panca dosa ei sloke panca alankara
krame ami kahi, suna, karaha vicara
pancafive; dosafaults; ei slokein this verse; pancafive; alankaraliterary embellishments; krameone after another; amiI; kahisay; sunakindly hear; karahagive; vicarajudgment.
"My dear sir, in this verse there are five faults and five literary ornaments. I shall state them one after another. Kindly hear Me and then give your judgment.
In the verse beginning with mahattvam gangayah there are five literary ornaments and five examples of faulty composition. There are two examples of the fault called avimrsta-vidheyamsa and one example each of the faults viruddha-mati, punar-ukti and bhagna-krama.
Vimrsta means "clean," and vidheyamsa means "predicate." It is a general rule of composition to establish a subject first and then give its predicate. For example, according to Sanskrit grammar if one says, "This man is learned," his composition is in order. But if one says, "Learned is this man," the composition is not in order. Such a flaw is called avimrsta-vidheyamsa-dosa, or the fault of unclean composition. The subject matter to be known of the verse is the glorification of the Ganges, and therefore the word idam ("this"), or what is known, should have been placed before instead of after the glorification. The subject matter already known should be placed before the unknown so that its meaning will not be misconstrued.
The second instance of avimrsta-vidheyamsa-dosa occurs in the words dvitiya-sri-laksmir iva. In this composition the word dvitiya ("second") is vidheya, or unknown. Placing the unknown first to make the compound word dvitiya-sri-laksmir is another fault. The words dvitiya-srilaksmir iva were intended to compare the Ganges to the goddess of fortune, but because of this fault the meaning of the compound word was bewildering.
The third fault is that of viruddha-mati, or contradictory conception, in the words bhavani-bhartuh. The word bhavani refers to the wife of Bhava, Lord Siva. But since Bhavani is already known as the wife of Lord Siva, to add the word bharta, "husband," thus forming a compound meaning "the husband of the wife of Lord Siva," is contradictory, for thus it appears as if the wife of Lord Siva had another husband.
The fourth fault is punar-ukti, or redundancy, which occurs when the verb vibhavati ("flourishes"), which should have ended the composition, is further qualified by the unnecessary adjective adbhuta-guna ("endowed with wonderful qualities"). The fifth fault is bhagna-krama, which means "broken order." In the first, third and fourth lines there is anuprasa, or alliteration, created by the sounds ta, ra and bha, but in the second line there is no such anuprasa, and therefore the order is broken.

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