive to love.
pratāpī kīrtimān rakta-
lokaḥ sādhu-samāśrayaḥ
sarvārādhyaḥ samṛddhimān
pratāpī—very influential; kīrtimān—famous for good works; rakta-lokaḥ—who is the object of the attachment of all people; sādhu-sama-āśrayaḥ—the shelter of the good and virtuous; nārī-gaṇa—to women; manohārī—attractive; sarva-ārādhyaḥ—worshipable by everyone; samṛddhimān—very rich.
" 'Kṛṣṇa is very influential and famous, and He is the object of attachment for everyone. He is the shelter of the good and the virtuous. He is attractive to the minds of women, and He is worshiped by everyone. He is very, very rich.
varīyān īśvaraś ceti
guṇās tasyānukīrtitāḥ
samudrā iva pañcāśad
durvigāhā harer amī
varīyān—the best; īśvaraḥ—the supreme controller; ca—and; iti—thus; guṇāḥ—the transcendental qualities; tasya—of Him; anukīrtitāḥ—described; samudrāḥ—oceans; iva—like; pañcāśat—fifty; durvigāhāḥ—difficult to penetrate fully; hareḥ—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amī—all these.
" 'Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme, and He is always glorified as the Supreme Lord and controller. Thus all the previously mentioned transcendental qualities are in Him. The fifty qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead above mentioned are as deep as an ocean. In other words, they are difficult to fully comprehend.
jīveṣu ete vasanto 'pi
bindu-bindutayā kvacit
paripūrṇatayā bhānti
tatraiva puruṣottame
jīveṣu—in the living entities; ete—these; vasantaḥ—are residing; api—though; bindu-bindutayā—with a very minute quantity; kvacit—sometimes; paripūrṇatayā—with fullness; bhānti—are manifest; tatra—in Him; eva—certainly; puruṣa-uttame—in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
" 'These qualities are sometimes very minutely exhibited in living beings, but they are fully manifest in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.'
This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.30). Living entities are parts and parcels of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā:
mamaivāṁśo jīva-loke
jīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi
prakṛti-sthāni karṣati
"The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind." (Bg. 15.7)
The qualities of Kṛṣṇa are present in the living entity in minute, atomic quantities. A small portion of gold is certainly gold, but it cannot be equal to a gold mine. Similarly, the living entities have all the characteristics of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in minute quantity, but the living entity is never equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. God is therefore described as the Supreme Being, and the living entity is described as a jīva. God is the Supreme Being, the chief of all living beings-eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān. The Māyāvādīs maintain that everyone is God, but even if this philosophy is accepted, no one can maintain that everyone is equal to the Supreme Godhead. Only unintelligent men maintain that everyone is equal to God or that everyone is God.
atha pañca-guṇā ye syur
aṁśena giriśādiṣu
atha—now(over and above these); pañca-guṇāḥ—five qualities; ye—which; syuḥ—may exist; aṁśena—by part; giriśa-ādiṣu—in demigods like Lord Śiva.
" 'Apart from these fifty qualities, there are five other qualities found in the Supreme Personality of Godhead that are partially present in demigods like Śiva.
This verse and the following seven verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.37-44).
TEXTS 79-81
sadā svarūpa-saṁprāptaḥ
sarva-jño nity-nūtanaḥ
athocyante guṇāḥ pañca
ye lakṣmīśādi-vartinaḥ
amī kṛṣṇe kilādbhutāḥ
sadā—always; svarūpa-saṁprāptaḥ—situated in one's eternal nature; sarva-jñaḥ—omniscient; nitya-nūtanaḥ—ever-fresh; sat-cit-ānanda-sāndra-aṅgaḥ—the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge, bliss; sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ—attended by all mystic perfections; atha—now; ucyante—are said; guṇāḥ—qualities; pañca—five; ye—which; lakṣmī-īśa—in the proprietor of the goddess of fortune; ādi—etc.; vartinaḥ—represented; avicintya—inconceivable; mahā-śaktiḥ—possessing supreme energy; koṭi-brahmāṇḍa—consisting of innumerable universes; vigrahaḥ—having a body; avatāra—of incarnations; āvalī—of groups; bījam—the source; hata-ari—to enemies killed by Him; gati-dāyakaḥ—giving liberation; ātmārāma-gaṇa—of those fully satisfied in themselves; ākarṣī—attracting; iti—thus; amī—these; kṛṣṇe—in Kṛṣṇa; kila—certainly; adbhutāḥ—very wonderful.
" 'These qualities are (1) the Lord is always situated in His original position, (2) He is omniscient, (3) He is always fresh and youthful, (4) He is the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge and bliss, and (5) He is the possessor of all mystic perfection. There are another five qualities, which exist in the Vaikuṇṭha planets in Nārāyaṇa, the Lord of Lakṣmī. These qualities are also present in Kṛṣṇa, but they are not present in demigods like Lord Śiva or in other living entities. These are (1) inconceivable supreme power, (2) generating innumerable universes from the body, (3) being the original source of all incarnations, (4) bestowing salvation upon enemies killed, and (5) the ability to attract exalted persons who are satisfied in themselves. Although these qualities are present in Nārāyaṇa, the dominating Deity of the Vaikuṇṭha planets, they are even more wonderfully present in Kṛṣṇa.
TEXTS 82-83
sarva-adbhuta-camatkāra—bringing wonder to all; līlā—of pastimes; kallola—full of waves; vāridhiḥ—an ocean; atulya-madhura-prema—with incomparable conjugal love; maṇḍita—decorated; priya-maṇḍalaḥ—with a circle of favorite personalities; tri-jagat—of three worlds; mānasa-ākarṣi—attracting the minds; muralī—of the flute; kala-kūjitaḥ—the melodious vibration; asamāna-ūrdhva—unequaled and unsurpassed; rūpa—by beauty; śrī—and opulence; vismāpita-cara-acaraḥ—astonishing the moving and nonmoving living entities.
" 'Apart from these sixty transcendental qualities, Kṛṣṇa has an additional four transcendental qualities, which are not manifest even in the personality of Nārāyaṇa. These are: (1) Kṛṣṇa is like an ocean filled with waves of pastimes that evoke wonder within everyone in the three worlds. (2) In His activities of conjugal love, He is always surrounded by His dear devotees who possess unequaled love for Him. (3) He attracts the minds of all three worlds by the melodious vibration of His flute. (4) His personal beauty and opulence are beyond compare. No one is equal to Him, and no one is greater than Him. Thus the Personality of Godhead astonishes all living entities, both moving and nonmoving, within the three worlds. He is so beautiful that He is called Kṛṣṇa.
Māyāvādī philosophers, who have a poor fund of knowledge, simply dismiss the subject by explaining that Kṛṣṇa means black. Not understanding the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, these atheistic rascals do not accept Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although the Lord is described and accepted by great personalities, ācāryas and sages, the Māyāvādīs still do not appreciate Him. Unfortunately at the present moment human society is so degraded that people cannot even provide themselves with life's daily necessities, yet they are captivated by Māyāvādī philosophers and are being misled. According to Bhagavad-gītā, simply by understanding Kṛṣṇa one can get free from the cycle of birth and death. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti so 'rjuna. Unfortunately this great science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness has been impeded by Māyāvādī philosophers who are opposed to the personality of Kṛṣṇa. Those who are preaching this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement must try to understand Kṛṣṇa from the statements given in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (The Nectar of Devotion).
TEXTS 84-85
līlā premṇā priyādhikyaṁ
mādhuryaṁ veṇu-rūpayoḥ
ity asādhāraṇaṁ proktaṁ
govindasya catuṣṭayam
evaṁ guṇāś catur-bhedāś
catuḥ-ṣaṣṭir udāhṛtāḥ
līlā—pastimes; premṇā—with transcendental love; priya-ādhikyam—an abundance of highly elevated devotees; mādhuryam—sweetness; veṇu-rūpayoḥ—of the flute and the beauty of Kṛṣṇa; iti—thus; asādhāraṇam—uncommon; proktam—said; govindasya—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; catuṣṭayam—four special features; evam—thus; guṇāḥ—transcendental qualities; catuḥ-bhedāḥ—having four divisions; catuḥ-ṣaṣṭiḥ—sixty-four; udāhṛtāḥ—declared.
" 'Above Nārāyaṇa, Kṛṣṇa has four specific transcendental qualities-His wonderful pastimes, an abundance of wonderful associates who are very dear to Him [like the gopīs], His wonderful beauty and the wonderful vibration of His flute. Lord Kṛṣṇa is more exalted than ordinary living beings and demigods like Lord Śiva. He is even more exalted than His personal expansion Nārāyaṇa. In all, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has sixty-four transcendental qualities in full.'
ananta guṇa śrī-rādhikāra, pañciśa--pradhāna
yei guṇera 'vaśa' haya kṛṣṇa bhagavān
ananta guṇa—unlimited qualities; śrī-rādhikāra—of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; pañciśa—twenty-five; pradhāna—chief; yei guṇera—of those qualities; vaśa—under the control; haya—is; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has unlimited transcendental qualities, of which twenty-five qualities are principal. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is controlled by these transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
TEXTS 87-91
atha vṛndāvaneśvaryāḥ
kīrtyante pravarā guṇāḥ
madhureyaṁ nava-vayāś
ramya-vāṅ narma-paṇḍitā
vinītā karuṇā-pūrṇā
vidagdhā pāṭavānvitā
lajjā-śīlā sumaryādā
suvilāsā mahābhāva-
bahunā kiṁ guṇās tasyāḥ
saṅkhyātītā harer iva
atha—now; vṛndāvana-īśvaryāḥ—of the Queen of Vṛndāvana (Śrī Rādhikā); kīrtyante—are glorified; pravarāḥ—chief; guṇāḥ—qualities; madhurā—sweet; iyam—this one (Rādhikā); nava-vayāḥ—youthful; cala-apāṅga—having restless eyes; ujjvala-smitā—having a bright smile; cāru-saubhāgya-rekhāḍhyā—possessing beautiful, auspicious lines on the body; gandha—by the wonderful fragrance of Her the body; unmādita-mādhavā—exciting Kṛṣṇa; saṅgīta—of songs; prasara-abhijñā—knowledgeable in the expansion; ramya-vāk—having charming speech; narma-paṇḍitā—learned in joking; vinītā—humble; karuṇā-pūrṇā—full of mercy; vidagdhā—cunning; pāṭava-anvitā—expert in performing Her duties; lajjā-śīlā—shy; su-maryādā—respectful; dhairya—calm; gāmbhīrya-śālinī—and grave; su-vilāsā—playful; mahā-bhāva—of advanced ecstasy; parama-utkarṣa—in the highest excellence; tarṣiṇī—desirous; gokula-prema—the love of the residents of Gokula; vasatiḥ—the abode; jagat-śreṇī—among the surrendered devotees who are the abodes (āśraya) of love for Kṛṣṇa; lasat—shining; yaśāḥ—whose fame; guru—to the elders; arpita—offered; guru-snehā—whose great affection; sakhī-praṇayitā-vaśā—controlled by the love of her gopī friends; kṛṣṇa-priya-āvalī—among those who are dear to Kṛṣṇa; mukhyā—the chief; santata—always; āśrava-keśavāḥ—to whom Lord Keśava is submissive; bahunā kim—in short; guṇāḥ—the qualities; tasyāḥ—of Her; saṅkhyātītāḥ—beyond count; hareḥ—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; iva—like.
" 'Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī's twenty-five chief transcendental qualities are: (1) She is very sweet. (2) She is always freshly youthful. (3) Her eyes are restless. (4) She smiles brightly. (5) She has beautiful, auspicious lines. (6) She makes Kṛṣṇa happy with Her bodily aroma. (7) She is very expert in singing. (8) Her speech is charming. (9) She is very expert in joking and speaking pleasantly. (10) She is very humble and meek. (11) She is always full of mercy. (12) She is cunning. (13) She is expert in executing Her duties. (14) She is shy. (15) She is always respectful. (16) She is always calm. (17) She is always grave. (18) She is expert in enjoying life. (19) She is situated at the topmost level of ecstatic love. (20) She is the reservoir of loving affairs in Gokula. (21) She is the most famous of submissive devotees. (22) She is very affectionate to elderly people. (23) She is very submissive to the love of Her friends. (24) She is the chief gopī. (25) She always keeps Kṛṣṇa under Her control. In short, She possesses unlimited transcendental qualities, just as Lord Kṛṣṇa does.'
These verses are also found in Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, Śrī-rādhā-prakaraṇa (11-15).
nāyaka, nāyikā,--dui rasera 'ālambana'
sei dui śreṣṭha,--rādhā, vrajendra-nandana
nāyaka—hero; nāyikā—heroine; dui—two; rasera—of mellows; ālambana—the basis; sei—those; dui—two; śreṣṭha—chief; rādhā—Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; vrajendra-nandana—and Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda.
"The basis of all transcendental mellows is the hero and the heroine, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, are the best.
ei-mata dāsye dāsa, sakhye sakhā-gaṇa
vātsalye mātā pitā āśrayālambana
ei-mata—in this way; dāsye—in the transcendental mellow of servitude; dāsa—servants; sakhye—in the transcendental mellow of friendship; sakhā-gaṇa—the friends; vātsalye—in the transcendental mellow of paternal affection; mātā pitā—mother and father; āśraya-ālambana—the support or shelter of love as the abode or dwelling place of love.
"Just as Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are the object and shelter of the mellow of conjugal love, so, in the mellow of servitorship, Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, is the object, and servants like Citraka, Raktaka and Patraka are the shelter. Similarly, in the transcendental mellow of friendship, Lord Kṛṣṇa is the object, and friends like Śrīdāmā, Sudāmā and Subala are the shelter. In the transcendental mellow of paternal affection, Kṛṣṇa is the object, and mother Yaśodā and Mahārāja Nanda are the shelter.
ei rasa anubhave yaiche bhakta-gaṇa

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