Kṛṣṇa the Supreme Personality of Godhead
Vidarbha had three sons, named Kuśa, Kratha and Romapāda. Of these three, Romapāda expanded his dynasty by the sons and grandsons named Babhru, Kṛti, Uśika, Cedi and Caidya, all of whom later became kings. From the son of Vidarbha named Kratha came a son named Kunti, from whose dynasty came the descendants named Vṛṣṇi, Nirvṛti, Daśārha, Vyoma, Jīmūta, Vikṛti, Bhīmaratha, Navaratha, Daśaratha, Śakuni, Karambhi, Devarāta, Devakṣatra, Madhu, Kuruvaśa, Anu, Puruhotra, Ayu and Sātvata. Sātvata had seven sons. One of them was Devāvṛdha, whose son was Babhru. Another son of Sātvata was Mahābhoja, by whom the Bhoja dynasty was inaugurated. Another was Vṛṣṇi, who had a son named Yudhājit. From Yudhājit came Anamitra and Śini, and from Anamitra came Nighna and another Śini. The descendants in succession from Śini were Satyaka, Yuyudhāna, Jaya, Kuṇi and Yugandhara. Another son of Anamitra was Vṛṣṇi. From Vṛṣṇi came Śvaphalka, by whom Akrūra and twelve other sons were generated. From Akrūra came two sons, named Devavān and Upadeva. The son of Andhaka named Kukura was the origin of the descendants known as Vahni, Vilomā, Kapotaromā, Anu, Andhaka, Dundubhi, Avidyota, Punarvasu and Āhuka. Āhuka had two sons, named Devaka and Ugrasena. The four sons of Devaka were known as Devavān, Upadeva, Sudeva and Devavardhana, and his seven daughters were Dhṛtadevā, Śāntidevā, Upadevā, Śrīdevā, Devarakṣitā, Sahadevā and Devakī. Vasudeva married all seven daughters of Devaka. Ugrasena had nine sons named Kaṁsa, Sunāmā, Nyagrodha, Kaṅka, Śaṅku, Suhū, Rāṣṭrapāla, Dhṛṣṭi and Tuṣṭimān, and he had five daughters named Kaṁsā, Kaṁsavatī, Kaṅkā, Śūrabhū and Rāṣṭrapālikā. The younger brothers of Vasudeva married all the daughters of Ugrasena.
Vidūratha, the son of Citraratha, had a son named Śūra, who had ten other sons, of whom Vasudeva was the chief. Śūra gave one of his five daughters, Pṛthā, to his friend Kunti, and therefore she was also named Kuntī. In her maiden state she gave birth to a child named Karṇa, and later she married Mahārāja Pāṇḍu.
Vṛddhaśarmā married the daughter of Śūra named Śrutadevā, from whose womb Dantavakra was born. Dhṛṣṭaketu married Śūra’s daughter named Śrutakīrti, who had five sons. Jayasena married Śūra’s daughter named Rājādhidevī. The king of Cedi-deśa, Damaghoṣa, married the daughter of Śūra named Śrutaśravā, from whom Śiśupāla was born.
Devabhāga, through the womb of Kaṁsā, begot Citraketu and Bṛhadbala; and Devaśravā, through the womb of Kaṁsavatī, begot Suvīra and Iṣumān. From Kaṅka, through the womb of Kaṅkā, came Baka, Satyajit and Purujit, and from Sṛñjaya, through the womb of Rāṣṭrapālikā, came Vṛṣa and Durmarṣaṇa. Śyāmaka, through the womb of Śūrabhūmi, begot Harikeśa and Hiraṇyākṣa. Vatsaka, through the womb of Miśrakeśī, begot Vṛka, who begot the sons named Takṣa, Puṣkara and Śāla. From Samīka came Sumitra and Arjunapāla, and from Ānaka came Ṛtadhāmā and Jaya.
Vasudeva had many wives, of whom Devakī and Rohiṇī were the most important. From the womb of Rohiṇī, Baladeva was born, along with Gada, Sāraṇa, Durmada, Vipula, Dhruva, Kṛta and others. Vasudeva had many other sons by his other wives, and the eighth son to appear from the womb of Devakī was the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who delivered the entire world from the burden of demons. This chapter ends by glorifying the Supreme Personality of Godhead Vāsudeva.
tasyāṁ vidarbho ’janayat
putrau nāmnā kuśa-krathau
tṛtīyaṁ romapādaṁ ca
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca—Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; tasyām—in that girl; vidarbhaḥ—the son born of Śaibyā named Vidarbha; ajanayat—gave birth; putrau—to two sons; nāmnā—by the name; kuśa-krathau—Kuśa and Kratha; tṛtīyam—and a third son; romapādam ca—Romapāda also; vidarbha-kula-nandanam—the favorite in the dynasty of Vidarbha.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: By the womb of the girl brought by his father, Vidarbha begot three sons, named Kuśa, Kratha and Romapāda. Romapāda was the favorite in the dynasty of Vidarbha.
babhroḥ kṛtir ajāyata
uśikas tat-sutas tasmāc
cediś caidyādayo nṛpāḥ
romapāda-sutaḥ—the son of Romapāda; babhruḥ—Babhru; babhroḥ—from Babhru; kṛtiḥ—Kṛti; ajāyata—was born; uśikaḥ—Uśika; tat-sutaḥ—the son of Kṛti; tasmāt—from him (Uśika); cediḥ—Cedi; caidya—Caidya (Damaghoṣa); ādayaḥ—and others; nṛpāḥ—kings.
The son of Romapāda was Babhru, from whom there came a son named Kṛti. The son of Kṛti was Uśika, and the son of Uśika was Cedi. From Cedi was born the king known as Caidya and others.
krathasya kuntiḥ putro ’bhūd
vṛṣṇis tasyātha nirvṛtiḥ
tato daśārho nāmnābhūt
tasya vyomaḥ sutas tataḥ
jīmūto vikṛtis tasya
yasya bhīmarathaḥ sutaḥ
tato navarathaḥ putro
jāto daśarathas tataḥ
krathasya—of Kratha; kuntiḥ—Kunti; putraḥ—a son; abhūt—was born; vṛṣṇiḥ—Vṛṣṇi; tasya—his; atha—then; nirvṛtiḥ—Nirvṛti; tataḥ—from him; daśārhaḥ—Daśārha; nāmnā—by name; abhūt—was born; tasya—of him; vyomaḥ—Vyoma; sutaḥ—a son; tataḥ—from him; jīmūtaḥ—Jīmūta; vikṛtiḥ—Vikṛti; tasya—his (Jīmūta’s son); yasya—of whom (Vikṛti); bhīmarathaḥ—Bhīmaratha; sutaḥ—a son; tataḥ—from him (Bhīmaratha); navarathaḥ—Navaratha; putraḥ—a son; jātaḥ—was born; daśarathaḥ—Daśaratha; tataḥ—from him.
The son of Kratha was Kunti; the son of Kunti, Vṛṣṇi; the son of Vṛṣṇi, Nirvṛti; and the son of Nirvṛti, Daśārha. From Daśārha came Vyoma; from Vyoma came Jīmūta; from Jīmūta, Vikṛti; from Vikṛti, Bhīmaratha; from Bhīmaratha, Navaratha; and from Navaratha, Daśaratha.
karambhiḥ śakuneḥ putro
devakṣatras tatas tasya
madhuḥ kuruvaśād anuḥ
karambhiḥ—Karambhi; śakuneḥ—from Śakuni; putraḥ—a son; devarātaḥ—Devarāta; tat-ātmajaḥ—the son of him (Karambhi); devakṣatraḥ—Devakṣatra; tataḥ—thereafter; tasya—from him (Devakṣatra); madhuḥ—Madhu; kuruvaśāt—from Kuruvaśa, the son of Madhu; anuḥ—Anu.
From Daśaratha came a son named Śakuni and from Śakuni a son named Karambhi. The son of Karambhi was Devarāta, and his son was Devakṣatra. The son of Devakṣatra was Madhu, and his son was Kuruvaśa, from whom there came a son named Anu.
puruhotras tv anoḥ putras
tasyāyuḥ sātvatas tataḥ
bhajamāno bhajir divyo
vṛṣṇir devāvṛdho ’ndhakaḥ
sātvatasya sutāḥ sapta
mahābhojaś ca māriṣa
kiṅkaṇo dhṛṣṭir eva ca
ekasyām ātmajāḥ patnyām
anyasyāṁ ca trayaḥ sutāḥ
śatājic ca sahasrājid
ayutājid iti prabho
puruhotraḥ—Puruhotra; tu—indeed; anoḥ—of Anu; putraḥ—the son; tasya—of him (Puruhotra); ayuḥ—Ayu; sātvataḥ—Sātvata; tataḥ—from him (Ayu); bhajamānaḥ—Bhajamāna; bhajiḥ—Bhaji; divyaḥ—Divya; vṛṣṇiḥ—Vṛṣṇi; devāvṛdhaḥ—Devāvṛdha; andhakaḥ—Andhaka; sātvatasya—of Sātvata; sutāḥ—son s; sapta—seven; mahābhojaḥ ca—as well as Mahābhoja; māriṣa—O great King; bhajamānasya—of Bhajamāna; nimlociḥ—Nimloci; kiṅkaṇaḥ—Kiṅkaṇa; dhṛṣṭiḥ—Dhṛṣṭi; eva—indeed; ca—also; ekasyām—born from one wife; ātmajāḥ—sons; patnyām—by a wife; anyasyām—another; ca—also; trayaḥ—three; sutāḥ—sons; śatājit—Śatājit; ca—also; sahasrājit—Sahasrājit; ayutājit—Ayutājit; iti—thus; prabho—O King.
The son of Anu was Puruhotra, the son of Puruhotra was Ayu, and the son of Ayu was Sātvata. O great Āryan King, Sātvata had seven sons, named Bhajamāna, Bhaji, Divya, Vṛṣṇi, Devāvṛdha, Andhaka and Mahābhoja. From Bhajamāna by one wife came three sons—Nimloci, Kiṅkaṇa and Dhṛṣṭi. And from his other wife came three other sons—Śatājit, Sahasrājit and Ayutājit.
tayoḥ ślokau paṭhanty amū
yathaiva śṛṇumo dūrāt
babhruḥ—Babhru; devāvṛdha—of Devāvṛdha; sutaḥ—the son; tayoḥ—of them; ślokau—two verses; paṭhanti—all the members of the old generation recite; amū—those; yathā—as; eva—indeed; śṛṇumaḥ—we have heard; dūrāt—from a distance; sampaśyāmaḥ—are actually seeing; tathā—similarly; antikāt—presently also.
The son of Devāvṛdha was Babhru. Concerning Devāvṛdha and Babhru there are two famous songs of prayer, which were sung by our predecessors and which we have heard from a distance. Even now I hear the same prayers about their qualities [because that which was heard before is still sung continuously].
babhruḥ śreṣṭho manuṣyāṇāṁ
devair devāvṛdhaḥ samaḥ
puruṣāḥ pañca-ṣaṣṭiś ca
ṣaṭ-sahasrāṇi cāṣṭa ca
ye ’mṛtatvam anuprāptā
babhror devāvṛdhād api
bhojā āsaṁs tad-anvaye
babhruḥ—King Babhru; śreṣṭhaḥ—the best of all kings; manuṣyāṇām—of all human beings; devaiḥ—with the demigods; devāvṛdhaḥ—King Devāvṛdha; samaḥ—equally situated; puruṣāḥ—persons; pañca-ṣaṣṭiḥ—sixty-five; ca—also; ṣaṭ-sahasrāṇi—six thousand; ca—also; aṣṭa—eight thousand; ca—also; ye—all of them who; amṛtatvam—liberation from material bondage; anuprāptāḥ—achieved; babhroḥ—because of association with Babhru; devāvṛdhāt—and because of association with Devāvṛdha; api—indeed; mahābhojaḥ—King Mahābhoja; ati-dharma-ātmā—exceedingly religious; bhojāḥ—the kings known as Bhoja; āsan—existed; tat-anvaye—in the dynasty of him (Mahābhoja).
“It has been decided that among human beings Babhru is the best and that Devāvṛdha is equal to the demigods. Because of the association of Babhru and Devāvṛdha, all of their descendants, numbering 14,065, achieved liberation.” In the dynasty of King Mahābhoja, who was exceedingly religious, there appeared the Bhoja kings.
vṛṣṇeḥ sumitraḥ putro ’bhūd
yudhājic ca parantapa
śinis tasyānamitraś ca
nighno ’bhūd anamitrataḥ
vṛṣṇeḥ—of Vṛṣṇi, the son of Sātvata; sumitraḥ—Sumitra; putraḥ—a son; abhūt—appeared; yudhājit—Yudhājit; ca—also; param-tapa—O king who can suppress enemies; śiniḥ—Śini; tasya—his; anamitraḥ—Anamitra; ca—and; nighnaḥ—Nighna; abhūt—appeared; anamitrataḥ—from Anamitra.
O King, Mahārāja Parīkṣit, who can suppress your enemies, the sons of Vṛṣṇi were Sumitra and Yudhājit. From Yudhājit came Śini and Anamitra, and from Anamitra came a son named Nighna.
satrājitaḥ prasenaś ca
anamitra-suto yo ’nyaḥ
śinis tasya ca satyakaḥ
satrājitaḥ—Satrājita; prasenaḥ ca—Prasena also; nighnasya—the sons of Nighna; atha—thus; asatuḥ—existed; sutau—two sons; anamitra-sutaḥ—the son of Anamitra; yaḥ—one who; anyaḥ—another; śiniḥ—Śini; tasya—his; ca—also; satyakaḥ—the son named Satyaka.
The two sons of Nighna were Satrājita and Prasena. Another son of Anamitra was another Śini, and his son was Satyaka.
yuyudhānaḥ sātyakir vai
jayas tasya kuṇis tataḥ
vṛṣṇiḥ putro ’paras tataḥ
yuyudhānaḥ—Yuyudhāna; sātyakiḥ—the son of Satyaka; vai—indeed; jayaḥ—Jaya; tasya—of him (Yuyudhāna); kuṇiḥ—Kuṇi; tataḥ—from him (Jaya); yugandharaḥ—Yugandhara; anamitrasya—a son of Anamitra; vṛṣṇiḥ—Vṛṣṇi; putraḥ—a son; aparaḥ—other; tataḥ—from him.
The son of Satyaka was Yuyudhāna, whose son was Jaya. From Jaya came a son named Kuṇi and from Kuṇi a son named Yugandhara. Another son of Anamitra was Vṛṣṇi.
śvaphalkaś citrarathaś ca
gāndinyāṁ ca śvaphalkataḥ
putrā dvādaśa viśrutāḥ
śvaphalkaḥ—Śvaphalka; citrarathaḥ ca—and Citraratha; gāndinyām—through the wife named Gāndinī; ca—and; śvaphalkataḥ—from Śvaphalka; akrūra—Akrūra; pramukhāḥ—headed by; āsan—there were; putrāḥ—sons; dvādaśa—twelve; viśrutāḥ—most celebrated.
From Vṛṣṇi came the sons named Śvaphalka and Citraratha. From Śvaphalka by his wife Gāndinī came Akrūra. Akrūra was the eldest, but there were twelve other sons, all of whom were most celebrated.
āsaṅgaḥ sārameyaś ca
mṛduro mṛduvid giriḥ
dharmavṛddhaḥ sukarmā ca
śatrughno gandhamādaś ca
pratibāhuś ca dvādaśa
teṣāṁ svasā sucārākhyā
dvāv akrūra-sutāv api
devavān upadevaś ca
pṛthur vidūrathādyāś ca
āsaṅgaḥ—Āsaṅga; sārameyaḥ—Sārameya; ca—also; mṛduraḥ—Mṛdura; mṛduvit—Mṛduvit; giriḥ—Giri; dharmavṛddhaḥ—Dharmavṛddha; sukarmā—Sukarmā; ca—also; kṣetropekṣaḥ—Kṣetropekṣa; arimardanaḥ—Arimardana; śatrughnaḥ—Śatrughna; gandhamādaḥ—Gandhamāda; ca—and; pratibāhuḥ—Pratibāhu; ca—and; dvādaśa—twelve; teṣām—of them; svasā—sister; sucārā—Sucārā; ākhyā—well known; dvau—two; akrūra—of Akrūra; sutau—sons; api—also; devavān—Devavān; upadevaḥ ca—and Upadeva; tathā—thereafter; citraratha-ātmajāḥ—the sons of Citraratha; pṛthuḥ vidūratha—Pṛthu and Vidūratha; ādyāḥ—beginning with; ca—also; bahavaḥ—many; vṛṣṇi-nandanāḥ—the sons of Vṛṣṇi.
The names of these twelve were Āsaṅga, Sārameya, Mṛdura, Mṛduvit, Giri, Dharmavṛddha, Sukarmā, Kṣetropekṣa, Arimardana, Śatrughna, Gandhamāda and Pratibāhu. These brothers also had a sister named Sucārā. From Akrūra came two sons, named Devavān and Upadeva. Citraratha had many sons, headed by Pṛthu and Vidūratha, all of whom were known as belonging to the dynasty of Vṛṣṇi.
kukuro bhajamānaś ca
kukurasya suto vahnir
vilomā tanayas tataḥ
kukuraḥ—Kukura; bhajamānaḥ—Bhajamāna; ca—also; śuciḥ—Śuci; kambalabarhiṣaḥ—Kambalabarhiṣa; kukurasya—of Kukura; sutaḥ—a son; vahniḥ—Vahni; vilomā—Vilomā; tanayaḥ—son; tataḥ—from him (Vahni).
Kukura, Bhajamāna, Śuci and Kambalabarhiṣa were the four sons of Andhaka. The son of Kukura was Vahni, and his son was Vilomā.
sakhā yasya ca tumburuḥ
andhakād dundubhis tasmād
kapotaromā—Kapotaromā; tasya—his (son); anuḥ—Anu; sakhā—friend; yasya—whose; ca—also; tumburuḥ—Tumburu; andhakāt—of Andhaka, the son of Anu; dundubhiḥ—a son named Dundubhi; tasmāt—from him (Dundubhi); avidyotaḥ—a son named Avidyota; punarvasuḥ—a son named Punarvasu.
The son of Vilomā was Kapotaromā, and his son was Anu, whose friend was Tumburu. From Anu came Andhaka; from Andhaka, Dundubhi; and from Dundubhi, Avidyota. From Avidyota came a son named Punarvasu.
tasyāhukaś cāhukī ca
devakaś cograsenaś ca
devavān upadevaś ca
teṣāṁ svasāraḥ saptāsan
sahadevā devakī ca
vasudeva uvāha tāḥ
tasya—from him (Punarvasu); āhukaḥ—Āhuka; ca—and; āhukī—Āhukī; ca—also; kanyā—a daughter; ca—also; eva—indeed; āhuka—of Āhuka; ātmajau—two sons; devakaḥ—Devaka; ca—and; ugrasenaḥ—Ugrasena; ca—also; catvāraḥ—four; devaka-ātmajāḥ—sons of Devaka; devavān—Devavān; upadevaḥ—Upadeva; ca—and; sudevaḥ—Sudeva; devavardhanaḥ—Devavardhana; teṣām—of all of them; svasāraḥ—sisters; sapta—seven; āsan—existed; dhṛtadevā-ādayaḥ—headed by Dhṛtadevā; nṛpa—O King (Mahārāja Parīkṣit); śāntidevā—Śāntidevā; upadevā—Upadevā; ca—also; śrīdevā—Śrīdevā; devarakṣitā—Devarakṣitā; sahadevā—Sahadevā; devakī—Devakī; ca—and; vasudevaḥ—Śrī Vasudeva, the father of Kṛṣṇa; uvāha—married; tāḥ—them.
Punarvasu had a son and a daughter, named Āhuka and Āhukī respectively, and Āhuka had two sons, named Devaka and Ugrasena. Devaka had four sons, named Devavān, Upadeva, Sudeva and Devavardhana, and he also had seven daughters, named Śāntidevā, Upadevā, Śrīdevā, Devarakṣitā, Sahadevā, Devakī and Dhṛtadevā. Dhṛtadevā was the eldest. Vasudeva, the father of Kṛṣṇa, married all these sisters.
kaṁsaḥ sunāmā nyagrodhaḥ
kaṅkaḥ śaṅkuḥ suhūs tathā
rāṣṭrapālo ’tha dhṛṣṭiś ca
kaṁsaḥ—Kaṁsa; sunāmā—Sunāmā; nyagrodhaḥ—Nyagrodha; kaṅkaḥ—Kaṅka; śaṅkuḥ—Śaṅku; suhūḥ—Suhū; tathā—as well as; rāṣṭrapālaḥ—Rāṣṭrapāla; atha—thereafter; dhṛṣṭiḥ—Dhṛṣṭi; ca—also; tuṣṭimān—Tuṣṭimān; augrasenayaḥ—the sons of Ugrasena.
Kaṁsa, Sunāmā, Nyagrodha, Kaṅka, Śaṅku, Suhū, Rāṣṭrapāla, Dhṛṣṭi and Tuṣṭimān were the sons of Ugrasena.
kaṁsā kaṁsavatī kaṅkā
kaṁsā—Kaṁsā; kaṁsavatī—Kaṁsavatī; kaṅkā—Kaṅkā; śūrabhū—Śūrabhū; rāṣṭrapālikā—Rāṣṭrapālikā; ugrasena-duhitaraḥ—the daughters of Ugrasena; vasudeva-anuja—of the younger brothers of Vasudeva; striyaḥ—the wives.
Kaṁsā, Kaṁsavatī, Kaṅkā, Śūrabhū and Rāṣṭrapālikā were the daughters of Ugrasena. They became the wives of Vasudeva’s younger brothers.
śūro vidūrathād āsīd
bhajamānas tu tat-sutaḥ
śinis tasmāt svayaṁ bhojo
hṛdikas tat-suto mataḥ
śūraḥ—Śūra; vidūrathāt—from Vidūratha, the son of Citraratha; āsīt—was born; bhajamānaḥ—Bhajamāna; tu—and; tat-sutaḥ—the son of him (Śūra); śiniḥ—Śini; tasmāt—from him; svayam—personally; bhojaḥ—the famous King Bhoja; hṛdikaḥ—Hṛdika; tat-sutaḥ—the son of him (Bhoja); mataḥ—is celebrated.
The son of Citraratha was Vidūratha, the son of Vidūratha was Śūra, and his son was Bhajamāna. The son of Bhajamāna was Śini, the son of Śini was Bhoja, and the son of Bhoja was Hṛdika.
māriṣā nāma patny abhūt
devamīḍhaḥ—Devamīḍha; śatadhanuḥ—Śatadhanu; kṛtavarmā—Kṛtavarmā; iti—thus; tat-sutāḥ—the sons of him (Hṛdika); devamīḍhasya—of Devamīḍha; śūrasya—of Śūra; māriṣā—Māriṣā; nāma—named; patnī—wife; abhūt—there was.
The three sons of Hṛdika were Devamīḍha, Śatadhanu and Kṛtavarmā. The son of Devamīḍha was Śūra, whose wife was named Māriṣā.
tasyāṁ sa janayām āsa
daśa putrān akalmaṣān
sṛñjayaṁ śyāmakaṁ kaṅkaṁ
śamīkaṁ vatsakaṁ vṛkam
ānakā yasya janmani
vasudevaṁ hareḥ sthānaṁ
pṛthā ca śrutadevā ca
bhaginyaḥ pañca kanyakāḥ
kunteḥ sakhyuḥ pitā śūro
hy aputrasya pṛthām adāt
tasyām—in her (Māriṣā); saḥ—he (Śūra); janayām āsa—begot; daśa—ten; putrān—sons; akalmaṣān—spotless; vasudevam—Vasudeva; devabhāgam—Devabhāga; devaśravasam—Devaśravā; ānakam—Ānaka; sṛñjayam—Sṛñjaya; śyāmakam—Śyāmaka; kaṅkam—Kaṅkā; śamīkam—Śamīka; vatsakam—Vatsaka; vṛkam—Vṛka; deva-dundubhayaḥ—kettledrums sounded by the demigods; neduḥ—were beaten; ānakāḥ—a kind of kettledrum; yasya—whose; janmani—at the time of birth; vasudevam—unto Vasudeva; hareḥ—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sthānam—that place; vadanti—they call; ānakadundubhim—Ānakadundubhi; pṛthā—Pṛthā; ca—and; śrutadevā—Śrutadevā; ca—also; śrutakīrtiḥ—Śrutakīrti; śrutaśravāḥ—Śrutaśravā; rājādhidevī—Rājādhidevī; ca—also; eteṣām—of all these; bhaginyaḥ—sisters; pañca—five; kanyakāḥ—daughters (of Śūra); kunteḥ—of Kunti; sakhyuḥ—a friend; pitā—father; śūraḥ—Śūra; hi—indeed; aputrasya—(of Kunti) who was sonless; pṛthām—Pṛthā; adāt—delivered.
Through Māriṣā, King Śūra begot Vasudeva, Devabhāga, Devaśravā, Ānaka, Sṛñjaya, Śyāmaka, Kaṅka, Śamīka, Vatsaka and Vṛka. These ten sons were spotlessly pious personalities. When Vasudeva was born, the demigods from the heavenly kingdom sounded kettledrums. Therefore Vasudeva, who provided the proper place for the appearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, was also known as Ānakadundubhi. The five daughters of King Śūra, named Pṛthā, Śrutadevā, Śrutakīrti, Śrutaśravā and Rājādhidevī, were Vasudeva’s sisters. Śūra gave Pṛthā to his friend Kunti, who had no issue, and therefore another name of Pṛthā was Kuntī.
sāpa durvāsaso vidyāṁ
ājuhāva raviṁ śuciḥ
sā—she (Kuntī, or Pṛthā); āpa—achieved; durvāsasaḥ—from the great sage Durvāsā; vidyām—mystic power; deva-hūtīm—calling any demigod; pratoṣitāt—who was satisfied; tasyāḥ—with that (particular mystic power); vīrya—potency; parīkṣa-artham—just to examine; ājuhāva—called for; ravim—the sun-god; śuciḥ—the pious (Pṛthā).
Once when Durvāsā was a guest at the house of Pṛthā’s father, Kunti, Pṛthā satisfied Durvāsā by rendering service. Therefore she received a mystic power by which she could call any demigod. To examine the potency of this mystic power, the pious Kuntī immediately called for the sun-god.
pratyayārthaṁ prayuktā me
yāhi deva kṣamasva me
tadā—at that time; eva—indeed; upāgatam—appeared (before her); devam—the sun-god; vīkṣya—seeing; vismita-mānasā—very much surprised; pratyaya-artham—just to see the potency of the mystic power; prayuktā—I have used it; me—me; yāhi—please return; deva—O demigod; kṣamasva—forgive; me—me.
As soon as Kuntī called for the demigod of the sun, he immediately appeared before her, and she was very much surprised. She told the sun-god, “I was simply examining the effectiveness of this mystic power. I am sorry I have called you unnecessarily. Please return and excuse me.”
ādadhe tvayi cātmajam
yonir yathā na duṣyeta
kartāhaṁ te sumadhyame
amogham—without failure; deva-sandarśam—meeting with the demigods; ādadhe—I shall give (my semen); tvayi—unto you; ca—also; ātmajam—a son; yoniḥ—the source of birth; yathā—as; na—not; duṣyeta—becomes polluted; kartā—shall arrange; aham—I; te—unto you; sumadhyame—O beautiful girl.
The sun-god said: O beautiful Pṛthā, your meeting with the demigods cannot be fruitless. Therefore, let me place my seed in your womb so that you may bear a son. I shall arrange to keep your virginity intact, since you are still an unmarried girl.
According to Vedic civilization, if a girl gives birth to a child before she is married, no one will marry her. Therefore although the sun-god, after appearing before Pṛthā, wanted to give her a child, Pṛthā hesitated because she was still unmarried. To keep her virginity undisturbed, the sun-god arranged to give her a child that came from her ear, and therefore the child was known as Karṇa. The custom is that a girl should be married akṣata-yoni, that is, with her virginity undisturbed. A girl should never bear a child before her marriage.
iti tasyāṁ sa ādhāya
garbhaṁ sūryo divaṁ gataḥ
sadyaḥ kumāraḥ sañjajñe
dvitīya iva bhāskaraḥ
iti—in this way; tasyām—unto her (Pṛthā); saḥ—he (the sun-god); ādhāya—discharging semen; garbham—pregnancy; sūryaḥ—the sun-god; divam—in the celestial planets; gataḥ—returned; sadyaḥ—immediately; kumāraḥ—a child; sañjajñe—was born; dvitīyaḥ—second; iva—like; bhāskaraḥ—the sun-god.
After saying this, the sun-god discharged his semen into the womb of Pṛthā and then returned to the celestial kingdom. Immediately thereafter, from Kuntī a child was born, who was like a second sun-god.
taṁ sātyajan nadī-toye
kṛcchrāl lokasya bibhyatī
prapitāmahas tām uvāha
pāṇḍur vai satya-vikramaḥ
tam—that child; sā—she (Kuntī); atyajat—gave up; nadī-toye—in the water of the river; kṛcchrāt—with great repentance; lokasya—of the people in general; bibhyatī—fearing; prapitāmahaḥ—(your) great-grandfather; tām—her (Kuntī); uvāha—married; pāṇḍuḥ—the king known as Pāṇḍu; vai—indeed; satya-vikramaḥ—very pious and chivalrous.
Because Kuntī feared people’s criticisms, with great difficulty she had to give up her affection for her child. Unwillingly, she packed the child in a basket and let it float down the waters of the river. O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, your great-grandfather the pious and chivalrous King Pāṇḍu later married Kuntī.
śrutadevāṁ tu kārūṣo
yasyām abhūd dantavakra
ṛṣi-śapto diteḥ sutaḥ
śrutadevām—unto Śrutadevā, a sister of Kuntī’s; tu—but; kārūṣaḥ—the King of Karūṣa; vṛddhaśarmā—Vṛddhaśarmā; samagrahīt—married; yasyām—through whom; abhūt—was born; dantavakraḥ—Dantavakra; ṛṣi-śaptaḥ—was formerly cursed by the sages Sanaka and Sanātana; diteḥ—of Diti; sutaḥ—son.
Vṛddhaśarmā, the King of Karūṣa, married Kuntī’s sister Śrutadevā, and from her womb Dantavakra was born. Having been cursed by the sages headed by Sanaka, Dantavakra had formerly been born as the son of Diti named Hiraṇyākṣa.
kaikeyo dhṛṣṭaketuś ca
pañcāsan kaikayāḥ sutāḥ
kaikeyaḥ—the King of Kekaya; dhṛṣṭaketuḥ—Dhṛṣṭaketu; ca—also; śrutakīrtim—a sister of Kuntī’s named Śrutakīrti; avindata—married; santardana-ādayaḥ—headed by Santardana; tasyām—through her (Śrutakīrti); pañca—five; āsan—there were; kaikayāḥ—the sons of the King of Kekaya; sutāḥ—sons.
King Dhṛṣṭaketu, the King of Kekaya, married Śrutakīrti, another sister of Kuntī’s. Śrutakīrti had five sons, headed by Santardana.
jayaseno ’janiṣṭa ha
rājādhidevyām—through Rājādhidevī, another sister of Kuntī’s; āvantyau—the sons (named Vinda and Anuvinda); jayasenaḥ—King Jayasena; ajaniṣṭa—gave birth to; ha—in the past; damaghoṣaḥ—Damaghoṣa; cedi-rājaḥ—the king of the state of Cedi; śrutaśravasam—Śrutaśravā, another sister; agrahīt—married.
Through the womb of Rājādhidevī, another sister of Kuntī’s, Jayasena begot two sons, named Vinda and Anuvinda. Similarly, the king of the Cedi state married Śrutaśravā. This king’s name was Damaghoṣa.
śiśupālaḥ sutas tasyāḥ
kathitas tasya sambhavaḥ
śiśupālaḥ—Śiśupāla; sutaḥ—the son; tasyāḥ—of her (Śrutaśravā); kathitaḥ—already described (in the Seventh Canto); tasya—his; sambhavaḥ—birth; devabhāgasya—from Devabhāga, a brother of Vasudeva’s; kaṁsāyām—in the womb of Kaṁsā, his wife; citraketu—Citraketu; bṛhadbalau—and Bṛhadbala.
The son of Śrutaśravā was Śiśupāla, whose birth has already been described [in the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam]. Vasudeva’s brother named Devabhāga had two sons born of his wife, Kaṁsā. These two sons were Citraketu and Bṛhadbala.
suvīra iṣumāṁs tathā
bakaḥ kaṅkāt tu kaṅkāyāṁ
satyajit purujit tathā
kaṁsavatyām—in the womb of Kaṁsavatī; devaśravasaḥ—from Devaśravā, a brother of Vasudeva’s; suvīraḥ—Suvīra; iṣumān—Iṣumān; tathā—as well as; bakaḥ—Baka; kaṅkāt—from Kaṅka; tu—indeed; kaṅkāyām—in his wife, named Kaṅkā; satyajit—Satyajit; purujit—Purujit; tathā—as well as.
Vasudeva’s brother named Devaśravā married Kaṁsavatī, by whom he begot two sons, named Suvīra and Iṣumān. Kaṅka, by his wife Kaṅkā, begot three sons, named Baka, Satyajit and Purujit.
sṛñjayo rāṣṭrapālyāṁ ca
śūrabhūmyāṁ ca śyāmakaḥ
sṛñjayaḥ—Sṛñjaya; rāṣṭrapālyām—through his wife, Rāṣṭrapālikā; ca—and; vṛṣa-durmarṣaṇa-ādikān—begot sons headed by Vṛṣa and Durmarṣaṇa; harikeśa—Harikeśa; hiraṇyākṣau—and Hiraṇyākṣa; śūrabhūmyām—in the womb of Śūrabhūmi; ca—and; śyāmakaḥ—King Śyāmaka.
King Sṛñjaya, by his wife, Rāṣṭrapālikā, begot sons headed by Vṛṣa and Durmarṣaṇa. King Śyāmaka, by his wife, Śūrabhūmi, begot two sons, named Harikeśa and Hiraṇyākṣa.
vṛkādīn vatsakas tathā
durvākṣyāṁ vṛka ādadhe
miśrakeśyām—in the womb of Miśrakeśī; apsarasi—who belonged to the Apsarā group; vṛka-ādīn—Vṛka and other sons; vatsakaḥ—Vatsaka; tathā—as well; takṣa-puṣkara-śāla-ādīn—sons headed by Takṣa, Puṣkara and Śāla; durvākṣyām—in the womb of his wife, Durvākṣī; vṛkaḥ—Vṛka; ādadhe—begot.
Thereafter, King Vatsaka, by the womb of his wife, Miśrakeśī, who was an Apsarā, begot sons headed by Vṛka. Vṛka, by his wife, Durvākṣī, begot Takṣa, Puṣkara, Śāla and so on.
samīkāt tu sudāmanī
ānakaḥ karṇikāyāṁ vai
sumitra—Sumitra; arjunapāla—Arjunapāla; ādīn—headed by; samīkāt—from King Śamīka; tu—indeed; sudāmanī—in the womb of Sudāmanī, his wife; ānakaḥ—King Ānaka; karṇikāyām—in the womb of his wife Karṇikā; vai—indeed; ṛtadhāmā—Ṛtadhāmā; jayau—and Jaya; api—indeed.
From Śamīka, by the womb of his wife, Sudāmanī, came Sumitra, Arjunapāla and other sons. King Ānaka, by his wife, Karṇikā, begot two sons, namely Ṛtadhāmā and Jaya.
pauravī rohiṇī bhadrā
madirā rocanā ilā
pauravī—Pauravī; rohiṇī—Rohiṇī; bhadrā—Bhadrā; madirā—Madirā; rocanā—Rocanā; ilā—Ilā; devakī—Devakī; pramukhāḥ—headed by; ca—and; āsan—existed; patnyaḥ—wives; ānakadundubheḥ—of Vasudeva, who was known as Ānakadundubhi.
Devakī, Pauravī, Rohiṇī, Bhadrā, Madirā, Rocanā, Ilā and others were all wives of Ānakadundubhi [Vasudeva]. Among them all, Devakī was the chief.
balaṁ gadaṁ sāraṇaṁ ca
durmadaṁ vipulaṁ dhruvam
vasudevas tu rohiṇyāṁ
balam—Bala; gadam—Gada; sāraṇam—Sāraṇa; ca—also; durmadam—Durmada; vipulam—Vipula; dhruvam—Dhruva; vasudevaḥ—Vasudeva (the father of Kṛṣṇa); tu—indeed; rohiṇyām—in the wife named Rohiṇī; kṛta-ādīn—the sons headed by Kṛta; udapādayat—begot.
Vasudeva, by the womb of his wife Rohiṇī, begot sons such as Bala, Gada, Sāraṇa, Durmada, Vipula, Dhruva, Kṛta and others.
subhadro bhadrabāhuś ca
durmado bhadra eva ca
pauravyās tanayā hy ete
kauśalyā keśinaṁ tv ekam
subhadraḥ—Subhadra; bhadrabāhuḥ—Bhadrabāhu; ca—and; durmadaḥ—Durmada; bhadraḥ—Bhadra; eva—indeed; ca—also; pauravyāḥ—of the wife named Pauravī; tanayāḥ—sons; hi—indeed; ete—all of them; bhūta-ādyāḥ—headed by Bhūta; dvādaśa—twelve; abhavan—were born; nanda-upananda-kṛtaka-śūra-ādyāḥ—Nanda, Upananda, Kṛtaka, Śūra and others; madirā-ātmajāḥ—the sons of Madirā; kauśalyā—Kauśalyā; keśinam—a son named Keśī; tu ekam—only one; asūta—gave birth to; kula-nandanam—a son.
From the womb of Pauravī came twelve sons, including Bhūta, Subhadra, Bhadrabāhu, Durmada and Bhadra. Nanda, Upananda, Kṛtaka, Śūra and others were born from the womb of Madirā. Bhadrā [Kauśalyā] gave birth to only one son, named Keśī.
rocanāyām ato jātā
rocanāyām—in another wife, whose name was Rocanā; ataḥ—thereafter; jātāḥ—were born; hasta—Hasta; hemāṅgada—Hemāṅgada; ādayaḥ—and others; ilāyām—in another wife, named Ilā; uruvalka-ādīn—sons headed by Uruvalka; yadu-mukhyān—principal personalities in the Yadu dynasty; ajījanat—he begot.
Vasudeva, by another of his wives, whose name was Rocanā, begot Hasta, Hemāṅgada and other sons. And by his wife named Ilā he begot sons headed by Uruvalka, all of whom were chief personalities in the dynasty of Yadu.
vipṛṣṭhaḥ—Vipṛṣṭha; dhṛtadevāyām—in the womb of the wife named Dhṛtadevā; ekaḥ—one son; ānakadundubheḥ—of Ānakadundubhi, Vasudeva; śāntidevā-ātmajāḥ—the sons of another wife, named Śāntidevā; rājan—O Mahārāja Parīkṣit; praśama-prasita-ādayaḥ—Praśama, Prasita and other sons.
From the womb of Dhṛtadevā, one of the wives of Ānakadundubhi [Vasudeva], came a son named Vipṛṣṭha. The sons of Śāntidevā, another wife of Vasudeva, were Praśama, Prasita and others.
śrīdevāyās tu ṣaṭ sutāḥ
rājanya—Rājanya; kalpa—Kalpa; varṣa-ādyāḥ—Varṣa and others; upadevā-sutāḥ—sons of Upadevā, another wife of Vasudeva’s; daśa—ten; vasu—Vasu; haṁsa—Haṁsa; suvaṁśa—Suvaṁśa; ādyāḥ—and others; śrīdevāyāḥ—born of another wife, named Śrīdevā; tu—but; ṣaṭ—six; sutāḥ—sons.
Vasudeva also had a wife named Upadevā, from whom came ten sons, headed by Rājanya, Kalpa and Varṣa. From Śrīdevā, another wife, came six sons, such as Vasu, Haṁsa and Suvaṁśa.
nava cātra gadādayaḥ
vasudevaḥ sutān aṣṭāv
devarakṣitayā—by the wife named Devarakṣitā; labdhāḥ—achieved; nava—nine; ca—also; atra—here; gadā-ādayaḥ—sons headed by Gadā; vasudevaḥ—Śrīla Vasudeva; sutān—sons; aṣṭau—eight; ādadhe—begot; sahadevayā—in the wife named Sahadevā.
By the semen of Vasudeva in the womb of Devarakṣitā, nine sons were born, headed by Gadā. Vasudeva, who was religion personified, also had a wife named Sahadevā, by whose womb he begot eight sons, headed by Śruta and Pravara.
sākṣād dharmo vasūn iva
vasudevas tu devakyām
aṣṭa putrān ajījanat
kīrtimantaṁ suṣeṇaṁ ca
ṛjuṁ sammardanaṁ bhadraṁ
aṣṭamas tu tayor āsīt
svayam eva hariḥ kila
subhadrā ca mahābhāgā
tava rājan pitāmahī
pravara—Pravara (in some readings, Pauvara); śruta—Śruta; mukhyān—headed by; ca—and; sākṣāt—directly; dharmaḥ—religion personified; vasūn iva—exactly like the chief Vasus in the heavenly planets; vasudevaḥ—Śrīla Vasudeva, the father of Kṛṣṇa; tu—indeed; devakyām—in the womb of Devakī; aṣṭa—eight; putrān—sons; ajījanat—begot; kīrtimantam—Kīrtimān; suṣeṇam ca—and Suṣeṇa; bhadrasenam—Bhadrasena; udāra-dhīḥ—all fully qualified; ṛjum—Ṛju; sammardanam—Sammardana; bhadram—Bhadra; saṅkarṣaṇam—Saṅkarṣaṇa; ahi-īśvaram—the supreme controller and serpent incarnation; aṣṭamaḥ—the eighth one; tu—but; tayoḥ—of both (Devakī and Vasudeva); āsīt—appeared; svayam eva—directly, personally; hariḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kila—what to speak of; subhadrā—a sister, Subhadrā; ca—and; mahābhāgā—highly fortunate; tava—your; rājan—O Mahārāja Parīkṣit; pitāmahī—grandmother.
The eight sons born of Sahadevā such as Pravara and Śruta, were exact incarnations of the eight Vasus in the heavenly planets. Vasudeva also begot eight highly qualified sons through the womb of Devakī. These included Kīrtimān, Suṣeṇa, Bhadrasena, Ṛju, Sammardana, Bhadra and Saṅkarṣaṇa, the controller and serpent incarnation. The eighth son was the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself—Kṛṣṇa. The highly fortunate Subhadrā, the one daughter, was your grandmother.
The fifty-fifth verse says, svayam eva hariḥ kila, indicating that Kṛṣṇa, the eighth son of Devakī, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛṣṇa is not an incarnation. Although there is no difference between the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari and His incarnation, Kṛṣṇa is the original Supreme Person, the complete Godhead. Incarnations exhibit only a certain percentage of the potencies of Godhead; the complete Godhead is Kṛṣṇa Himself, who appeared as the eighth son of Devakī.
yadā yadā hi dharmasya
kṣayo vṛddhiś ca pāpmanaḥ
tadā tu bhagavān īśa
ātmānaṁ sṛjate hariḥ
yadā—whenever; yadā—when ever; hi—indeed; dharmasya—of the principles of religion; kṣayaḥ—deterioration; vṛddhiḥ—increasing; ca—and; pāpmanaḥ—of sinful activities; tadā—at that time; tu—indeed; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; īśaḥ—the supreme controller; ātmānam—personally; sṛjate—descends; hariḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Whenever the principles of religion deteriorate and the principles of irreligion increase, the supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead Śrī Hari, appears by His own will.
The principles by which an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead descends upon earth are explained in this verse. The same principles are also explained in Bhagavad-gītā (4.7) by the Lord Himself:
“Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion—at that time I descend Myself.”
In the present age, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has appeared as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to inaugurate the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement. At the present time, in Kali-yuga, people are extremely sinful and bad (manda). They have no idea of spiritual life and are misusing the benefits of the human form to live like cats and dogs. Under these circumstances Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has inaugurated the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement, which is not different from Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If one associates with this movement, he directly associates with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. People should take advantage of the chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra and thus gain relief from all the problems created in this age of Kali.
na hy asya janmano hetuḥ
karmaṇo vā mahīpate
parasya draṣṭur ātmanaḥ
na—not; hi—indeed; asya—of Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); janmanaḥ—of the appearance, or taking birth; hetuḥ—there is any cause; karmaṇaḥ—or for acting; vā—either; mahīpate—O King (Mahārāja Parīkṣit); ātma-māyām—His supreme compassion for the fallen souls; vinā—without; īśasya—of the supreme controller; parasya—of the Personality of Godhead, who is beyond the material world; draṣṭuḥ—of the Supersoul, who witnesses everyone’s activities; ātmanaḥ—of the Supersoul of everyone.
O King, Mahārāja Parīkṣit, but for the Lord’s personal desire, there is no cause for His appearance, disappearance or activities. As the Supersoul, He knows everything. Consequently there is no cause that affects Him, not even the results of fruitive activities.
This verse points out the difference between the Supreme Personality of Godhead and an ordinary living being. An ordinary living being receives a particular type of body according to his past activities (karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa jantur dehopapattaye [SB 3.31.1]). A living being is never independent and can never appear independently. Rather, one is forced to accept a body imposed upon him by māyā according to his past karma. As explained in Bhagavad-gītā (18.61), yantrārūḍhāni māyayā. The body is a kind of machine created and offered to the living entity by the material energy under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore the living entity must accept a particular type of body awarded to him by māyā, the material energy, according to his karma. One cannot independently say, “Give me a body like this” or “Give me a body like that.” One must accept whatever body is offered by the material energy. This is the position of the ordinary living being.
When Kṛṣṇa descends, however, He does so out of His merciful compassion for the fallen souls. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā (4.8):
“To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion, I advent Myself millennium after millennium.” The Supreme Lord is not forced to appear. Indeed, no one can subject Him to force, for He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everyone is under His control, and He is not under the control of anyone else. Foolish people who because of a poor fund of knowledge think that one can equal Kṛṣṇa or become Kṛṣṇa are condemned in every way. No one can equal or surpass Kṛṣṇa, who is therefore described as asamaurdhva. According to the Viśva-kośa dictionary, the word māyā is used in the sense of “false pride” and also in the sense of “compassion.” For an ordinary living being, the body in which he appears is his punishment. As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā (7.14), daivī hy eṣā guṇa-mayī mama māyā duratyayā: “This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome.” But when Kṛṣṇa comes the word māyā refers to His compassion or mercy upon the devotees and fallen souls. By His potency, the Lord can deliver everyone, whether sinful or pious.
yan māyā-ceṣṭitaṁ puṁsaḥ
yat—whatever; māyā-ceṣṭitam—the laws of material nature enacted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; puṁsaḥ—of the living entities; sthiti—duration of life; utpatti—birth; apyayāya—annihilation; hi—indeed; anugrahaḥ—compassion; tat-nivṛtteḥ—the creation and manifestation of cosmic energy to stop the repetition of birth and death; ātma-lābhāya—thus going home, back to Godhead; ca—indeed; iṣyate—for this purpose the creation is there.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead acts through His material energy in the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this cosmic manifestation just to deliver the living entity by His compassion and stop the living entity’s birth, death and duration of materialistic life. Thus He enables the living being to return home, back to Godhead.
Materialistic men sometimes ask why God has created the material world for the suffering of the living entities. The material creation is certainly meant for the suffering of the conditioned souls, who are part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gītā (15.7):
“The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind.” All the living entities are part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and are as good as the Lord qualitatively, but quantitatively there is a great difference between them, for the Lord is unlimited whereas the living entities are limited. Thus the Lord possesses unlimited potency for pleasure, and the living entities have a limited pleasure potency. Ānandamayo ’bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). Both the Lord and the living entity, being qualitatively spirit soul, have the tendency for peaceful enjoyment, but when the part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead unfortunately wants to enjoy independently, without Kṛṣṇa, he is put into the material world, where he begins his life as Brahmā and is gradually degraded to the status of an ant or a worm in stool. This is called manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati [Bg. 15.7]. There is a great struggle for existence because the living entity conditioned by material nature is under nature’s full control (prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ [Bg. 3.27]). Because of his limited knowledge, however, the living entity thinks he is enjoying in this material world. Manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati [Bg. 15.7]. He is actually under the full control of material nature, but still he thinks himself independent (ahaṅkāra-vimūḍhātmā kartāham iti manyate [Bg. 3.27]). Even when he is elevated by speculative knowledge and tries to merge into the existence of Brahman, the same disease continues.
Āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ patanty adhaḥ (Bhāg. 10.2.32). Even having attained that paraṁ padam, having merged into the impersonal Brahman, he falls again to the material world.
In this way, the conditioned soul undergoes a great struggle for existence in this material world, and therefore the Lord, out of compassion for him, appears in this world and instructs him. Thus the Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā (4.7):
“Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion—at that time I descend Myself.” The real dharma is to surrender unto Kṛṣṇa, but the rebellious living entity, instead of surrendering to Kṛṣṇa, engages in adharma, in a struggle for existence to become like Kṛṣṇa. Therefore out of compassion Kṛṣṇa creates this material world to give the living entity a chance to understand his real position. Bhagavad-gītā and similar Vedic literatures are presented so that the living being may understand his relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ (Bg. 15.15). All these Vedic literatures are meant to enable the human being to understand what he is, what his actual position is, and what his relationship is with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is called brahma-jijñāsā. Every conditioned soul is struggling, but human life provides the best chance for him to understand his position. Therefore this verse says, anugrahas tan-nivṛtteḥ, indicating that the false life of repeated birth and death must be stopped and the conditioned soul should be educated. This is the purpose of the creation.
The creation does not arise whimsically, as atheistic men think.
“They say that this world is unreal, that there is no foundation and that there is no God in control. It is produced of sex desire and has no cause other than lust.” (Bg. 16.8) Atheistic rascals think that there is no God and that the creation has taken place by chance, just as a man and woman meet by chance and the woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child. Actually, however, this is not the fact. The fact is that there is a purpose for this creation: to give the conditioned soul a chance to return to his original consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and then return home, back to Godhead, and be completely happy in the spiritual world. In the material world the conditioned soul is given a chance to satisfy his senses, but at the same time he is informed by Vedic knowledge that this material world is not his actual place for happiness. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam (Bg. 13.9). One must stop the repetition of birth and death. Every human being, therefore, should take advantage of this creation by understanding Kṛṣṇa and his relationship with Kṛṣṇa and in this way return home, back to Godhead.
akṣauhiṇīnām—of kings possessing great military power; patibhiḥ—by such kings or government; asuraiḥ—actually demons (because they do not need such military power but create it unnecessarily); nṛpa-lāñchanaiḥ—who are actually unfit to be kings (although they have somehow taken possession of the government); bhuvaḥ—on the surface of the earth; ākramyamāṇāyāḥ—aiming at attacking one another; abhārāya—paving the way for diminishing the number of demons on the surface of the earth; kṛta-udyamaḥ—enthusiastic (they spend all the revenue of the state to increase military power).
Although the demons who take possession of the government are dressed like men of government, they do not know the duty of the government. Consequently, by the arrangement of God, such demons, who possess great military strength, fight with one another, and thus the great burden of demons on the surface of the earth is reduced. The demons increase their military power by the will of the Supreme, so that their numbers will be diminished and the devotees will have a chance to advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (4.8), paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām. The sādhus, the devotees of the Lord, are always eager to advance the cause of Kṛṣṇa consciousness so that the conditioned souls may be released from the bondage of birth and death. But the asuras, the demons, impede the advancement of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, and therefore Kṛṣṇa arranges occasional fights between different asuras who are very much interested in increasing their military power. The duty of the government or king is not to increase military power unnecessarily; the real duty of the government is to see that the people of the state advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. For this purpose, Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad-gītā (4.13), cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ: “According to the three modes of material nature and the work ascribed to them, the four divisions of human society were created by Me.” There should be an ideal class of men who are bona fide brāhmaṇas, and they should be given all protection. Namo brahmaṇya-devāya go-brāhmaṇa-hitāya ca. Kṛṣṇa is very fond of brāhmaṇas and cows, The brāhmaṇas promulgate the cause of advancement in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and the cows give enough milk to maintain the body in the mode of goodness. The kṣatriyas and the government should be advised by the brāhmaṇas. Next, the vaiśyas should produce enough foodstuffs, and the śūdras, who cannot do anything beneficial on their own, should serve the three higher classes (the brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas and vaiśyas). This is the arrangement of the Supreme Personality of Godhead so that the conditioned souls will be released from the material condition and return home, back to Godhead. This is the purpose of Kṛṣṇa’s descent on the surface of the earth (paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]).
Everyone must understand Kṛṣṇa’s activities (janma karma ca me divyam [Bg. 4.9]). If one understands the purpose of Kṛṣṇa’s coming to this earth and performing His activities, one is immediately liberated. This liberation is the purpose of the creation and Kṛṣṇa’s descent upon the surface of the earth. Demons are very much interested in advancing a plan by which people will labor hard like cats, dogs and hogs, but Kṛṣṇa’s devotees want to teach Kṛṣṇa consciousness so that people will be satisfied with plain living and Kṛṣṇa conscious advancement. Although demons have created many plans for industry and hard labor so that people will work day and night like animals, this is not the purpose of civilization. Such endeavors are jagato’hitaḥ; that is, they are meant for the misfortune of the people in general. Kṣayāya: such activities lead to annihilation. One who understands the purpose of Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, should seriously understand the importance of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement and seriously take part in it. One should not endeavor for ugra-karma, or unnecessary work for sense gratification. Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma yad indriya-prītaya āpṛṇoti (Bhāg. 5.5.4). Simply for sense gratification, people make plans for material happiness. Māyā-sukhāya bharam udvahato vimūḍhān (Bhāg. 7.9.43). They do this because they are all vimūḍhas, rascals. For flickering happiness, people waste their human energy, not understanding the importance of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement but instead accusing the simple devotees of brainwashing. Demons may falsely accuse the preachers of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, but Kṛṣṇa will arrange a fight between the demons in which all their military power will be engaged and both parties of demons will be annihilated.
karmāṇi—activities; aparimeyāṇi—immeasurable, unlimited; manasā api—even by such plans perceived within the mind; sura-īśvaraiḥ—by the controllers of the universe like Brahmā and Śiva; saha-saṅkarṣaṇaḥ—along with Saṅkarṣaṇa (Baladeva); cakre—performed; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; madhu-sūdanaḥ—the killer of the Madhu demon.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, with the cooperation of Saṅkarṣaṇa, Balarāma, performed activities beyond the mental comprehension of even such personalities as Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva. [For instance, Kṛṣṇa arranged the Battle of Kurukṣetra to kill many demons for the relief of the entire world.]
supuṇyaṁ vyatanod yaśaḥ
kalau—in this age of Kali; janiṣyamāṇānām—of the conditioned souls who will take birth in the future; duḥkha-śoka-tamaḥ-nudam—to minimize their unlimited unhappiness and lamentation, which are caused by ignorance; anugrahāya—just to show mercy; bhaktānām—to the devotees; su-puṇyam—very pious, transcendental activities; vyatanot—expanded; yaśaḥ—His glories or reputation.
To show causeless mercy to the devotees who would take birth in the future in this age of Kali, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, acted in such a way that simply by remembering Him one will be freed from all the lamentation and unhappiness of material existence. [In other words, He acted so that all future devotees, by accepting the instructions of Kṛṣṇa consciousness stated in Bhagavad-gītā, could be relieved from the pangs of material existence.]
The Lord’s activities of saving the devotees and killing the demons (paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]) take place side by side. Kṛṣṇa actually appears for the deliverance of the sādhus, or bhaktas, but by killing the demons He shows them mercy also, for anyone killed by Kṛṣṇa is liberated. Whether the Lord kills or gives protection, He is kind to both the demons and the devotees.
yasmin—in the history of the transcendental activities of Kṛṣṇa upon the surface of the earth; sat-karṇa-pīyuṣe—who pleases the demands of the transcendental, purified ears; yaśaḥ-tīrtha-vare—keeping oneself in the best of holy places by hearing the transcendental activities of the Lord; sakṛt—once only, immediately; śrotra-añjaliḥ—in the form of hearing the transcendental message; upaspṛśya—touching (exactly like the water of the Ganges); dhunute—destroys; karma-vāsanām—the strong desire for fruitive activities.
Simply by receiving the glories of the Lord through purified transcendental ears, the devotees of the Lord are immediately freed from strong material desires and engagement in fruitive activities.
When the devotees aurally receive the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as enacted in Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, they immediately achieve a transcendental vision in which they are no longer interested in materialistic activities. Thus they achieve freedom from the material world. For sense gratification practically everyone is engaged in materialistic activities, which prolong the process of janma-mṛtyu jarā-vyādhi—birth, death, old age and disease—but the devotee, simply by hearing the message of Bhagavad-gītā and further relishing the narrations of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, becomes so pure that he no longer takes interest in materialistic activities. At the moment, devotees in the Western countries are being attracted by Kṛṣṇa consciousness and becoming uninterested in materialistic activities, and therefore people are trying to oppose this movement. But they cannot possibly check this movement or stop the activities of the devotees in Europe and America by their artificial impositions. Here the words śrotrāñjalir upaspṛśya indicate that simply by hearing the transcendental activities of the Lord the devotees become so pure that they are immediately immune to the contamination of materialistic fruitive activities. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam [Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu
“One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service.” Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.11
nṛlokaṁ ramayām āsa
bhoja—assisted by the Bhoja dynasty; vṛṣṇi—and by the Vṛṣṇis; andhaka—and by the Andhakas; madhu—and by the Madhus; śūrasena—and by the Śūrasenas; daśārhakaiḥ—and by the Daśārhakas; ślāghanīya—by the praiseworthy; īhitaḥ—endeavoring; śaśvat—always; kuru-sṛñjaya-pāṇḍubhiḥ—assisted by the Pāṇḍavas, Kurus and Sṛñjayas; snigdha—affectionate; smita—smiling; īkṣita—being regarded as; udāraiḥ—magnanimous; vākyaiḥ—the instructions; vikrama-līlayā—the pastimes of heroism; nṛ-lokam—human society; ramayām āsa—pleased; mūrtyā—by His personal form; sarva-aṅga-ramyayā—the form that pleases everyone by all parts of the body.
Assisted by the descendants of Bhoja, Vṛṣṇi, Andhaka, Madhu, Śūrasena, Daśārha, Kuru, Sṛñjaya and Pāṇḍu, Lord Kṛṣṇa performed various activities. By His pleasing smiles, His affectionate behavior, His instructions and His uncommon pastimes like raising Govardhana Hill, the Lord, appearing in His transcendental body, pleased all of human society.
The words nṛlokaṁ ramayām āsa mūrtyā sarvāṅga-ramyayā are significant. Kṛṣṇa is the original form. Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is therefore described here by the word mūrtyā. The word mūrti means “form.” Kṛṣṇa, or God, is never impersonal; the impersonal feature is but a manifestation of His transcendental body (yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi [Bs. 5.40]). The Lord is narākṛti, exactly resembling the form of a human being, but His form is different from ours. Therefore the word sarvāṅga-ramyayā informs us that every part of His body is pleasing for everyone to see. Apart from His smiling face, every part of His body—His hands, His legs, His chest—is pleasing to the devotees, who cannot at any time stop seeing the beautiful form of the Lord.
nityotsavaṁ na tatṛpur dṛśibhiḥ pibantyo
nāryo narāś ca muditāḥ kupitā nimeś ca
yasya—whose; ānanam—face; makara-kuṇḍala-cāru-karṇa—decorated by earrings resembling sharks and by beautiful ears; bhrājat—brilliantly decorated; kapola—forehead; subhagam—declaring all opulences; sa-vilāsa-hāsam—with smiles of enjoyment; nitya-utsavam—whenever one sees Him, one feels festive; na tatṛpuḥ—they could not be satisfied; dṛśibhiḥ—by seeing the form of the Lord; pibantyaḥ—as if drinking through the eyes; nāryaḥ—all the women of Vṛndāvana; narāḥ—all the male devotees; ca—also; muditāḥ—fully satisfied; kupitāḥ—angry; nimeḥ—the moment they are disturbed by the blinking of the eyes; ca—also.
Kṛṣṇa’s face is decorated with ornaments, such as earrings resembling sharks. His ears are beautiful, His cheeks brilliant, and His smiling attractive to everyone. Whoever sees Lord Kṛṣṇa sees a festival. His face and body are fully satisfying for everyone to see, but the devotees are angry at the creator for the disturbance caused by the momentary blinking of their eyes.
“Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth.” Unless one is qualified to understand Kṛṣṇa, one cannot appreciate the presence of Kṛṣṇa on earth. Among the Bhojas, Vṛṣṇis, Andhakas, Pāṇḍavas and many other kings intimately related with Kṛṣṇa, the intimate relationship between Kṛṣṇa and the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana is especially to be noted. That relationship is described in this verse by the words nityotsavaṁ na tatṛpur dṛśibhiḥ pibantyaḥ. The inhabitants of Vṛndāvana especially, such as the cowherd boys, the cows, the calves, the gopīs and Kṛṣṇa’s father and mother, were never fully satisfied, although they saw Kṛṣṇa’s beautiful features constantly. Seeing Kṛṣṇa is described here as nitya-utsava, a daily festival. The inhabitants of Vṛndāvana saw Kṛṣṇa almost every moment, but when Kṛṣṇa left the village for the pasturing grounds, where He tended the cows and calves, the gopīs were very much afflicted because they saw Kṛṣṇa walking on the sand and thought that Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, which they dared not place on their breasts because they thought their breasts not soft enough, were being pierced by broken chips of stone. By even thinking of this, the gopīs were affected, and they cried at home. These gopīs, who were therefore the exalted friends of Kṛṣṇa, saw Kṛṣṇa constantly, but because their eyelids disturbed their vision of Kṛṣṇa, the gopīs condemned the creator, Lord Brahmā. Therefore the beauty of Kṛṣṇa, especially the beauty of His face, is described here. At the end of the Ninth Canto, in the Twenty-fourth Chapter, we find a hint of Kṛṣṇa’s beauty. Now we are proceeding to the Tenth Canto, which is considered Kṛṣṇa’s head. The entire Śrīmad-Bhāgavata Purāṇa is the embodiment of Kṛṣṇa’s form, and the Tenth Canto is His face. This verse gives a hint of how beautiful His face is. Kṛṣṇa’s smiling face, with His cheeks, His lips, the ornaments in His ears, His chewing of betel nuts—all this was minutely observed by the gopīs, who thus enjoyed transcendental bliss, so much so that they were never fully satisfied to see Kṛṣṇa’s face, but instead condemned the creator of the body for making eyelids that obstructed their vision. The beauty of Kṛṣṇa’s face was therefore much more appreciated by the gopīs than by His friends the cowherd boys or even by Yaśodā Mātā, who was also interested in decorating the face of Kṛṣṇa.
jāto gataḥ pitṛ-gṛhād vrajam edhitārtho
hatvā ripūn suta-śatāni kṛtorudāraḥ
utpādya teṣu puruṣaḥ kratubhiḥ samīje
ātmānam ātma-nigamaṁ prathayañ janeṣu
jātaḥ—after taking birth as the son of Vasudeva; gataḥ—went away; pitṛ-gṛhāt—from the houses of His father; vrajam—to Vṛndāvana; edhita-arthaḥ—to exalt the position (of Vṛndāvana); hatvā—killing there; ripūn—many demons; suta-śatāni—hundreds of sons; kṛta-urudāraḥ—accepting many thousands of wives, the best of women; utpādya—begot; teṣu—in them; puruṣaḥ—the Supreme Person, who exactly resembles a human being; kratubhiḥ—by many sacrifices; samīje—worshiped; ātmānam—Himself (because He is the person worshiped by all sacrifices); ātma-nigamam—exactly according to the ritualistic ceremonies of the Vedas; prathayan—expanding the Vedic principles; janeṣu—among the people in general.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, known as līlā-puruṣottama, appeared as the son of Vasudeva but immediately left His father’s home and went to Vṛndāvana to expand His loving relationship with His confidential devotees. In Vṛndāvana the Lord killed many demons, and afterwards He returned to Dvārakā, where according to Vedic principles He married many wives who were the best of women, begot through them hundreds of sons, and performed sacrifices for His own worship to establish the principles of householder life.
As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (15.15), vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ: by all the Vedas, it is Kṛṣṇa who is to be known. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, setting an example by His own behavior, performed many ritualistic ceremonies described in the Vedas and established the principles of gṛhastha life by marrying many wives and begetting many children just to show people in general how to be happy by living according to Vedic principles. The center of Vedic sacrifice is Kṛṣṇa (vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [Bg. 15.15]). To advance in human life, human society must follow the Vedic principles personally demonstrated by Lord Kṛṣṇa in His householder life. The real purpose of Kṛṣṇa’s appearance, however, was to manifest how one can take part in loving affairs with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Reciprocations of loving affairs in ecstasy are possible only in Vṛndāvana. Therefore just after His appearance as the son of Vasudeva, the Lord immediately left for Vṛndāvana. In Vṛndāvana, the Lord not only took part in loving affairs with His father and mother, the gopīs and the cowherd boys, but also gave liberation to many demons by killing them. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (4.8), paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām: the Lord appears in order to protect the devotees and kill the demons. This was fully exhibited by His personal behavior. In Bhagavad-gītā the Lord is understood by Arjuna to be puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyam—the eternal, transcendental Supreme Person. Here also we find the words utpādya teṣu puruṣaḥ. Therefore it is to be concluded that the Absolute Truth is puruṣa, a person. The impersonal feature is but one of the features of His personality. Ultimately, He is a person; He is not impersonal. And not only is He puruṣa, a person, but He is the līlā-puruṣottama, the best of all persons.
pṛthvyāḥ sa vai guru-bharaṁ kṣapayan kurūṇām
antaḥ-samuttha-kalinā yudhi bhūpa-camvaḥ
dṛṣṭyā vidhūya vijaye jayam udvighoṣya
procyoddhavāya ca paraṁ samagāt sva-dhāma
pṛthvyāḥ—on the earth; saḥ—He (Lord Kṛṣṇa); vai—indeed; guru-bharam—a great burden; kṣapayan—completely finishing; kurūṇām—of the personalities born in the Kuru dynasty; antaḥ-samuttha-kalinā—by creating enmity between the brothers by disagreement; yudhi—in the Battle of Kurukṣetra; bhūpa-camvaḥ—all the demoniac kings; dṛṣṭyā—by His glance; vidhūya—cleansing their sinful activities; vijaye—in victory; jayam—victory; udvighoṣya—declaring (the victory for Arjuna); procya—giving instructions; uddhavāya—unto Uddhava; ca—also; param—transcendental; samagāt—returned; sva-dhāma—to His own place.
Thereafter, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa created a misunderstanding between family members just to diminish the burden of the world. Simply by His glance, He annihilated all the demoniac kings on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra and declared victory for Arjuna. Finally, He instructed Uddhava about transcendental life and devotion and then returned to His abode in His original form.
paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. The mission of Lord Kṛṣṇa was performed on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra, for by the Lord’s mercy Arjuna was victorious due to being a great devotee whereas the others were killed simply by the Lord’s glance, which cleansed them of all sinful activities and enabled them to attain sārūpya. Finally, Lord Kṛṣṇa instructed Uddhava about the transcendental life of devotional service, and then, in due course of time, He returned to His abode. The Lord’s instructions in the form of Bhagavad-gītā are full of jñāna and vairāgya, knowledge and renunciation. In the human form of life, one must learn these two things—how to become detached from the material world and how to acquire full knowledge in spiritual life. This is the Lord’s mission (paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]). After executing His complete mission, the Lord returned to His home, Goloka Vṛndāvana.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Twenty-fourth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead”
END OF THE NINTH CANTO
Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/sb/9/24