The Pastimes of the Lord in His Childhood and Youth
This chapter fully describes Lord Caitanya's kaiśora-līlā, or the activities He performed just before attaining youth. During this time He studied deeply and was victorious over greatly learned scholars. During His kaiśora-līlā the Lord also sported in the water. He went to East Bengal to secure financial assistance, cultivate knowledge and introduce the saṅkīrtana movement, and there He met Tapana Miśra, whom He instructed about spiritual advancement and ordered to go to Vārāṇasī. While Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was touring East Bengal, His wife, Lakṣmīdevī, was bitten by a serpent or by the serpent of separation, and thus she left this world. When the Lord returned home, He saw that His mother was overwhelmed with grief because of Lakṣmīdevī's death. Therefore at her request He later married His second wife, Viṣṇupriyā-devī. This chapter also describes the Lord's argument with Keśava Kāśmīrī, the celebrated scholar, and the Lord's criticism of his prayer glorifying mother Ganges. In this prayer the Lord found five kinds of literary ornaments and five kinds of literary faults, thus defeating the paṇḍita. Later the Kāśmīrī Paṇḍita, who was known to have been victorious all over the country, submitted himself to the goddess of learning, and by her order he met Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu on the morning of the next day and surrendered unto Him.
viśvam āplāvayanty api
nīca-gaiva sadā bhāti
taṁ caitanya-prabhuṁ bhaje
kṛpā-sudhā—of the nectar of the mercy; sarit—river; yasya—whose; viśvam—the whole universe; āplāvayantī—inundating; api—although; nīca-gā eva—more inclined to the poor and fallen; sadā—always; bhāti—is manifest; tam—Him; caitanya-prabhum—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; bhaje—I worship.
I worship Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, whose nectarean mercy flows like a great river, inundating the entire universe. Just as a river flows downstream, Lord Caitanya especially extends Himself to the fallen.
Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has sung, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya prabhu dayā kara more. He prays for Lord Caitanya's mercy because He is the mercy incarnation, having appeared especially to claim the fallen souls. The more fallen one is, the greater one's claim to the favor of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. One must only be very sincere and serious. Despite being contaminated by all the bad qualities of this Kali-yuga, if one surrenders unto the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord will surely and certainly deliver him. The best example is Jagāi and Mādhāi. In this Age of Kali practically everyone is like Jagāi and Mādhāi, but the saṅkīrtana movement inaugurated by Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is still flowing like a great river, inundating the entire world, and thus the International Society for Krishna Consciousness is successfully claiming all fallen souls to free them from contamination.
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaitacandra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya—all glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya—all glories; nityānanda—to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu; jaya advaitacandra—all glories to Advaitacandra; jaya—all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—to all the devotees of the Lord.
All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaitacandra! And all glories to all the devotees of the Lord!
lakṣmyārcito 'tha vāg-devyā
jīyāt—long live; kaiśora—situated in the kaiśora age; caitanyaḥ—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mūrti-matyā—having accepted such a body; gṛha-āśramāt—from a householder's life; lakṣmyā—by Lakṣmī; arcitaḥ—being worshiped; atha—then; vāk-devyā—by the goddess of learning; diśām—of all directions; jayi—the conqueror; jaya-chalāt—on the plea of conquering.
Long live Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His kaiśora age! Both the goddess of fortune and the goddess of learning worship Him. The goddess of learning, Sarasvatī, worshiped Him in His victory over the scholar who had conquered all the world, and the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmīdevī, worshiped Him at home. Since He is therefore the husband or Lord of both goddesses, I offer my obeisances unto Him.
ei ta' kaiśora-līlāra sūtra-anubandha
śiṣya-gaṇa paḍāite karilā ārambha
ei ta'-thus; kaiśora—the age of kaiśora (the age between the eleventh and fifteenth years); līlāra—of the pastimes; sūtra-anubandha—chronological synopsis; śiṣya-gaṇa—students; paḍāite—to teach; karilā—did; ārambha—begin.
At the age of eleven Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu began to teach students. This marks the beginning of His kaiśora age.
śata śata śiṣya saṅge sadā adhyāpana
vyākhyā śuni sarva-lokera camakita mana
śata śata—very many; śiṣya—disciples; saṅge—along with Him; sadā—always; adhyāpana—studying; vyākhyā—explanation; śuni—hearing; sarva-lokera—of all people; camakita—astonished; mana—minds.
As soon as the Lord became a teacher, many, many students came to Him, every one of them astonished to hear His mode of explanation.
sarva-śāstre sarva paṇḍita pāya parājaya
vinaya-bhaṅgīte kāro duḥkha nāhi haya
sarva-śāstre—in all scriptures; sarva—all; paṇḍita—learned scholars; pāya—obtain; parājaya—defeat; vinaya—gentle; bhaṅgīte—by behavior; kāro—anyone's; duḥkha—unhappiness; nāhi—does not; haya—become.
The Lord defeated all kinds of scholars in discourses about all the scriptures, yet because of His gentle behavior, none of them were unhappy.
vividha auddhatya kare śiṣya-gaṇa-saṅge
jahnavite jala-keli kare nana range
vividha—various; auddhatya—impudences; kare—does; śiṣya-gaṇa—His disciples; saṅge—with; jāhnavīte—in the water of the Ganges; jala-keli—sporting in the water; kare—does; nānā—in various; raṅge—jokes.
The Lord, as a teacher, performed various kinds of pranks in His sporting pastimes in the water of the Ganges.
kata dine kaila prabhu baṅgete gamana
yāhāṅ yāya, tāhāṅ laoyāya nāma-saṅkīrtana
kata dine—after a few days; kaila—did; prabhu—the Lord; baṅgete—in East Bengal; gamana—touring; yāhāṅ yāya—wherever He goes; tāhāṅ—there; laoyāya—induces; nāma-saṅkīrtana—the saṅkīrtana movement.
After some days the Lord went to East Bengal, and wherever He went He introduced the saṅkīrtana movement.
Although Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His devotees in disciplic succession can defeat all kinds of learned scholars, scientists and philosophers in arguments, thus establishing the supremacy of the Personality of Godhead, their main business as preachers is to introduce saṅkīrtana everywhere. Simply to defeat scholars and philosophers is not the occupation of a preacher. Preachers must simultaneously introduce the saṅkīrtana movement, for that is the mission of the Caitanya cult.
vidyāra prabhāva dekhi camatkāra cite
śata śata paḍuyā āsi lāgilā paḍite
vidyāra—of His learning; prabhāva—the influence; dekhi—seeing; camatkāra—wonder; cite—within the heart; śata śata—many hundreds; paḍuyā—disciples or students; āsi—coming there; lāgila—began; paḍite—to study.
Struck with wonder by the influence of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's intellectual prowess, many hundreds of students came to the Lord and began studying under His direction.
sei deśe vipra, nāma--miśra tapana
niścaya karite nāre sādhya-sādhana
sei deśe—in that region of East Bengal; vipra—a brāhmaṇa; nāma—named; miśra tapana—Tapana Miśra; niścaya karite—to ascertain; nāre—not able; sādhya—objective; sādhana—process.
In East Bengal there was a brāhmaṇa named Tapana Miśra who could not ascertain the objective of life or how to attain it.
One must first ascertain the object of life and then understand how to attain it. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is pointing out to everyone that the object of life is to understand Kṛṣṇa, and to attain that goal of life one must practice Kṛṣṇa consciousness, following the methods prescribed by the Gosvāmīs with reference to the authoritative śāstras and Vedas.
bahu-śāstre bahu-vākye citte bhrama haya
sādhya-sādhana śreṣṭha nā haya niścaya
bahu-śāstre—by many books or scriptures; bahu-vākye—by many versions of many persons; citte—within the heart; bhrama—doubt; haya—there is; sādhya-sādhana—objective and means; śreṣṭha—about the best; nā—not; haya—there is; niścaya—certainty.
If one becomes a bookworm, reading many books and scriptures and hearing many commentaries and the instructions of many men, this will produce doubt within his heart. One cannot in this way ascertain the real goal of life.
In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.13.8) it is said, granthān naivābhyased bahūn na vyākhyām upayuñjīta: "One should not read many books, nor should one try to make a profession of reciting many books, especially if one is a devotee." One must give up the ambition to be a learned scholar and in this way earn a worldly reputation and financial facilities. If one diverts his attention to studying many books, he cannot fix his mind in devotional service, nor can he understand many scriptures, for they are full of grave statements and meanings. In this connection Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura gives his opinion that those who are attracted to studying many kinds of literature concerning various subject matters, especially fruitive activities and philosophical speculation, are deprived of unalloyed devotional service because of their splayed attention.
Man has a general tendency toward fruitive activities, religious ritualistic ceremonies and philosophical speculation. A living entity thus bewildered since time immemorial does not understand the real goal of life, and thus his activities in life are wasted. Innocent persons misled in this way are deprived of unalloyed kṛṣṇa-bhakti, devotional service to the Lord. Tapana Miśra is a vivid example of such a person. He was a learned scholar, but he could not ascertain what the goal of life is. Therefore he was given a chance to hear Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu instructing Sanātana Gosvāmī. Lord Caitanya's instruction to Tapana Miśra is especially significant for persons who loiter here and there collecting books and reading none of them, thus becoming bewildered regarding the aim of life.
svapne eka vipra kahe,--śunaha tapana
nimāñi-paṇḍita pāśe karaha gamana
svapne—in a dream; eka—one; vipra—brāhmaṇa; kahe—says; śunaha—just hear; tapana—Tapana Miśra; nimāñi-paṇḍita—of the name Nimāi Paṇḍita; pāśe—unto Him; karaha gamana—go.
Tapana Miśra, being thus bewildered, was directed by a brāhmaṇa in a dream to go to Nimāi Paṇḍita [Caitanya Mahāprabhu].
teṅho tomāra sādhya-sādhana karibe niścaya
sākṣāt īśvara teṅho,--nāhika saṁśaya
teṅho—He; tomāra—your; sādhya—objective of life; sādhana—process; karibe—will do; niścaya—ascertain; sākṣāt—direct; īśvara—the Lord; teṅho—He is; nāhika—there is no; saṁśaya—doubt.
"Because He is the Lord [īśvara]," the brāhmaṇa told him, "undoubtedly He can give you proper direction."
svapna dekhi' miśra āsi' prabhura caraṇe
svapnera vṛttānta saba kaila nivedane
svapna dekhi'-by seeing the dream; miśra—Tapana Miśra; āsi'-coming; prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; caraṇe—at the shelter of the lotus feet; svapnera—of the dream; vṛttānta—details; saba—all; kaila—did; nivedane—inform Him.
After seeing the dream, Tapana Miśra came to the shelter of Lord Caitanya's lotus feet, and he described all the details of the dream to the Lord.
prabhu tuṣṭa hañā sādhya-sādhana kahila
nāma-saṅkīrtana kara,--upadeśa kaila
prabhu—the Lord; tuṣṭa—satisfied; hañā—becoming; sādhya-sādhana—the objective and the process; kahila—described; nāma-saṅkīrtana—chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra; kara—practice; upadeśa kaila—gave him the instruction.
The Lord, being satisfied, instructed him about the object of life and the process to attain it. He instructed him that the basic principle of success is to chant the holy name of the Lord [the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra].
The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is based upon this instruction of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu that one must chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra regularly and according to the prescribed principles. We simply ask our Western students to chant at least sixteen rounds a day, but sometimes we find that they fail to chant even these sixteen rounds, and instead they bring many austere books and a worshiping method that diverts their attention in so many ways. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's cult is based upon the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Lord Caitanya first advised Tapana Miśra to fix his mind in this chanting. We, the members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, must strictly follow this advice of Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
tāṅra icchā,--prabhu-saṅge navadvīpe vasi
prabhu ājñā dila,--tumi yāo vārāṇasī
tāṅra icchā—his desire; prabhu-saṅge—with the Lord; navadvīpe—in Navadvīpa; vasi—I live there; prabhu ājñā dila—but the Lord advised him; tumi—you; yāo—go; vārāṇasī—to Benares.
Tapana Miśra desired to live with the Lord in Navadvīpa, but the Lord asked him to go to Vārāṇasī [Benares].
tāhāṅ āmā-saṅge tomāra habe daraśana
ājñā pāñā miśra kaila kāśīte gamana
tāhāṅ—there; āmā-saṅge—with Me; tomāra—your; habe—there will be; daraśana—meeting; ājñā pāñā—receiving this order; miśra—Tapana Miśra; kaila—did; kāśīte—to Benares; gamana—going.
The Lord assured Tapana Miśra that they would meet again in Vārāṇasī. Receiving this order, Tapana Miśra went there.
prabhura atarkya-līlā bujhite nā pāri
sva-saṅga chāḍāñā kene pāṭhāya kāśīpurī
prabhura—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's; atarkya-līlā—inconceivable pastimes; bujhite—to understand; nā—not; pāri—able; sva-saṅga—personal association; chāḍāñā—avoiding; kene—why; pāṭhāya—sends; kāśī-purī—to Benares.
I cannot understand the inconceivable pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, for although Tapana Miśra wanted to live with Him in Navadvīpa, the Lord advised him to go to Vārāṇasī.
When Tapana Miśra met Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Lord Caitanya was living in household life, and there was no indication that in the future He would accept the sannyāsa order. But by asking Tapana Miśra to go to Vārāṇasī He indicated that in the future He would accept sannyāsa and that when He would teach Sanātana Gosvāmī, Tapana Miśra would take advantage of the opportunity to learn the object of life and the real process of attaining it.
ei mata baṅgera lokera kailā mahā hita
'nāma' diyā bhakta kaila, paḍāñā paṇḍita
ei mata—in this way; baṅgera—of East Bengal; lokera—of the people; kailā—contributed; mahā—great; hita—benefit; nāma—the holy name of the Lord; diyā—giving them; bhakta—devotees; kaila—made them; paḍāñā—by educating them; paṇḍita—learned scholars.
In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu contributed the greatest benefit to the people of East Bengal by initiating them into hari-nāma, the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, and making them learned scholars by educating them.
Following in the footsteps of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is distributing the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra and inducing people all over the world to chant. We are giving people an immense treasury of transcendental literature, translated into all the important languages of the world, and by the grace of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu this literature is selling profusely, and people are chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra with great delight. This is the preaching process of the Caitanya cult. Since the Lord wanted this cult preached all over the world, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness is acting in a humble way so that the vision of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu may be fulfilled all over the world, especially in the Western countries.
ei mata baṅge prabhu kare nānā līlā
ethā navadvīpe lakṣmī virahe duḥkhī hailā
ei mata—in this way; baṅge—in East Bengal; prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kare—does; nānā—various; līlā—pastimes; ethā—here; navadvīpe—in Navadvīpa; lakṣmī—the wife of Nimāi Paṇḍita; virahe—in separation; duḥkhī—unhappy; hailā—became.
Because the Lord was engaged in various ways in preaching work in East Bengal, His wife, Lakṣmīdevī, was very unhappy at home in separation from her husband.
prabhura viraha-sarpa lakṣmīre daṁśila
viraha-sarpa-viṣe tāṅra paraloka haila
prabhura—of the Lord; viraha-sarpa—the separation snake; lakṣmīre—Lakṣmīdevī; daṁśila—bit; viraha-sarpa—of the separation snake; viṣe—by the poison; tāṅra—her; para-loka—next world; haila—it so happened.
The snake of separation bit Lakṣmīdevī, and its poison caused her death. Thus she passed to the next world. She went back home, back to Godhead.
As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā (8.6), yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ tyajaty ante kalevaram: one's practice in thinking throughout his entire life determines the quality of his thoughts at death, and thus at death one obtains a suitable body. According to this principle, Lakṣmīdevī, the goddess of fortune from Vaikuṇṭha, who was absorbed in thought of the Lord in separation from Him, certainly went back home to Vaikuṇṭhaloka after death.
antare jānilā prabhu, yāte antaryāmī
deśere āilā prabhu śacī-duḥkha jāni'
antare—within Himself; jānilā—knew; prabhu—the Lord; yāte—because; antaryāmī—He is the Supersoul; deśere—to the country; āilā—returned; prabhu—the Lord; śacī—of mother Śacīdevī; duḥkha—the unhappiness; jāni'-knowing.
Lord Caitanya knew about the disappearance of Lakṣmīdevī because He is the Supersoul Himself. Thus He returned home to solace His mother, Śacīdevī, who was greatly unhappy about the death of her daughter-in-law.
ghare āilā prabhu bahu lañā dhana-jana
tattva-jñāne kailā śacīra duḥkha vimocana
ghare—home; āilā—returned; prabhu—the Lord; bahu—much; lañā—bringing; dhana—riches; jana—followers; tattva-jñāne—by transcendental knowledge; kailā—did; śacīra—of Śacīmātā; duḥkha—the unhappiness; vimocana—relieving.
When the Lord returned home, bringing with Him great wealth and many followers, He spoke to Śacīdevī about transcendental knowledge to relieve her of the grief she was suffering.
dehino 'smin yathā dehe
kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
dhīras tatra na muhyati
"As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. The self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change." Such verses from the Bhagavad-gītā or any other Vedic literature give valuable instructions on the occasion of someone's passing away. By discussing such instructions from the Bhagavad-gītā or Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, a sober man can certainly understand that the soul never dies but rather passes from one body to another. This is called transmigration of the soul. A soul comes into this material world and creates bodily relationships with a father, a mother, sisters, brothers, a wife and children, but all these relationships pertain to the body, not the soul. Therefore, as described in the Bhagavad-gītā, dhīras tatra na muhyati: one who is sober is not disturbed by such phenomenal changes within this material world. Such instructions are called tattva-kathā, or real truth.
śiṣya-gaṇa lañā punaḥ vidyāra vilāsa
vidyā-bale sabā jini' auddhatya prakāśa
śiṣya-gaṇa—disciples; lañā—taking; punaḥ—again; vidyāra—of education; vilāsa—pastime; vidyā-bale—by the strength of education; saba—everyone; jini'-conquering; auddhatya—of pride; prakāśa—manifestation.
After coming back from East Bengal, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu again began educating others. By the strength of His education He conquered everyone, and thus He was greatly proud.
tabe viṣṇupriyā-ṭhākurāṇīra pariṇaya
tabe ta' karila prabhu digvijayī jaya
tabe—after this; viṣṇupriyā—of the name Viṣṇupriyā; ṭhākurāṇīra—of the goddess of fortune; pariṇaya—marriage; tabe ta'-thereafter; karila—did; prabhu—the Lord; dig-vijayī—the champion; jaya—conquer.
Then Lord Caitanya married Viṣṇupriyā, the goddess of fortune, and thereafter He conquered a champion of learning named Keśava Kāśmīrī.
As in the modern day there are many champions in sports, so in bygone days there were many learned scholars in India who were champions in learning. One such person was Keśava Kāśmīrī, who came from the state of Kashmir. He traveled all over India and at last came to Navadvīpa to challenge the learned scholars there. Unfortunately he could not conquer the learned scholars in Navadvīpa, for he was defeated by the boy scholar Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Later he understood that Caitanya Mahāprabhu is none other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus he surrendered unto Him and later became a pure Vaiṣṇava in the sampradāya of Nimbārka. He wrote Kaustubha-prabhā, a commentary on the Vedānta commentary of the Nimbārka-sampradāya, which is known as the Pārijāta-bhāṣya.
The Bhakti-ratnākara mentions Keśava Kāśmīrī and lists his predecessors in the disciplic succession of the Nimbārka-sampradāya: (1) Śrīnivāsa Ācārya, (2) Viśva Ācārya, (3) Puruṣottama, (4) Vilāsa, (5) Svarūpa, (6) Mādhava, (7) Balabhadra, (8) Padma, (9) Śyāma, (10) Gopāla, (11) Kṛpā, (1 2) Deva Ācārya, (13) Sundara Bhaṭṭa, (14) Padmanābha, (15) Upendra, (16) Rāmacandra, (17) Vāmana, (18) Kṛṣṇa, (19) Padmākara, (20) Śravaṇa, (21) Bhūri, (22) Mādhava, (23) Śyāma, (24) Gopāla, (25) Balabhadra, (26) Gopīnātha, (27) Keśava, (28) Gokula and (29) Keśava Kāśmīrī. It is stated in the Bhakti-ratnākara that Keśava Kāśmīrī was a favorite devotee of mother Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning. By her grace he was an extremely influential scholar, and he was the greatest champion among all the scholars in the four corners of the country. Therefore he got the title dig-vijayī, which means "one who has conquered everyone in all directions." He belonged to a very respectable brāhmaṇa family of Kashmir. Later, by the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he gave up the profession of winning championships and became a great devotee. He joined the Nimbārka-sampradāya, one of the Vaiṣṇava communities of the Vedic culture.
vṛndāvana-dāsa ihā kariyāchena vistāra
sphuṭa nāhi kare doṣa-guṇera vicāra
vṛndavana-dāsa—Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura; ihā—this; kariyāchena—has made; vistāra—elaborate description; sphuṭa—what was clear; nahi—not; kare—does; doṣa-guṇera—of both the faults and the virtues; vicāra—analysis.
Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura has previously elaborately described this. That which is clear need not be scrutinized for good qualities and faults.
sei aṁśa kahi, tāṅre kari' namaskāra
yā' śuni' digvijayī kaila āpanā dhik-kāra
sei—that; aṁśa—portion; kahi—I mention; tāṅre—unto Śrī Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura; kari'-making; namaskāra—obeisances; yā'-of which; śuni—hearing; dig-vijayī—the conquering paṇḍita; kaila—did; āpanā—his own; dhik-kāra—condemnation.
Offering my obeisances to Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura, I shall try to describe that portion of the Lord's analysis which, when he heard it, made the Digvijayī feel himself condemned.
jyotsnāvatī rātri, prabhu śiṣya-gaṇa saṅge
vasiyāchena gaṅgātīre vidyāra prasaṅge
jyotsnāvatī—full moon; rātri—night; prabhu—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; śiṣya-gaṇa—disciples; saṅge—along with; vasiyāchena—was sitting; gaṅgā-tīre—on the bank of the Ganges; vidyāra—educational; prasaṅge—in discussion.
On one full moon night the Lord was sitting on the bank of the Ganges with His many disciples and discussing literary topics.
hena-kāle digvijayī tāhāṅi āilā
gaṅgāre vandana kari' prabhure mililā
hena-kāle—at this time; dig-vijayī—Keśava Kāśmīrī; tāhāṅi—there; āilā—reached; gaṅgāre—to mother Ganges; vandana—prayers; kari'-offering; prabhure—the Lord; mililā—met.
Coincidentally Keśava Kāśmīrī Paṇḍita also came there. While offering his prayers to mother Ganges, he met Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
vasāilā tāre prabhu ādara kariyā
digvijayī kahe mane avajñā kariyā
vasāilā—made seated; tāre—him; prabhu—the Lord; ādara—adoration; kariyā—offering him; dig-vijayī—Keśava Kāśmīrī; kahe—says; mane—within his mind; avajñā—disregard; kariyā—doing.
The Lord received him with adoration, but because Keśava Kāśmīrī was very proud, he talked to the Lord very inconsiderately.
vyākaraṇa paḍāha, nimāñi paṇḍita tomāra nāma
bālya-śāstre loke tomāra kahe guṇa-grāma
vyākaraṇa—grammar; paḍāha—You teach; nimāñi paṇḍita—Nimāi Paṇḍita; tomāra—Your; nāma—name; bālya-śāstre—in grammar, which is considered a study for boys; loke—the people in general; tomāra—of You; kahe—declare; guṇa-grāma—very qualified.
"I understand that You are a teacher of grammar," he said, "and that Your name is Nimāi Paṇḍita. People speak very highly of Your teaching of beginners' grammar.
Formerly Sanskrit schools first taught grammar very thoroughly, and this system continues even now. A student was supposed to study grammar carefully for twelve years in the beginning of his life, because if one is expert in the grammar of the Sanskrit language, all the śāstras are open to him. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was famous for teaching grammar to students, and therefore Keśava Kāśmīrī first referred to His position as a teacher of grammar. He was very proud of his literary career; he was far above the first lessons of grammar, and so he thought the position of Nimāi Paṇḍita not at all comparable to his own.
vyākaraṇa-madhye, jāni, paḍāha kalāpa
śuniluṅ phāṅkite tomāra śiṣyera saṁlāpa
vyākaraṇa-madhye—among grammars; jāni—I understand; paḍāha—You teach; kalāpa—the Kalāpa-vyākaraṇa; śuniluṅ—I have heard; phāṅkite—in deceitful word jugglery; tomāra—Your; śiṣyera—of the disciples; saṁlāpa—the specific knowledge.
"I understand that You teach Kalāpa-vyākaraṇa. I have heard that Your students are very expert in the word jugglery of this grammar."
There are many schools of grammar in the Sanskrit language, the most famous of which are the systems of Pāṇini and the Kalāpa and Kaumudī grammars. There were different branches of grammatical knowledge, and a student of grammar was supposed to study them all in twelve years. Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who was famous as Nimāi Paṇḍita, taught grammar to His students, who became expert in dealing with the word jugglery of complicated grammar. Almost anyone expert in studying grammar interprets the śāstras in many ways by changing the root meanings of their words. A student of grammar can sometimes completely change the meaning of a sentence by juggling grammatical rules. Keśava Kāśmīrī indirectly taunted Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu by implying that although He was a great teacher of grammar, such grammatical jugglery of root meanings did not require great expertise. This was a challenge to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Because it was prearranged that Keśava Kāśmīrī would have to discuss the śāstras with Nimāi Paṇḍita, from the very beginning he wanted to bluff the Lord. Thus the Lord replied as follows.
prabhu kahe, vyākaraṇa paḍāi--abhimāna kari
śiṣyete nā bujhe, āmi bujhāite nāri
prabhu kahe—the Lord replied; vyākaraṇa paḍāi—yes, I teach grammar; abhimāna kari—I am supposed to do so; śiṣyete—amongst My disciples; nā—do not; bujhe—understand; āmi—I also; bujhāite—to make them understand; nāri—am not able.
The Lord said, "Yes, I am known as a teacher of grammar, but factually I cannot impress My students with grammatical knowledge, nor can they understand Me very well.
Since Keśava Kāśmīrī was a little puffed up, the Lord increased his artificial pride by presenting Himself as subordinate to him. Thus He flattered him as follows.
kāhāṅ tumi sarva-śāstre kavitve pravīṇa
kāhāṅ āmi sabe śiśu--paḍuyā navīna
kāhāṅ—whereas; tumi—your good self; sarva-śāstre—in all scriptures; kavitve—in a literary career; pravīṇa—very experienced; kāhāṅ—whereas; āmi—I; sabe—just; śiśu—a boy; paḍuyā—student; navīna—new.
"My dear sir, whereas you are a very learned scholar in all sorts of scriptures and are very experienced in composing poetry, I am only a boy-a new student and nothing more.
tomāra kavitva kichu śunite haya mana
kṛpā kari' kara yadi gaṅgāra varṇana
tomāra—your; kavitva—poetic integrity; kichu—something; śunite—to hear; haya—becomes; mana—mind; kṛpā—mercy; kari'-showing Me; kara—you do; yadi—if; gaṅgāra—of mother Ganges; varṇana—description.
"Therefore I desire to hear your skill in composing poetry. We could hear this if you would mercifully describe the glory of mother Ganges."
śuniyā brāhmaṇa garve varṇite lāgilā
ghaṭī eke śata śloka gaṅgāra varṇilā
śuniyā—hearing this; brāhmaṇa—the paṇḍita, Keśava Kāśmīrī; garve—in pride; varṇite—to describe; lāgilā—began; ghaṭī—hour; eke—one; śata—hundred; śloka—verses; gaṅgāra—of the Ganges; varṇilā—described.
When the brāhmaṇa, Keśava Kāśmīrī, heard this, he became still more puffed up, and within one hour he composed one hundred verses describing mother Ganges.
śuniyā karila prabhu bahuta satkāra
tomā sama pṛthivīte kavi nāhi āra
śuniyā—hearing this; karila—did; prabhu—the Lord; bahuta—very much; satkāra—high praise; tomā—you; sama—like; pṛthivīte—in the world; kavi—poet; nāhi—there is not; āra—anyone else.
The Lord praised him, saying, "Sir, there is no greater poet than you in the entire world.
tomāra kavitā śloka bujhite kāra śakti
tumi bhāla jāna artha kiṁvā sarasvatī
tomāra—your; kavita—poetry; śloka—verses; bujhite—to understand; kāra—whose; śakti—power; tumi—you; bhāla—well; jāna—know; artha—meaning; kiṁvā—or; sarasvatī—the goddess of learning.
"Your poetry is so difficult that no one can understand it but you and mother Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning.
Replying to Keśava Kāśmīrī sarcastically, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu indirectly minimized the value of his poetry by saying, "Yes, your compositions are so nice that no one but you and your worshipable mother, the goddess of learning, can understand them." Keśava Kāśmīrī was a favorite devotee of mother Sarasvatī, the goddess of learning, but Caitanya Mahāprabhu, as the master of the goddess of learning, has the right to speak sarcastically of her devotees. In other words, although Keśava Kāśmīrī was proud of being favored by the goddess of learning, he did not know that she is controlled by Caitanya Mahāprabhu Himself because He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
eka ślokera artha yadi kara nija-mukhe
śuni' saba loka tabe pāiba baḍa-sukhe
eka—one; ślokera—of a verse; artha—the meaning; yadi—if; kara—you do; nija-mukhe—by your own mouth; śuni'-hearing; saba—all; loka—persons; tabe—thereafter; pāiba—we shall get; baḍa-sukhe—with great happiness.
"But if you explain the meaning of one verse, we can all hear it from your own mouth and thus be very happy."
tabe digvijayī vyākhyāra śloka puchila
śata ślokera eka śloka prabhu ta' paḍila
tabe—thereafter; dig-vijayī—Keśava Kāśmīrī; vyākhyāra—for explanation; śloka—a verse; puchila—inquired about; śata—one hundred; ślokera—of the verses; eka—one; śloka—verse; prabhu—the Lord; ta'-then; paḍila—recited.
The Digvijayī, Keśava Kāśmīrī, inquired which verse He wanted explained. The Lord then recited one of the one hundred verses Keśava Kāśmīrī had composed.
mahattvaṁ gaṅgāyāḥ satatam idam ābhāti nitarāṁ
yad eṣā śrī-viṣṇoś caraṇa-kamalotpatti-subhagā
dvitīya-śrī-lakṣmīr iva sura-narair arcya-caraṇā
bhavānī-bhartur yā śirasi vibhavaty adbhuta-guṇā
mahattvam—greatness; gaṅgāyāḥ—of mother Ganges; satatam—always; idam—this; ābhāti—shines; nitarām—without comparison; yat—because; eṣā—she; śrī-viṣṇoḥ—of Lord Viṣṇu; caraṇa—feet; kamala—lotus flower; utpatti—generation; subhagā—fortunate; dvitīya—second; śrī—beautiful; lakṣmīḥ—goddess of fortune; iva—like; sura-naraiḥ—by demigods and human beings; arcya—worshipable; caraṇā—feet; bhavānī—of goddess Durgā; bhartuḥ—of the husband; yā—she; śirasi—on the head; vibhavati—flourishes; adbhuta—wonderful; guṇā—qualities.
" 'The greatness of mother Ganges always brilliantly exists. She is the most fortunate because she emanated from the lotus feet of Śrī Viṣṇu, the Personality of Godhead. She is the second goddess of fortune, and therefore she is always worshiped both by demigods and by humanity. Endowed with all wonderful qualities, she flourishes on the head of Lord Śiva.' "
'ei ślokera artha kara'--prabhu yadi baila
vismita hañā digvijayī prabhure puchila
ei—this; ślokera—of the verse; artha—explanation; kara—kindly do; prabhu—Lord Caitanya; yadi—when; baila—said; vismita—struck with wonder; hañā—being; dig-vijayī—the champion; prabhure—unto the Lord; puchila—inquired.
When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked him to explain the meaning of this verse, the champion, very much astonished, inquired from Him as follows.
jhañjhāvāta-prāya āmi śloka paḍila
tāra madhye śloka tumi kaiche kaṇṭhe kaila
jhañjhā-vāta—the strong wind of a storm; prāya—like; āmi—I; śloka—verses; paḍila—recited; tāra—of them; madhye—in the midst; śloka—one verse; tumi—You; kaiche—how; kaṇṭhe—within the heart; kaila—have taken.
"I recited all the verses like the blowing wind. How could You completely learn by heart even one among those verses?"
prabhu kahe, devera vare tumi--'kavi-vara'
aiche devera vare keho haya 'śrutidhara'
prabhu—the Lord; kahe—replied; devera—of a superior power; vare—by benediction; tumi—you; kavi-vara—the most elevated poet; aiche—similarly; devera—of the Lord; vare—by the benediction; keho—someone; haya—becomes; śruti-dhara—one who can immediately remember.
The Lord replied, "By the grace of the Lord someone may become a great poet, and similarly by His grace someone else may become a great śruti-dhara who can memorize anything immediately."
In this connection, śruti-dhara is a very important word. Śruti means "hearing" and dhara means "one who can capture." Formerly, before the beginning of Kali-yuga, almost everyone, especially among the intelligent men, the brahmaṇas, was a śruti-dhara. As soon as a student heard any of the Vedic wisdom from his master, he would remember it forever. There was no need to refer to books, and therefore there were no written books in those days. The spiritual master delivered the Vedic hymns and their explanations to the student, who would then remember them forever, without consulting books.
To become a śruti-dhara, one who can remember simply by hearing, is a great achievement for a student. In the Bhagavad-gītā (10.41) the Lord says:
yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṁ
śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā
tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṁ
"Know that all opulent, beautiful and glorious creations spring from but a spark of My splendor." (Bg. 10.41)
As soon as we find anything extraordinary, we should understand that such an extraordinary manifestation is the special grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied to the champion, Keśava Kāśmīrī, that just as he was greatly proud of being a favorite devotee of mother Sarasvatī, so someone else, like He Himself, being favored by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, could become a śruti-dhara and thus memorize anything immediately simply by hearing it.
ślokera artha kaila vipra pāiyā santoṣa
prabhu kahe--kaha ślokera kibā guṇa-doṣa
ślokera—of the verse; artha—explanation; kaila—made; vipra—the brāhmaṇa; pāiyā—obtaining; santoṣa—satisfaction; prabhu—the Lord; kahe—said; kaha—kindly speak; ślokera—of the verse; kibā—what are; guṇa—qualities; doṣa—faults.
Satisfied by the statement of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the brāhmaṇa [Keśava Kāśmīrī] explained the quoted verse. Then the Lord said, "Now kindly explain the special qualities and faults in the verse."
vipra kahe śloke nāhi doṣera ābhāsa
upamālaṅkāra guṇa, kichu anuprāsa
vipra kahe—the brāhmaṇa replied; śloke—in that verse; nāhi—there is not; doṣera—of fault; ābhāsa—even a tinge; upamā-alaṅkāra—simile or metaphor; guṇa—quality; kichu—something; anuprāsa—alliteration.
The brāhmaṇa replied, "There is not a tinge of fault in that verse. Rather, it has the good qualities of similes and alliteration."
In the last line of the verse quoted by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the letter bha is repeated many times, as in the words bhavānī, bhartur, vibhavati and adbhuta. Such repetition is called anuprāsa, or alliteration. The words lakṣmīr iva and viṣṇoś caraṇa-kamalotpatti are instances of upamā-alaṅkāra, for they exhibit metaphorical beauty. The Ganges is water, and Lakṣmī is the goddess of fortune. Since water and a person are not actually similar, the comparison is metaphorical.
prabhu kahena,--kahi, yadi na karaha roṣa
kaha tomāra ei śloke kibā āche doṣa
prabhu kahena—the Lord replied; kahi—let Me say; yadi—if; nā—do not; karaha—you become; roṣa—angry; kaha—please tell Me; tomāra—your; ei śloke—in this verse; kiba—what; āche—there is; doṣa—fault.
The Lord said, "My dear sir, I may say something to you if you will not become angry. Can you explain the faults in this verse?
pratibhāra kāvya tomāra devatā santoṣe
bhāla-mate vicārile jāni guṇa-doṣe
pratibhāra—of ingenuity; kāvya—poetry; tomāra—your; devatā—the Lord; santoṣe—satisfies; bhāla-mate—scrutinizingly; vicārile—on analyzing; jāni—I know; guṇa-doṣe—there are faults and good qualities also.
"There is no doubt that your poetry is full of ingenuity, and certainly it has satisfied the Supreme Lord. Yet if we scrutinizingly consider it we can find both good qualities and faults."
tāte bhāla kari' śloka karaha vicāra
kavi kahe,--ye kahile sei veda-sāra
tāte—therefore; bhāla—very carefully; kari'-doing it; śloka—the verse; karaha—do; vicāra—judgment; kavi kahe—the poet said; ye kahile—what You have said; sei—that is; veda-sāra—exactly right.
The Lord concluded, "Now, therefore, let us carefully scrutinize this verse." The poet replied, "Yes, the verse You have recited is perfectly correct.
vyākaraṇiyā tumi nāhi paḍa alaṅkāra
tumi ki jānibe ei kavitvera sāra
vyākaraṇiyā—a student of grammar; tumi—You are; nāhi—do not; paḍa—study; alaṅkāra—poetic ornaments; tumi—You; ki—what; jānibe—will know; ei—this; kavitvera—of poetic quality; sāra—review.
"You are an ordinary student of grammar. What do You know about literary embellishments? You cannot review this poetry because You do not know anything about it."
Keśava Kāśmīrī first wanted to bluff Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by saying that since He was not an advanced student in literary style, He could not review a verse full of metaphors and literary ornaments. This argument has some basis in fact. Unless one is a medical man one cannot criticize a medical man, and unless one is a lawyer he cannot criticize a lawyer. Therefore Keśava Kāśmīrī first depreciated the Lord's position. Because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was to the champion a student of grammar, how could He dare criticize a great poet like him? Lord Caitanya, therefore, criticized the poet in a different way. He said that although He was certainly not advanced in a literary career, He had heard from others how to criticize such poetry, and as a śruti-dhara, possessing a complete memory, He could understand the process for such a review.
prabhu kahena--ataeva puchiye tomāre
vicāriyā guṇa-doṣa bujhāha āmāre
prabhu kahena—the Lord said; ataeva—therefore; puchiye—I am asking; tomāre—you; vicāriyā—completely reviewing; guṇa—qualities; doṣa—faults; bujhāha—teach; āmāre—Me.
Taking a humble position, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, "Because I am not of your level, I have asked you to teach Me by explaining the faults and good qualities in your poetry.
nāhi paḍi alaṅkāra, kariyāchi śravaṇa
tāte ei śloke dekhi bahu doṣa-guna
nāhi paḍi—I do not study; alaṅkāra—the art of literary embellishment; kariyāchi—I have done; śravaṇa—hearing; tāte—by that; ei śloke—in this verse; dekhi—I see; bahu—many; doṣa—faults; guṇa—good qualities.
"Certainly I have not studied the art of literary embellishments. But I have heard about it from higher circles, and thus I can review this verse and find in it many faults and many good qualities."
The statement kariyāchi śravaṇa ("I have heard it") is very important in the sense that hearing is more important than directly studying or perceiving. If one is expert in hearing and hears from the right source, his knowledge is immediately perfect. This process is called śrauta-panthā, or the acquisition of knowledge by hearing from authorities. All Vedic knowledge is based on the principle that one must approach a bona fide spiritual master and hear from the authoritative statements of the Vedas. It is not necessary for one to be a highly polished literary man to receive knowledge; to receive perfect knowledge from a perfect person, one must be expert in hearing. This is called the descending process of deductive knowledge, or avaroha-panthā.
kavi kahe,--kaha dekhi, kon guṇa-doṣa
prabhu kahena,--kahi, śuna, nā kariha roṣa
kavi kahe—the poet said; kaha dekhi—you say "I see"; kon—what; guṇa—qualities; doṣa—faults; prabhu kahena—the Lord replied; kahi—let Me say; śuna—please hear; nā—do not; kariha—become; roṣa—angry.
The poet said, "All right, let me see what qualities and faults You have found." The Lord replied, "Let Me speak, and please hear Me without becoming angry.
pañca doṣa ei śloke pañca alaṅkāra
krame āmi kahi, śuna, karaha vicāra
pañca—five; doṣa—faults; ei śloke—in this verse; pañca—five; alaṅkāra—literary embellishments; krame—one after another; āmi—I; kahi—say; śuna—kindly hear; karaha—give; vicāra—judgment.
"My dear sir, in this verse there are five faults and five literary ornaments. I shall state them one after another. Kindly hear Me and then give your judgment.
Vimṛṣṭa means "clean," and vidheyāṁśa means "predicate." It is a general rule of composition to establish a subject first and then give its predicate. For example, according to Sanskrit grammar if one says, "This man is learned," his composition is in order. But if one says, "Learned is this man," the composition is not in order. Such a flaw is called avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa-doṣa, or the fault of unclean composition. The subject matter to be known of the verse is the glorification of the Ganges, and therefore the word idam ("this"), or what is known, should have been placed before instead of after the glorification. The subject matter already known should be placed before the unknown so that its meaning will not be misconstrued.
The second instance of avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa-doṣa occurs in the words dvitīya-śrī-lakṣmir iva. In this composition the word dvitīya ("second") is vidheya, or unknown. Placing the unknown first to make the compound word dvitīya-śrī-lakṣmīr is another fault. The words dvitīya-śrīlakṣmir iva were intended to compare the Ganges to the goddess of fortune, but because of this fault the meaning of the compound word was bewildering.
The third fault is that of viruddha-mati, or contradictory conception, in the words bhavānī-bhartuḥ. The word bhavānī refers to the wife of Bhava, Lord Śiva. But since Bhavānī is already known as the wife of Lord Śiva, to add the word bhartā, "husband," thus forming a compound meaning "the husband of the wife of Lord Śiva," is contradictory, for thus it appears as if the wife of Lord Śiva had another husband.
The fourth fault is punar-ukti, or redundancy, which occurs when the verb vibhavati ("flourishes"), which should have ended the composition, is further qualified by the unnecessary adjective adbhuta-guṇā ("endowed with wonderful qualities"). The fifth fault is bhagna-krama, which means "broken order." In the first, third and fourth lines there is anuprāsa, or alliteration, created by the sounds ta, ra and bha, but in the second line there is no such anuprāsa, and therefore the order is broken.
'avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa'--dui ṭhāñi cihna
'viruddha-mati', 'bhagna-krama', 'punar-ātta',--doṣa tina
avimṛsta-vidheyāṁśa—unclean composition; dui ṭhāñi—in two places; cihna—symptoms; viruddha-mati—a contradictory conception; bhagna-krama—broken order; punar-ātta—redundancy (also called punar-ukti); doṣa—faults; tina—three.
"In this verse the fault of avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa occurs twice, and the faults of viruddha-mati, bhagna-krama and punar-ātta occur once each.
'gaṅgāra mahattva'--śloke mūla 'vidheya'
idaṁ śabde 'anuvāda'--pāche avidheya
gaṅgāra mahattva—glorification of mother Ganges; śloke—in the verse; mūla—chief; vidheya—unknown; idam—this; śabde—by the word; anuvāda—the known; pāche—at the end; avidheya—improper.
"The glorification of the Ganges [mahattvaṁ gaṅgāyāḥ] is the principal unknown subject matter in this verse, and the known subject matter is indicated by the word 'idam,' which has been placed after the unknown.
'vidheya' āge kahi' pāche kahile 'anuvāda'
ei lāgi' ślokera artha kariyāche bādha
vidheya—what is unknown; āge—first; kahi'-after speaking; pāche—at the end; kahile—if one speaks; anuvāda—known things; ei lāgi'-for this reason; ślokera—of the verse; artha—meaning; kariyāche—has been made; bādha—objectionable.
"Because you have placed the known subject at the end and that which is unknown at the beginning, the composition is faulty, and the meaning of the words has become doubtful.
na vidheyam udīrayet
na hy alabdhāspadaṁ kiñcit
anuvādam—things already known; anuktvā—without mentioning; eva—certainly; na—not; vidheyam—unknown subject matters; udīrayet—one should mention; na—not; hi—certainly; alabdha-āspadam—without having achieved a proper place; kiñcit—something; kutracit—anywhere; pratitiṣṭhati—has a position.
" 'Without first mentioning what is known, one should not introduce the unknown, for that which has no solid basis can never be established anywhere.'
'dvitīya śrī-lakṣmī'--ihāṅ 'dvitīyatva' vidheya
samāse gauṇa haila, śabdārtha gela kṣaya
dvitīya śrī-lakṣmī—the word dvitīya-śrī-lakṣmī ("all-opulent goddess of fortune"); ihāṅ—this; dvitīyatva—the quality of being a second; vidheya—the unknown, which is to be explained; samāse—in the compound word; gauṇa—secondary; haila—became; śabda-artha—the word's intended meaning; gela—became; kṣaya—lost.
"In the word 'dvitīya-śrīlakṣmī' ['the second all-opulent goddess of fortune'], the quality of being a second Lakṣmī is the unknown. In making this compound word, the meaning became secondary and the originally intended meaning was lost.
'dvitīya' śabda--vidheya tāhā paḍila samāse
'lakṣmīra samatā' artha karila vināśe
dvitīya śabda—the word dvitīya ("second"); vidheya—the unknown; tāhā—that; paḍila—joined; samāse—in the compound word; lakṣmīra—with Lakṣmī; samatā—equality; artha—meaning; karila—became; vināśe—lost.
"Because the word 'dvitīya' ['second'] is the unknown, in its combination in this compound word the intended meaning of equality with Lakṣmī is lost.
'avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa'--ei doṣera nāma
āra eka doṣa āche, śuna sāvadhāna
avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa—avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa; ei—this; doṣera—of the fault; nāma—the name; āra—another; eka—one; doṣa—fault; āche—there is; śuna—hear; sāvadhāna—carefully.
"Not only is there the fault avimṛṣṭa-vidheyāṁśa, but there is also another fault, which I shall point out to you. Kindly hear Me with great attention.
'bhavānī-bhartṛ'-śabda dile pāiyā santoṣa
'viruddha-mati-kṛt' nāma ei mahā doṣa
bhavānī-bhartṛ śabda—the word bhavānī-bhartṛ ("the husband of Bhavānī"); dile—you have placed; pāiyā—getting; santoṣa—very much satisfaction; viruddha-mati-kṛt—a statement of opposing elements; nāma—named; ei—this; mahā—great; doṣa—fault.
"Here is another great fault. You have arranged the word 'bhavānī-bhartṛ' to your great satisfaction, but this betrays the fault of contradiction.
bhavānī-śabde kahe mahādevera gṛhiṇī
tāṅra bhartā kahile dvitīya bhartā jāni
bhavānī śabde—by the word bhavānī ("the wife of Lord Śiva"); kahe—is mentioned; mahādevera—of Lord Śiva; gṛhiṇī—the wife; tāṅra—her; bhartā—husband; kahile—if we say; dvitīya—second; bhartā—husband; jāni—we understand.
"The word 'bhavānī' means 'the wife of Lord Śiva.' But when we mention her husband, one might conclude that she has another husband.
'śiva-patnīra bhartā' ihā śunite viruddha
'viruddha-mati-kṛt' śabda śāstre nahe śuddha
śiva-patnīra—of the wife of Lord Śiva; bhartā—husband; iha—this; śunite—to hear; viruddha—contradiction; viruddha-mati-kṛt—that which creates a contradiction; śabda—such a word; śāstre—in the scriptures; nahe—is not; śuddha—pure.
"It is contradictory to hear that Lord Śiva's wife has another husband. The use of such words in literature creates the fault called viruddha-mati-kṛt.
'brāhmaṇa-patnīra bhartāra haste deha dāna'
śabda śunitei haya dvitīya-bhartā jñāna
brāhmaṇa-patnīra—of the wife of a brāhmaṇa; bhartāra—of the husband; haste—in the hand; deha—give; dāna—charity; śabda—these words; śunitei—hearing; haya—there is; dvitīya-bhartā—another husband; jñāna—knowledge.
"If someone says, 'Place this charity in the hand of the husband of the wife of the brāhmaṇa,' when we hear these contradictory words we immediately understand that the brāhmaṇa's wife has another husband.
'vibhavati' kriyāya vākya--sāṅga, punaḥ viśeṣaṇa
'adbhuta-guṇā'--ei punar-ātta dūṣaṇa
vibhavati kriyāya—by the verb vibhavati ("flourishes"); vākya—statement; sāṅga—complete; punaḥ—again; viśeṣaṇa adbhuta-guṇa—the adjective adbhuta-guṇa ("wonderful qualities"); ei—this; punar-ātta—repetition of the same word; dūṣaṇa—fault.
"The statement by the word 'vibhavati' ['flourishes'] is complete. Qualifying it with the adjective 'adbhuta-guṇā' ['wonderful qualities'] creates the fault of redundancy.
tina pāde anuprāsa dekhi anupama
eka pāde nāhi, ei doṣa 'bhagna-krama'
tina pāde—in three lines; anuprāsa—alliteration; dekhi—I see; anupama—extraordinary; eka pāde—in one line; nāhi—there is not (alliteration); ei doṣa—this fault; bhagna-krama—deviation.
"There is extraordinary alliteration in three lines of the verse, but in one line there is no such alliteration. This is the fault of deviation.
yadyapi ei śloke āche pañca alaṅkāra
ei pañca-doṣe śloka kaila chārakhāra
yadyapi—although; ei śloke—in this verse; āche—there are; pañca—five; alaṅkāra—literary embellishments; ei pañca-doṣe—by the above-mentioned five faults; śloka—the verse; kaila—has been made; chārakhāra—spoiled.
"Although there are five literary ornaments decorating this verse, the entire verse has been spoiled by these five most faulty presentations.
daśa alaṅkāre yadi eka śloka haya
eka doṣe saba alaṅkāra haya kṣaya
daśa alaṅkāre—with ten instances of literary ornamentation; yadi—if; eka—one; śloka—verse; haya—there is; eka doṣe—by one fault; saba—all; alaṅkāra—ornaments; haya kṣaya—become null and void.
"If there are ten literary ornaments in a verse but even one faulty expression, the entire verse is nullified.
sundara śarīra yaiche bhūṣaṇe bhūṣita
eka śveta-kuṣṭhe yaiche karaye vigīta
sundara—beautiful; śarīra—body; yaiche—as; bhūṣaṇe—with ornaments; bhūṣita—decorated; eka—one; śveta-kuṣṭhe—with a white spot of leprosy; yaiche—as; karaye—is made; vigīta—abominable.
"One's beautiful body may be decorated with jewels, but one spot of white leprosy makes the entire body abominable.
doṣa-yuk ced vibhūṣitam
syād vapuḥ sundaram api
rasa—with humors; alaṅkāra-vat—with ornaments (metaphors, similes, etc.); kāvyam—poetry; doṣa-yuk—faulty; cet—if; vibhūṣitam—very nicely decorated; syāt—it becomes so; vapuḥ—the body; sundaram—beautiful; api—even though; śvitreṇa—by a white spot of leprosy; ekena—one; durbhagam—unfortunate.
" 'As one's body, although well-decorated with ornaments, is made unfortunate by even one spot of white leprosy, so an entire poem is made useless by a fault, despite alliteration, similes and metaphors.'
pañca alaṅkārera ebe śunaha vicāra
dui śabdālaṅkāra, tina artha-alaṅkāra
pañca—five; alaṅkārera—of the literary embellishments; ebe—now; śunaha—just hear; vicāra—description; dui—two; śabda-alaṅkāra—ornaments of sound or ornaments of words; tina—three; artha-alaṅkāra—ornaments of meaning.
"Now hear the description of the five literary embellishments. There are two ornaments of sound and three ornaments of meaning.
śabdālaṅkāra--tina-pāde āche anuprāsa
'śrī-lakṣmī' śabde 'punar-uktavad-ābhāsa'
śabda-alaṅkāra—ornamentation of sound; tina-pāde—in three lines; āche—there is; anuprāsa—alliteration; śrī-lakṣmī-śabde—in the words śrī-lakṣmī; punar-ukta-vat—of repetition of the same word; ābhāsa—there is a tinge.
"There is a sound ornament of alliteration in three lines. And in the combination of the words 'śrī' and 'lakṣmī' there is the ornament of a tinge of redundancy.
prathama-caraṇe pañca 'ta'-kārera pāṅti
tṛtīya-caraṇe haya pañca 'repha'-sthiti
prathama-caraṇe—in the first line; pañca—five; ta-karera—of the letter ta; pāṅti—very nice composition; tṛtīya-caraṇe—in the third line; haya—there is; pañca—five; repha—of the letter ra; sthiti—composition.
"In the arrangement of the first line the letter 'ta' occurs five times, and the arrangement of the third line repeats the letter 'ra' five times.
caturtha-caraṇe cāri 'bha'-kāra-prakāśa
ataeva śabdālaṅkāra anuprāsa
caturtha-caraṇe—in the fourth line; cāri—four; bha-kāra—of the letter bha; prakāśa—manifestations; ataeva—therefore; śabda-alaṅkāra—ornamental use of different sounds; anuprāsa—alliteration.
"In the fourth line the letter 'bha' occurs four times. This arrangement of alliteration is a pleasing ornamental use of sounds.
'śrī'-śabde, 'lakṣmī'-śabde--eka vastu ukta
punar-ukta-prāya bhāse, nahe punar-ukta
śrī-śabde—by the word śrī; lakṣmī-śabde—by the word lakṣmī; eka vastu—one thing; ukta—is indicated; punar-ukta-prāya—almost repetition; bhāse—appears; nahe—but actually it is not; punar-ukta—repetition.
"Although the words 'śrī' and 'lakṣmī' convey the same meaning and are therefore almost redundant, they are nevertheless not redundant.
'śrī-yukta lakṣmī' arthe arthera vibheda
śrī-yukta lakṣmī—Lakṣmī, possessed of opulence; arthe—in the sense; arthera—of the meaning; vibheda—difference; punar-ukta-vad-ābhāsa—tinge of punar-ukta-vat; śabda-alaṅkāra—ornamental use of words; bheda—different.
"Describing Lakṣmī as possessed of śrī [opulence] offers a difference in meaning with a tinge of repetition. This is the second ornamental use of words.
'lakṣmīr iva' arthālaṅkāra--upamā-prakāśa
āra arthālaṅkāra āche, nāma--'virodhābhāsa'
lakṣmīr iva—the words lakṣmīr iva (like Lakṣmī); artha-alaṅkāra—ornamental use of the meaning; upamā—analogy; prakāśa—manifestation; āra—also; artha-alaṅkāra—ornamental use of meaning; āche—there is; nāma—which is named; virodha-ābhāsa—possibility of contradiction.
"The use of the words 'lakṣmīr iva' ['like Lakṣmī'] manifests the ornament of meaning called upamā [analogy]. There is also the further ornament of meaning called virodhābhāsa, or a contradictory indication.
'gaṅgāte kamala janme'--sabāra subodha
'kamale gaṅgara janma'--atyanta virodha
gaṅgāte—in the river Ganges; kamala—lotus flower; janme—grows; sabāra—of everyone; subodha—understanding; kamale—in the lotus flower; gaṅgāra—of the Ganges; janma—birth; atyanta—very much; virodha—contradiction.
"Everyone knows that lotus flowers grow in the water of the Ganges. But to say that the Ganges takes birth from a lotus flower seems extremely contradictory.
'ihāṅ viṣṇu-pāda-padme gaṅgāra utpatti'
virodhālaṅkāra ihā mahā-camatkṛti
ihāṅ—in this connection; viṣṇu-pāda-padme—in the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu; gaṅgāra—of mother Ganges; utpatti—beginning; virodha—contradiction; alaṅkāra—literary decoration; iha—it; mahā—very great; camatkṛti—wonder.
"The existence of mother Ganges begins from the lotus feet of the Lord. Although this statement that water comes from a lotus flower is a contradiction, in connection with Lord Viṣṇu it is a great wonder.
īśvara-acintya-śaktye gaṅgāra prakāśa
ihāte virodha nāhi, virodha-ābhāsa
īśvara-acintya-śaktye—by the inconceivable potency of the Supreme Lord; gaṅgāra—of the Ganges; prakāśa—emanation; ihāte—in this; virodha nāhi—there is no contradiction; virodha-ābhāsa—appears to be a contradiction.
"In this birth of the Ganges by the inconceivable potency of the Lord, there is no contradiction although it appears contradictory.
The central point of all Vaiṣṇava philosophy is to accept the inconceivable potency of Lord Viṣṇu. What sometimes appears contradictory from a material viewpoint is understandable in connection with the Supreme Personality of Godhead because He can perform contradictory activities by dint of His inconceivable potencies. Modern scientists are puzzled. They cannot even explain how such a large quantity of chemicals has formed the atmosphere. Scientists explain that water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen, but when asked where such a large quantity of hydrogen and oxygen came from and how they combined to manufacture the great oceans and seas, they cannot answer because they are atheists who will not accept that everything comes from life. Their thesis is that life comes from matter.
Where do all these chemicals come from? The answer is that they are produced by the inconceivable energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Living entities are part of the Supreme Godhead, and from their bodies come many chemicals. For example, the lemon tree is a living entity that produces many lemons, and within each lemon is a great deal of citric acid. Therefore, if even an insignificant living entity who is but a part of the Supreme Lord can produce so much of a chemical, how much potency there must be in the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Scientists cannot perfectly explain where the chemicals of the world are manufactured, but one can explain this perfectly by accepting the inconceivable energy of the Supreme Lord. There is no reason for denying this argument. Since there are potencies in the living entities who are samples of the Personality of Godhead, how much potency there must be in the Supreme Godhead Himself. As described in the Vedas, nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām: "He is the chief eternal of all eternals and the chief living entity among all living entities." (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13)
Unfortunately, atheistic science will not accept that matter comes from life. Scientists insist upon their most illogical and foolish theory that life comes from matter, although this is quite impossible. They cannot prove in their laboratories that matter can produce life, yet there are thousands and thousands of examples illustrating that matter comes from life. Therefore in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī says that as soon as one accepts the inconceivable potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, no great philosopher or scientist can put forward any thesis to contradict the Lord's power. This is expressed in the following Sanskrit verse.
ambujam ambuni jātaṁ kvacid api na jātam ambujād ambu
mura-bhidi tad-viparītaṁ pādāmbhojān mahā-nadī jātā
ambujam—lotus flower; ambuni—in the water; jātam—is grown; kvacit—at any time; api—certainly; na—not; jātam—grown; ambujāt—from a lotus flower; ambu—water; mura-bhidi—in Kṛṣṇa, the killer of Murāsura; tat-viparītam—just the opposite of that; pāda-ambhojāt—from the lotus flower of His feet; mahā-nadī—the great river; jātā—has grown.
" 'Everyone knows that lotus flowers grow in the water but water never grows from a lotus. All such contradictions, however, are wonderfully possible in Kṛṣṇa: the great river Ganges has grown from His lotus feet.'
gaṅgāra mahattva--sādhya, sādhana tāhāra
gaṅgāra—of the Ganges; mahattva—opulences; sādhya—subject matter; sādhana—means; tāhāra—of that; viṣṇu-pāda-utpatti—her origin from the lotus feet of the Lord; anumāna—called anumāna (hypothesis); alaṅkāra—an ornament.
"The real glory of mother Ganges is that she has grown from the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu. Such a hypothesis is another ornament, called anumāna.
sthūla ei pañca doṣa, pañca alaṅkāra
sūkṣma vicāriye yadi āchaye apāra
sthūla—gross; ei—these; pañca—five; doṣa—faults; pañca—five; alaṅkāra—literary ornaments; sūkṣma—in detail; vicāriye—we consider; yadi—if; āchaye—there are; apāra—unlimited.
"I have simply discussed the five gross faults and five literary embellishments of this verse, but if we consider it in fine detail we will find unlimited faults.
pratibhā, kavitva tomāra devatā-prasāde
avicāra kāvye avaśya paḍe doṣa-bādhe
pratibhā—ingenuity; kavitva—poetic imagination; tomāra—your; devatā—of a demigod; prasāde—by the grace; avicāra—without good judgment; kāvye—in the poetry; avaśya—certainly; paḍe—there is; doṣa—fault; bādhe—obstruction.
"You have achieved poetic imagination and ingenuity by the grace of your worshipable demigod. But poetry not well reviewed is certainly subject to criticism.
vicāri' kavitva kaile haya sunirmala
sālaṅkāra haile artha kare jhalamala
vicāri'-with proper consideration; kavitva—poetic explanation; kaile—if done; haya—it becomes; sunirmala—very pure; sa-alaṅkāra—with metaphorical use of words; haile—if it is; artha—meaning; kare—does; jhalamala—dazzle.
"Poetic skill used with due consideration is very pure, and with metaphors and analogies it is dazzling."
śuniyā prabhura vyākhyā digvijayī vismita
mukhe nā niḥsare vākya, pratibhā stambhita
śuniyā—hearing; prabhura—of the Lord; vyākhyā—explanation; dig-vijayī—the champion; vismita—struck with wonder; mukhe—in the mouth; nā—did not; niḥsare—come out; vākya—words; pratibhā—ingenuity; stambhita—choked up.
After hearing the explanation of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the champion poet was struck with wonder. His cleverness stunned, he could not say anything.
kahite cāhaye kichu, nā āise uttara
tabe vicāraye mane ha-iyā phāṅphara
kahite—to speak; cāhaye—wants; kichu—something; nā—not; āise—comes; uttara—any reply; tabe—thereafter; vicāraye—considers; mane—within the mind; ha-iyā—becoming; phāṅphara—puzzled.
He wanted to say something, but no reply could come from his mouth. He then began to consider this puzzle within his mind.
paḍuyā bālaka kaila mora buddhi lopa
jāni--sarasvatī more kariyāchena kopa
paḍuyā—student; bālaka—a boy; kaila—made; mora—my; buddhi—intelligence; lopa—lost; jāni—I can understand; sarasvatī—mother Sarasvatī; more—with me; kariyāchena—must have been; kopa—angry.
"This mere boy has blocked my intelligence. I can therefore understand that mother Sarasvatī has become angry with me.
In the Bhagavad-gītā it is clearly said that all intelligence comes from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is situated in everyone's heart as Paramātmā. The Paramātmā gave the paṇḍita the intelligence to understand that because he was proud of his learning and wanted to defeat even the Supreme Lord, by the will of the Lord and through the agency of mother Sarasvatī he had been defeated. One should not, therefore, be too proud of one's position. Even if one is a greatly learned scholar, if he commits an offense to the lotus feet of the Lord he will not be able to speak properly, in spite of his learning. In every respect, we are controlled. Our only duty, therefore, is to surrender always to the lotus feet of the Lord and not be falsely proud. Mother Sarasvatī created this situation to favor the champion paṇḍita so that he might surrender unto Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
ye vyākhyā karila, se manuṣyera nahe śakti
nimāñi-mukhe rahi' bale āpane sarasvatī
ye vyākhyā—which explanation; karila—He has made; se—that; manuṣyera—of any human being; nahe—there is not; śakti—power; nimāñi-mukhe—in the mouth of this boy Nimāi; rahi'-remaining; bale—speaks; āpane—personally; sarasvatī—mother Sarasvatī.
"The wonderful explanation the boy has given could not have been possible for a human being. Therefore mother Sarasvatī must have spoken personally through His mouth."
eta bhāvi' kahe--śuna, nimāñi paṇḍita
tava vyākhyā śuni' āmi ha-ilāṅ vismita
eta bhāvi—thinking like this; kahe—the paṇḍita says; śuna—hear; nimāñi paṇḍita—O Nimāi Paṇḍita; tava—Your; vyākhyā—explanations; śuni'-hearing; āmi—I; ha-ilāṅ—have become; vismita—struck with wonder.
Thinking thus, the paṇḍita said, "My dear Nimāi Paṇḍita, please hear me. Hearing Your explanation, I am simply struck with wonder.
alaṅkāra nāhi paḍa, nāhi śāstrābhyāsa
kemane e saba artha karile prakāśa
alaṅkāra—the literary use of words; nāhi pada—You never read; nāhi—nor is there; śāstra-abhyāsa—long practice in the discussion of the śāstras; kemane—by which method; e saba—all these; artha—explanations; karile—You have made; prakāśa—manifestation.
"I am surprised. You are not a literary student and do not have long experience in studying the śāstras. How have You been able to explain all these critical points?"
ihā śuni' mahāprabhu ati baḍa raṅgī
tāṅhāra hṛdaya jāni' kahe kari' bhaṅgī
ihā śuni'-hearing this; mahāprabhu—Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ati—very; baḍa—much; raṅgī—funny; tāṅhāra—his; hṛdaya—heart; jāni'-understanding; kahe—says; kari'-doing; bhaṅgī—indication.
Hearing this and understanding the paṇḍita's heart, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied in a humorous way.
śāstrera vicāra bhāla-manda nāhi jāni
sarasvatī ye balāya, sei bali vāṇī
śāstrera vicāra—discussion of śāstra; bhāla-manda—good or bad; nāhi jāni—do not know; sarasvatī—mother Sarasvatī; ye balāya—whatever she speaks; sei—those; bali—I say; vāṇī—words.
"My dear sir, I do not know what is good composition and what is bad. But whatever I have spoken must be understood to have been spoken by mother Sarasvatī."
ihā śuni' digvijayī karila niścaya
śiśu-dvāre devī more kaila parājaya
ihā śuni'-hearing this; dig-vijayī—the champion; karila—admitted; niścaya—decision; śiśu-dvāre—through this boy; devī—mother Sarasvatī; more—unto me; kaila—has done; parājaya—defeat.
When he heard this judgment from Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the paṇḍita sorrowfully wondered why mother Sarasvatī wanted to defeat him through a small boy.
āji tāṅre nivediba, kari' japa-dhyāna
śiśu-dvāre kaila more eta apamāna
āji—today; tāṅre—unto her; nivediba—I shall offer my prayers; kari'-performing; japa—chanting; dhyāna—meditation; śiśu-dvāre—through a boy; kaila—has done; more—unto me; eta—so much; apamāna—insult.
"I shall offer prayers and meditation to the goddess of learning," the champion concluded, "and ask her why she has insulted me so greatly through this boy."
vastutaḥ sarasvatī aśuddha śloka karāila
vicāra-samaya tāṅra buddhi ācchādila
vastutaḥ—in fact; sarasvatī—mother Sarasvatī; aśuddha—impure; śloka—verse; karāila—caused him to compose; vicāra-samaya—at the time of reviewing; tāṅra—his; buddhi—intelligence; ācchādila—covered.
Sarasvatī had in fact induced the champion to compose his verse in an impure way. Furthermore, when it was discussed she covered his intelligence, and thus the Lord's intelligence was triumphant.
tabe śiṣya-gaṇa saba hāsite lāgila
tā'-sabā niṣedhi' prabhu kavire kahila
tabe—at that time; śiṣya-gaṇa—the disciples; saba—all; hāsite—to laugh; lāgila—began; tā'-sabā—all of them; niṣedhi'-forbidding; prabhu—the Lord; kavire—unto the poet; kahila—addressed.
When the poetic champion was thus defeated, all the Lord's disciples sitting there began to laugh loudly. But Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked them not to do so, and He addressed the poet as follows.
tumi baḍa paṇḍita, mahākavi-śiromaṇi
yāṅra mukhe bāhirāya aiche kavya-vāṇī
tumi—you; baḍa paṇḍita—greatly learned scholar; mahā-kavi—of all great poets; śiromaṇi—the topmost; yāṅra—of whom; mukhe—in the mouth; bāhirāya—emanates; aiche—such; kāvya-vāṇī—poetic language.
"You are the most learned scholar and the topmost of all great poets, for otherwise how could such fine poetry come from your mouth?
tomāra kavitva yena gaṅgā-jala-dhāra
tomā-sama kavi kothā nāhi dekhi āra
tomāra—your; kavitva—poetic ingenuity; yena—like; gaṅgā-jala-dhāra—the flowing of the waters of the Ganges; tomā-sama—like you; kavi—poet; kothā—anywhere; nāhi—not; dekhi—I see; āra—anyone else.
"Your poetic skill is like the constant flow of the waters of the Ganges. I find no one in the world who can compete with you.
bhavabhūti, jayadeva, āra kālidāsa
tāṅ-sabāra kavitve āche doṣera prakāśa
bhavabhūti—of the name Bhavabhūti; jayadeva—of the name Jayadeva; āra—and; kālidāsa—of the name Kālidāsa; tāṅ-sabāra—of all of them; kavitve—in the poetic power; āche—there is; doṣera—of faults; prakāśa—manifestation.
"Even in the poetic compositions of such great poets as Bhavabhūti, Jayadeva and Kālidāsa there are many examples of faults.
doṣa-guṇa-vicāra--ei alpa kari' māni
kavitva-karaṇe śakti, tāṅhā se vākhāni
doṣa-guṇa-vicāra—therefore to criticize one's poetry as good or bad; ei—this; alpa—negligible; kari'-making; māni—I consider; kavitva—poetic ingenuity; karaṇe—in performing; śakti—power; tāṅhā—that; se—we; vākhāni—describe.
"Such mistakes should be considered negligible. One should see only how such poets have displayed their poetic power.
yasmin prati-ślokam abaddhavaty api
nāmany anantasya yaśo 'ṅkitāni yat
śṛṇvanti gāyanti gṛṇanti sādhavaḥ
"In explaining the glories of the Lord, inexperienced men may compose poetry with many faults, but because it contains glorification of the Lord, great personalities read it, hear it and chant it." Despite its minute literary discrepancies, one must study poetry on the merit of its subject matter. According to Vaiṣṇava philosophy, any literature that glorifies the Lord, whether properly written or not, is first class. There need be no other considerations. The poetic compositions of Bhavabhūti, or Śrīkaṇṭha, include Mālatī-mādhava, Uttara-carita, Vīra-carita and many other similar Sanskrit dramas. This great poet was born during the time of Bhojarāja as the son of Nīlakaṇṭha, a brāhmaṇa. Kālidāsa flourished during the time of Mahārāja Vikramāditya, and he became the state poet. He composed some thirty or forty Sanskrit dramas, including Kumāra-sambhava, Abhijñāna-śakuntala and Megha-dūta. His drama Raghu-vaṁśa is especially famous. We have already described Jayadeva in Chapter Thirteen of this Ādi-līlā.
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