The External Reasons for Lord Caitanya's Appearance
In this chapter the author has fully discussed the reason for the descent of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, after displaying His pastimes as Lord Kṛṣṇa, thought it wise to make His advent in the form of a devotee to explain personally the transcendental mellow reciprocations of service and love between Himself and His servants, friends, parents and fiancees. According to the Vedic literature, the foremost occupational duty for humanity in this Age of Kali is nāma-saṅkīrtana, or congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord. The incarnation for this age especially preaches this process, but only Kṛṣṇa Himself can explain the confidential loving service performed in the four principal varieties of loving affairs between the Supreme Lord and His devotees. Lord Kṛṣṇa therefore personally appeared, with His plenary portions, as Lord Caitanya. As stated in this chapter, only for that purpose did Lord Kṛṣṇa appear personally in Navadvīpa in the form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja has herein presented much authentic evidence from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and other scriptures to substantiate the identity of Lord Caitanya with Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself. He has described bodily symptoms in Lord Caitanya that are visible only in the person of the Supreme Lord, and he has proved that Lord Caitanya appeared with His personal associates-Śrī Nityānanda, Advaita, Gadādhara, Śrīvāsa and other devotees-to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. The appearance of Lord Caitanya is both significant and confidential. He can be appreciated only by pure devotees and only through the process of devotional service. The Lord tried to conceal His identity as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by representing Himself as a devotee, but His pure devotees can recognize Him by His special features. The Vedas and Purāṇas foretell the appearance of Lord Caitanya, but still He is sometimes called, significantly, the concealed descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Advaita Ācārya was a contemporary of Lord Caitanya's father. He felt sorry for the condition of the world because even after Lord Kṛṣṇa's appearance, no one had interest in devotional service to Kṛṣṇa. This forgetfulness was so overwhelming that Advaita Prabhu was convinced that no one but Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself could enlighten people about devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Therefore Advaita requested Lord Kṛṣṇa to appear as Lord Caitanya. Offering tulasī leaves and Ganges water, He cried for the Lord's appearance. The Lord, being satisfied by His pure devotees, descends to satisfy them. As such, being pleased by Advaita Ācārya, Lord Caitanya appeared.
śrī-caitanya-prabhum—to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; vande—I offer my respectful obeisances; yat—of whom; pāda-āśraya—of the shelter of the lotus feet; vīryataḥ—from the power; saṅgṛhṇāti—collects; ākara-vrātāt—from the multitude of mines in the form of scriptures; ajñaḥ—a fool; siddhānta—of conclusion; sat-maṇīn—the best jewels.
I offer my respectful obeisances to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. By the potency of the shelter of His lotus feet, even a fool can collect the valuable jewels of conclusive truth from the mines of the revealed scriptures.
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya—all glories; śrī-caitanya—to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya—all glories; nityānanda—to Lord Nityānanda; jaya—all glories; advaita-candra—to Advaita Ācārya; jaya—all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
All glories to Lord Caitanya. All glories to Lord Nityānanda. All glories to Advaitacandra. And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya.
tṛtīya ślokera artha kaila vivaraṇa
caturtha ślokera artha śuna bhakta-gaṇa
tṛtīya—third; ślokera—of the verse; artha—meaning; kaila—there was; vivaraṇa—description; caturtha—fourth; ślokera—of the verse; artha—meaning; śuna—please hear; bhakta-gaṇa—O devotees.
I have given the purport of the third verse. Now, O devotees, please listen to the meaning of the fourth with full attention.
anarpita-carīṁ cirāt karuṇayāvatīrṇaḥ kalau
samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasāṁ sva-bhakti-śriyam
sadā hṛdaya-kandare sphuratu vaḥ śacī-nandanaḥ
anarpita—not bestowed; carīm—having been formerly; cirāt—for a long time; karuṇayā—by causeless mercy; avatīrṇaḥ—descended; kalau—in the Age of Kali; samarpayitum—to bestow; unnata—elevated; ujjvala-rasām—the conjugal mellow; sva-bhakti—of His own service; śriyam—the treasure; hariḥ—the Supreme Lord; puraṭa—than gold; sundara—more beautiful; dyuti—of splendor; kadamba—with a multitude; sandīpitaḥ—illuminated; sadā—always; hṛdaya-kandare—in the cavity of the heart; sphuratu—let Him be manifest; vaḥ—your; śacī-nandanaḥ—the son of mother Śacī.
"May that Lord who is known as the son of Śrīmatī Śacīdevī be transcendentally situated in the innermost core of your heart. Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He has descended in the Age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation has ever offered before: the most elevated mellow of devotional service, the mellow of conjugal love."
pūrṇa bhagavān kṛṣṇa vrajendra-kumāra
goloke vrajera saha nitya vihāra
pūrṇa—full; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; vrajendra-kumāra—the son of the King of Vraja; goloke—in Goloka; vrajera saha—along with Vrajadhāma; nitya—eternal; vihāra—pastimes.
Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of the King of Vraja, is the Supreme Lord. He eternally enjoys transcendental pastimes in His eternal abode, Goloka, which includes Vrajadhāma.
In the previous chapter it has been established that Kṛṣṇa, the son of Vrajendra (the King of Vraja), is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, with six opulences. He eternally enjoys transcendentally variegated opulences on His planet, which is known as Goloka. The eternal pastimes of the Lord in the spiritual planet Kṛṣṇaloka are called aprakaṭa, or unmanifested, pastimes because they are beyond the purview of the conditioned souls. Lord Kṛṣṇa is always present everywhere, but when He is not present before our eyes, He is said to be aprakaṭa, or unmanifested.
brahmāra eka dine tiṅho eka-bāra
avatīrṇa hañā karena prakaṭa vihāra
brahmāra—of Lord Brahmā; eka—one; dine—in the day; tiṅho—He; eka-bāra—one time; avatīrṇa—descended; hañā—being; karena—performs; prakaṭa—manifest; vihāra—pastimes.
Once in a day of Brahmā, He descends to this world to manifest His transcendental pastimes.
satya, tretā, dvāpara, kali, cāri-yuga jāni
sei cāri-yuge divya eka-yuga māni
satya—Satya; tretā—Tretā; dvāpara—Dvāpara; kali—Kali; cāri-yuga—four ages; jāni—we know; sei—these; cāri-yuge—in the four ages; divya—divine; eka-yuga—one age; māni—we consider.
We know that there are four ages [yugas], namely Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali. These four together comprise one divya-yuga.
ekāttara catur-yuge eka manv-antara
caudda manv-antara brahmāra divasa bhitara
ekāttara—seventy-one; catuḥ-yuge—in cycles of four ages; eka—one; manu-antara—period of a Manu; caudda—fourteen; manu-antara—periods of Manu; brahmāra—of Lord Brahmā; divasa—a day; bhitara—within.
Seventy-one divya-yugas constitute one manv-antara. There are fourteen manv-antaras in one day of Brahmā.
A manv-antara is the period controlled by one Manu. The reign of fourteen Manus equals the length of one day (twelve hours) in the life of Brahmā, and the night of Brahmā is of the same duration. These calculations are given in the authentic astronomy book known as the Sūrya-siddhānta. This book was compiled by the great professor of astronomy and mathematics Bimal Prasād Datta, later known as Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī, who was our merciful spiritual master. He was honored with the title Siddhānta Sarasvatī for writing a commentary on the Sūrya-siddhānta, and the title Gosvāmī Mahārāja was added when he accepted sannyāsa, the renounced order of life.
'vaivasvata'-nāma ei saptama manv-antara
sātāiśa catur-yuga tāhāra antara
vaivasvata-nāma—named Vaivasvata; ei—this; saptama—seventh; manu-antara—period of Manu; sātāiśa—twenty-seven; catuḥ-yuga—cycles of four ages; tāhāra—of that; antara—period.
The present Manu, who is the seventh, is called Vaivasvata [the son of Vivasvān]. Twenty-seven divya-yugas [27 x 4,320,000 solar years] of his age have now passed.
The names of the fourteen Manus are as follows: (1) Svāyambhuva, (2) Svārociṣa, (3) Uttama, (4) Tāmasa, (5) Raivata, (6) Cākṣuṣa, (7) Vaivasvata, (8) Sāvarṇi, (9) Dakṣa-sāvarṇi, (10) Brahma-sāvarṇi, (11) Dharma-sāvarṇi, (12) Rudraputra (Rudra-sāvarṇi), (13) Raucya, or Deva-sāvarṇi, (14) and Bhautyaka, or Indra-sāvarṇi.
aṣṭāviṁśa catur-yuge dvāparera śeṣe
vrajera sahite haya kṛṣṇera prakāśe
aṣṭāviṁśa—twenty-eighth; catuḥ-yuge—in the cycle of four ages; dvāparera—of the Dvāpara-yuga; śeṣe—at the end; vrajera sahite—along with Vraja; haya—is; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; prakāśe—manifestation.
At the end of the Dvāpara-yuga of the twenty-eighth divya-yuga, Lord Kṛṣṇa appears on earth with the full paraphernalia of His eternal Vraja-dhāma.
Now is the term of Vaivasvata Manu, during which Lord Caitanya appears. First Lord Kṛṣṇa appears at the close of the Dvāpara-yuga of the twenty-eighth divya-yuga, and then Lord Caitanya appears in the Kali-yuga of the same divya-yuga. Lord Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya appear once in each day of Brahmā, or once in fourteen manv-antaras, each of seventy-one divya-yugas in duration.
From the beginning of Brahmā's day of 4,320,000,000 years, six Manus appear and disappear before Lord Kṛṣṇa appears. Thus 1,975,320,000 years of the day of Brahmā elapse before the appearance of Lord Kṛṣṇa. This is an astronomical calculation according to solar years.
dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, śṛṅgāra--cāri rasa
cāri bhāvera bhakta yata kṛṣṇa tāra vaśa
dāsya—servitude; sakhya—friendship; vātsalya—parental affection; śṛṅgāra—conjugal love; cāri—four; rasa—mellows; cāri—four; bhāvera—of the sentiments; bhakta—devotees; yata—as many as there are; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; tāra—by them; vaśa—subdued.
Servitude [dāsya], friendship [sakhya], parental affection [vātsalya] and conjugal love [śṛṅgāra] are the four transcendental mellows [rasas]. By the devotees who cherish these four mellows, Lord Kṛṣṇa is subdued.
Dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and śṛṅgāra are the transcendental modes of loving service to the Lord. Śānta-rasa, or the neutral stage, is not mentioned in this verse because although in śānta-rasa one considers the Absolute Truth the sublime great, one does not go beyond that conception. Śānta-rasa is a very grand idea for materialistic philosophers, but such idealistic appreciation is only the beginning; it is the lowest among the relationships in the spiritual world. Śānta-rasa is not given much importance because as soon as there is a slight understanding between the knower and the known, active loving transcendental reciprocations and exchanges begin. Dāsya-rasa is the basic relationship between Kṛṣṇa and His devotees; therefore this verse considers dāsya the first stage of transcendental devotional service.
vraje krīḍā kare kṛṣṇa premāviṣṭa hañā
dāsa—servants; sakhā—friends; pitā-mātā—father and mother; kāntā-gaṇa—lovers; lañā—taking; vraje—in Vraja; krīḍā kare—plays; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; prema-āviṣṭa—absorbed in love; hañā—being.
Absorbed in such transcendental love, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa enjoys in Vraja with His devoted servants, friends, parents and conjugal lovers.
The descent of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Absolute Personality of Godhead, is very purposeful. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that one who knows the truth about Śrī Kṛṣṇa's descent and His various activities is at once liberated and does not have to fall again to this existence of birth and death after he leaves his present material body. In other words, one who factually understands Kṛṣṇa makes his life perfect. Imperfect life is realized in material existence, in five different relationships we share with everyone within the material world: neutrality, servitorship, friendship, filial love, and amorous love between husband and wife or lover and beloved. These five enjoyable relationships within the material world are perverted reflections of relationships with the Absolute Personality of Godhead in the transcendental nature. That Absolute Personality, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, descends to revive the five eternally existing relationships. Thus He manifests His transcendental pastimes in Vraja so that people may be attracted into that sphere of activities and leave aside their imitation relationships with the mundane. Then, after fully exhibiting all such activities, the Lord disappears.
yatheṣṭa vihari' kṛṣṇa kare antardhāna
antardhāna kari' mane kare anumāna
yathā-iṣṭa—as much as He wishes; vihari'-enjoying; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; kare—makes; antardhāna—disappearance; antardhāna kari'-disappearing; mane—in the mind; kare—He makes; anumāna—consideration.
Lord Kṛṣṇa enjoys His transcendental pastimes as long as He wishes, and then He disappears. After disappearing, however, He thinks thus:
cira-kāla nāhi kari prema-bhakti dāna
bhakti vinā jagatera nāhi avasthāna
cira-kāla—for a long time; nāhi kari—I have not done; prema-bhakti—loving devotional service; dāna—giving; bhakti—devotional service; vinā—without; jagatera—of the universe; nāhi—not; avasthāna—existence.
"For a long time I have not bestowed unalloyed loving service to Me upon the inhabitants of the world. Without such loving attachment, the existence of the material world is useless.
The Lord seldom awards pure transcendental love, but without such pure love of God, freed from fruitive activities and empiric speculation, one cannot attain perfection in life.
sakala jagate more kare vidhi-bhakti
vidhi-bhaktye vraja-bhāva pāite nāhi śakti
sakala—all; jagate—in the universe; more—to Me; kare—they do; vidhi-bhakti—regulative devotional service; vidhi-bhaktye—by regulative devotional service; vraja-bhāva—the feelings of those in Vraja; pāite—to obtain; nāhi—not; śakti—the power.
"Everywhere in the world people worship Me according to scriptural injunctions. But simply by following such regulative principles one cannot attain the loving sentiments of the devotees in Vrajabhūmi.
aiśvarya-jñānete saba jagat miśrita
aiśvarya-śithila-preme nāhi mora prīta
aiśvarya-jñānete—with knowledge of the opulences; saba—all; jagat—the world; miśrita—mixed; aiśvarya-śithila-preme—to love enfeebled by opulence; nāhi—there is not; mora—My; prīta—attraction.
"Knowing My opulences, the whole world looks upon Me with awe and veneration. But devotion made feeble by such reverence does not attract Me.
After His appearance, Lord Kṛṣṇa thought that He had not distributed the transcendental personal dealings with His devotees in dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and mādhurya. One may understand the science of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from the Vedic literature and thus become a devotee of the Lord and worship Him within the regulative principles described in the scriptures, but one will not know in this way how Kṛṣṇa is served by the residents of Vrajabhūmi. One cannot understand the dealings of the Lord in Vṛndāvana simply by executing the ritualistic regulative principles mentioned in the scriptures. By following scriptural injunctions one may enhance his appreciation for the glories of the Lord, but there is no chance for one to enter into personal dealings with Him. Giving too much attention to understanding the exalted glories of the Lord reduces the chance of one's entering into personal loving affairs with the Lord. To teach the principles of such loving dealings, the Lord decided to appear as Lord Caitanya.
aiśvarya-jñāne vidhi-bhajana kariyā
vaikuṇṭhake yāya catur-vidha mukti pāñā
aiśvarya-jñāne—in knowledge of the opulences; vidhi—according to rules and regulations; bhajana—worship; kariyā—doing; vaikuṇṭhake—to Vaikuṇṭha; yāya—they go; catuḥ-vidha—four kinds; mukti—liberation; pāñā—achieving.
"By performing such regulated devotional service in awe and veneration, one may go to Vaikuṇṭha and attain the four kinds of liberation.
sārṣṭi, sārūpya, āra sāmīpya, sālokya
sāyujya nā laya bhakta yāte brahma-aikya
sārṣṭi—opulences equal with the Lord's; sārūpya—the same form as the Lord's; āra—and; sāmīpya—personal association with the Lord; sālokya—residence on a Vaikuṇṭha planet; sāyujya—oneness with the Lord; nā laya—they do not accept; bhakta—devotees; yāte—since; brahma-aikya—oneness with Brahman.
"These liberations are sārṣṭi [achieving opulences equal to those of the Lord], sārūpya [having a form the same as the Lord's], sāmīpya [living as a personal associate of the Lord] and sālokya [living on a Vaikuṇṭha planet]. Devotees never accept sāyujya, however, since that is oneness with Brahman.
Those engaged in devotional service according to the ritualistic principles mentioned in the scriptures attain these different kinds of liberation. But although such devotees can attain sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya and sālokya, they are not concerned with these liberations, for such devotees are satisfied only in rendering transcendental loving service to the Lord. The fifth kind of liberation, sāyujya, is never accepted even by devotees who perform only ritualistic worship. To attain sāyujya, or merging into the Brahman effulgence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the aspiration of the impersonalists. A devotee never cares for sāyujya liberation.
yuga-dharma pravartāimu nāma-saṅkīrtana
cāri bhāva-bhakti diyā nācāmu bhuvana
yuga-dharma—the religion of the age; pravartāimu—I shall inaugurate; nāma-saṅkīrtana—chanting of the holy name; cāri—four; bhāva—of the moods; bhakti—devotion; diyā—giving; nācāmu—I shall cause to dance; bhuvana—the world.
"I shall personally inaugurate the religion of the age-nāma-saṅkīrtana, the congregational chanting of the holy name. I shall make the world dance in ecstasy, realizing the four mellows of loving devotional service.
āpani karimu bhakta-bhāva aṅgīkāre
āpani ācari' bhakti śikhāimu sabāre
āpani—personally; karimu—I shall make; bhakta-bhāva—the position of a devotee; aṅgīkāre—acceptance; āpani—personally; ācari'-practicing; bhakti—devotional service; śikhāimu—I shall teach; sabāre—to all.
"I shall accept the role of a devotee, and I shall teach devotional service by practicing it Myself.
When one associates with a pure devotee, he becomes so elevated that he does not aspire even for sārṣṭi, sārūpya, sāmīpya or sālokya, because he feels that such liberation is a kind of sense gratification. Pure devotees do not ask anything from the Lord for their personal benefit. Even if offered personal benefits, pure devotees do not accept them, because their only desire is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead by transcendental loving service. No one but the Lord Himself can teach this highest form of devotional service. Therefore, when the Lord took the place of the incarnation of Kali-yuga to spread the glories of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa-the system of worship recommended in this age-He also distributed the process of devotional service performed on the platform of transcendental spontaneous love. To teach the highest principles of spiritual life, the Lord Himself appeared as a devotee in the form of Lord Caitanya.
āpane nā kaile dharma śikhāna nā yāya
ei ta' siddhānta gītā-bhāgavate gāya
āpane—personally; nā kaile—if not practiced; dharma—religion; śikhāna—the teaching; nā yāya—does not advance; ei—this; ta'-certainly; siddhānta—conclusion; gītā—in the Bhagavad-gītā; bhāgavate—in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; gāya—they sing.
"Unless one practices devotional service himself, he cannot teach it to others. This conclusion is indeed confirmed throughout the Gītā and Bhāgavatam.
yadā yadā hi dharmasya
glānir bhavati bhārata
tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham
yadā yadā—whenever; hi—certainly; dharmasya—of religious principles; glāniḥ—decrease; bhavati—there is; bhārata—O descendant of Bharata; abhyutthānam—increase; adharmasya—of irreligion; tadā—then; ātmānam—Myself; sṛjāmi—manifest; aham—I.
" 'Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion-at that time I descend Myself.
vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām
sambhavāmi yuge yuge
paritrāṇāya—for the deliverance; sādhūnām—of the devotees; vināśāya—for the destruction; ca—and; duṣkṛtām—of the miscreants; dharma—religious principles; saṁsthāpana-arthāya—for the purpose of establishing; sambhavāmi—I appear; yuge yuge—in every age.
" 'To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion, I Myself appear, millennium after millennium.'
utsīdeyur ime lokā
na kuryāṁ karma ced aham
saṅkarasya ca kartā syām
upahanyām imāḥ prajāḥ
udsīdeyuḥ—would fall into ruin; ime—these; lokāḥ—worlds; na kuryām—did not perform; karma—action; cet—if; aham—I; saṅkarasya—of unwanted population; ca—and; kartā—a creator; syām—would become; upahanyām—would spoil; imāḥ—these; prajāḥ—living entities.
" 'If I did not show the proper principles of religion, all these worlds would fall into ruin. I would be a cause of unwanted population and would spoil all these living beings.'
yad yad ācarati śreṣṭhas
tat tad evetaro janaḥ
sa yat pramāṇaṁ kurute
lokas tad anuvartate
yat yat—however; ācarati—behaves; śreṣṭhaḥ—the best man; tat tat—that; eva—certainly; itaraḥ—the lesser; janaḥ—man; saḥ—he; yat—which; pramāṇam—standard; kurute—shows; lokaḥ—the people; tat—that; anuvartate—follow.
" 'Whatever actions a great man performs, common people follow. And whatever standards he sets by exemplary acts, all the world pursues.'
yuga-dharma-pravartana haya aṁśa haite
āmā vinā anye nāre vraja-prema dite
yuga-dharma—of the religion of the age; pravartana—the inauguration; haya—is; aṁśa—the plenary portion; haite—from; āmā—for Me; vinā—except; anye—another; nāre—is not able; vraja-prema—love like that of the residents of Vraja; dite—to bestow.
"My plenary portions can establish the principles of religion for each age. No one but Me, however, can bestow the kind of loving service performed by the residents of Vraja.
santv avatārā bahavaḥ
kṛṣṇād anyaḥ ko vā latāsv
api prema-do bhavati
santu—let there be; avatārāḥ—incarnations; bahavaḥ—many; paṅkaja-nābhasya—of the Lord, from whose navel grows a lotus flower; sarvataḥ-bhadrāḥ—completely auspicious; kṛṣṇāt—than Lord Kṛṣṇa; anyaḥ—other; kaḥ vā—who possibly; latāsu—on the surrendered souls; api—also; prema-daḥ—the bestower of love; bhavati—is.
" 'There may be many all-auspicious incarnations of the Personality of Godhead, but who other than Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa can bestow love of God upon the surrendered souls?'
tāhāte āpana bhakta-gaṇa kari' saṅge
pṛthivīte avatari' karimu nānā raṅge
tāhāte—in that; āpana—My own; bhakta-gaṇa—with devotees; kari'-doing; saṅge—in association; pṛthivīte—on the earth; avatari'-descending; karimu—I shall perform; nānā—various; raṅge—colorful pastimes.
"Therefore in the company of My devotees I shall appear on earth and perform various colorful pastimes."
eta bhāvi' kali-kāle prathama sandhyāya
avatīrṇa hailā kṛṣṇa āpani nadīyāya
eta—thus; bhāvi'-thinking; kali-kāle—in the Age of Kali; prathama—first; sandhyāya—in the junction; avatīrṇa hailā—descended; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; āpani—Himself; nadīyāya—in Nadia.
Thinking thus, the Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, descended at Nadia early in the Age of Kali.
The prathama-sandhyā is the beginning of the age. According to astronomical calculation, the age is divided into twelve parts. The first of these twelve divisions is known as the prathama-sandhyā. The prathama-sandhyā and śeṣa-sandhyā, the last division of the preceding age, form the junction of the two ages. According to the Sūrya-siddhānta, the prathama-sandhyā of Kali-yuga lasts 36,000 solar years. Lord Caitanya appeared in the prathama-sandhyā after 4,586 solar years of Kali-yuga had passed.
caitanya-siṁhera navadvīpe avatāra
siṁha-grīva, siṁha-vīrya, siṁhera huṅkāra
caitanya-siṁhera—of the lionlike Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; navadvīpe—at Navadvīpa; avatāra—the incarnation; siṁha-grīva—having the neck of a lion; siṁha-vīrya—the strength of a lion; siṁhera huṅkāra—the roar of a lion.
Thus the lionlike Lord Caitanya has appeared in Navadvīpa. He has the shoulders of a lion, the powers of a lion, and the loud voice of a lion.
sei siṁha vasuk jīvera hṛdaya-kandare
kalmaṣa-dvirada nāśe yāṅhāra huṅkāre
sei—that; siṁha—lion; vasuk—let Him sit; jīvera—of the living entities; hṛdaya—of the heart; kandare—in the cavern; kalmaṣa—of sins; dvi-rada—the elephant; nāśe—destroys; yāṅhāra—of whom; huṅkāre—the roar.
May that lion be seated in the core of the heart of every living being. Thus with His resounding roar may He drive away one's elephantine vices.
prathama līlāya tāṅra 'viśvambhara' nāma
bhakti-rase bharila, dharila bhūta-grāma
prathama—first; līlāya—in the pastimes; tāṅra—of Him; viśvambhara nāma—the name Viśvambhara; bhakti-rase—with the mellow of devotional service; bharila—He filled; dharila—saved; bhūta-grāma—all the living entities.
In His early pastimes He is known as Viśvambhara because He floods the world with the nectar of devotion and thus saves the living beings.
ḍubhṛñ dhātura artha--poṣaṇa, dhāraṇa
puṣila, dharila prema diyā tri-bhuvana
ḍubhṛñ—known as ḍubhṛñ (bhṛ); dhātura—of the verbal root; artha—the meaning; poṣaṇa—nourishing; dhāraṇa—maintaining; puṣila—nourished; dharila—maintained; prema diyā—distributing love of God; tri-bhuvana—in the three worlds.
The verbal root "ḍubhṛñ" [which is the root of the word "viśvambhara"] indicates nourishing and maintaining. He [Lord Caitanya] nourishes and maintains the three worlds by distributing love of God.
śeṣa-līlāya dhare nāma 'śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya'
śrī-kṛṣṇa jānāye saba viśva kaila dhanya
śeṣa-līlāya—in His final pastimes; dhare—He held; nāma—the name; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya—Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya; śrī-kṛṣṇa—about Lord Kṛṣṇa; jānāye—He taught; saba—all; viśva—the world; kaila—made; dhanya—fortunate.
In His later pastimes He is known as Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. He blesses the whole world by teaching about the name and fame of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
Some so-called Vaiṣṇavas say that the renounced order of life is not accepted in the Vaiṣṇava sampradāya, or disciplic succession, from Lord Caitanya. This is not a very intelligent proposition. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu took the sannyāsa order from Śrīpāda Keśava Bhāratī, who belonged to the Śaṅkara sect, which approves of only ten names for sannyāsīs. Long before the advent of Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya, however, the sannyāsa order existed in the Vaiṣṇava line of Viṣṇusvāmī. In the Viṣṇusvāmī Vaiṣṇava sampradāya, there are ten different kinds of sannyāsa names and 108 different names for sannyāsīs who accept the tri-daṇḍa, the triple staff of sannyāsa. This is approved by the Vedic rules. Therefore Vaiṣṇava sannyāsa was existent even before the appearance of Śaṅkarācārya, although those who know nothing about Vaiṣṇava sannyāsa unnecessarily declare that there is no sannyāsa in the Vaiṣṇava sampradāya.
During the time of Lord Caitanya, the influence of Śaṅkarācārya in society was very strong. People thought that one could accept sannyāsa only in the disciplic succession of Śaṅkarācārya. Lord Caitanya could have performed His missionary activities as a householder, but He found householder life an obstruction to His mission. Therefore He decided to accept the renounced order, sannyāsa. Since His acceptance of sannyāsa was also designed to attract public attention, Lord Caitanya, not wishing to disturb the social convention, took the renounced order of life from a sannyāsī in the disciplic succession of Śaṅkarācārya, although sannyāsa was also sanctioned in the Vaiṣṇava sampradāya.
In the Śaṅkara-sampradāya there are ten different names awarded to sannyāsīs: (1) Tīrtha, (2) Āśrama, (3) Vana, (4) Araṇya, (5) Giri, (6) Parvata, (7) Sāgara, (8) Sarasvatī, (9) Bhāratī and (10) Purī. Before one enters sannyāsa, he has one of the various names for a brahmacārī, the assistant to a sannyāsī. Sannyāsīs with the titles Tīrtha and Āśrama generally stay at Dvārakā, and their brahmacārī name is Svarūpa. Those known by the names Vana and Araṇya stay at Puruṣottama, or Jagannātha Purī, and their brahmacārī name is Prakāśa. Those with the names Giri, Parvata and Sāgara generally stay at Badarikāśrama, and their brahmacārī name is Ānanda. Those with the titles Sarasvatī, Bhāratī and Purī usually live at Śrṅgerī in South India, and their brahmacārī name is Caitanya.
Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya established four monasteries in India, in the four directions north, south, east and west, and he entrusted them to four sannyāsīs who were his disciples. Now there are hundreds of branch monasteries under these four principal monasteries, and although there is an official symmetry among them, there are many differences in their dealings. The four different sects of these monasteries are known as Ānandavāra, Bhogavāra, Kīṭavāra and Bhūmivāra, and in course of time they have developed different ideas and different slogans.
According to the regulation of the disciplic succession, one who wishes to enter the renounced order in Śaṅkara's sect must first be trained as a brahmacārī under a bona fide sannyāsī, The brahmacārī's name is ascertained according to the group to which the sannyāsī belongs. Lord Caitanya accepted sannyāsa from Keśava Bhāratī. When He first approached Keśava Bhāratī, He was accepted as a brahmacārī with the name Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Brahmacārī. After He took sannyāsa, He preferred to keep the name Kṛṣṇa Caitanya.
The great authorities in the disciplic succession had not offered to explain why Lord Caitanya refused to take the name Bhāratī after He took sannyāsa from a Bhāratī, until Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Mahārāja volunteered the explanation that because a sannyāsī in the Śaṅkara-sampradāya thinks that he has become the Supreme, Lord Caitanya, wanting to avoid such a misconception, kept the name Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, placing Himself as an eternal servitor. A brahmacārī is supposed to serve the spiritual master; therefore He did not negate that relationship of servitude to His spiritual master. Accepting such a position is favorable for the relationship between the disciple and the spiritual master.
The authentic biographies also mention that Lord Caitanya accepted the daṇḍa (rod) and begging pot, symbolic of the sannyāsa order, at the time He took sannyāsa.
tāṅra yugāvatāra jāni' garga mahāśaya
kṛṣṇera nāma-karaṇe kariyāche nirṇaya
tāṅra—of Him; yuga-avatāra—incarnation for the age; jāni'-knowing; garga—Garga Muni; mahāśaya—the great personality; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāma-karaṇe—in the name-giving ceremony; kariyāche—made; nirṇaya—ascertainment.
Knowing Him [Lord Caitanya] to be the incarnation for Kali-yuga, Garga Muni, during the naming ceremony of Kṛṣṇa, predicted His appearance.
āsan varṇās trayo hy asya
gṛhṇato 'nu-yugaṁ tanūḥ
śuklo raktas tathā pīta
idānīṁ kṛṣṇatāṁ gataḥ
āsan—were; varṇāḥ—colors; trayaḥ—three; hi—certainly; asya—of this one; gṛhṇataḥ—who is manifesting; anu-yugam—according to the age; tanūḥ—bodies; śuklaḥ—white; raktaḥ—red; tathā—thus; pītaḥ—yellow; idānīm—now; kṛṣṇatām—blackness; gataḥ—obtained.
"This boy [Kṛṣṇa] has three other colors-white, red and yellow-as He appears in different ages. Now He has appeared in a transcendental blackish color."
śukla, rakta, pīta-varṇa--ei tina dyuti
satya-tretā-kali-kāle dharena śrī-pati
śukla—white; rakta—red; pīta-varṇa—the color yellow; ei—these; tina—three; dyuti—lusters; satya—in Satya-yuga; tretā—in Tretā-yuga; kali-kāle—in the Age of Kali; dharena—manifests; śrī-pati—the husband of the goddess of fortune.
White, red and yellow-these are the three bodily lusters that the Lord, the husband of the goddess of fortune, assumes in the ages of Satya, Tretā and Kali respectively.
idānīṁ dvāpare tiṅho hailā kṛṣṇa-varṇa
ei saba śāstrāgama-purāṇera marma
idānīm—now; dvāpare—in the Dvāpara-yuga; tiṅho—He; hailā—was; kṛṣṇa-varṇa—blackish color; ei—these; saba—all; śāstra-āgama—and Vedic literatures; purāṇera—of the Purāṇas; marma—the core.
Now, in the Dvāpara-yuga, the Lord had descended in a blackish hue. This is the essence of the statements in the Purāṇas and other Vedic literatures with reference to the context.
dvāpare bhagavān śyāmaḥ
śrī-vatsādibhir aṅkaiś ca
dvāpare—in the Dvāpara-yuga; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śyāmaḥ—blackish; pīta-vāsāḥ—having yellow clothes; nija—own; āyudhaḥ—having weapons; śrīvatsa-ādibhiḥ—such as Śrīvatsa; aṅkaiḥ—by bodily markings; ca—and; lakṣaṇaiḥ—by external characteristics such as the Kaustubha jewel; upalakṣitaḥ—characterized.
"In the Dvāpara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. He is dressed in yellow, He holds His own weapons, and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and marks of Śrīvatsa. This is how His symptoms are described."
kali-yuge yuga-dharma--nāmera pracāra
tathi lāgi' pīta-varṇa caitanyāvatāra
kali-yuge—in the Age of Kali; yuga-dharma—the religious practice for the age; nāmera—of the holy name; pracāra—propagation; tathi—this; lāgi'-for; pīta-varṇa—having a yellow color; caitanya-avatāra—the incarnation of Lord Caitanya.
The religious practice for the Age of Kali is to broadcast the glories of the holy name. Only for this purpose has the Lord, in a yellow color, descended as Lord Caitanya.
In this Age of Kali the practical system of religion for everyone is the chanting of the name of Godhead. This was introduced in this age by Lord Caitanya. Bhakti-yoga actually begins with the chanting of the holy name, as confirmed by Madhvācārya in his commentary on the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad. He quotes this verse from the Nārāyaṇa-saṁhitā:
dvāparīyair janair viṣṇuḥ
pañcarātrais tu kevalaiḥ
kalau tu nāma-mātreṇa
pūjyate bhagavān hariḥ
"In the Dvāpara-yuga people should worship Lord Viṣṇu only by the regulative principles of the Nārada-pañcarātra and other such authorized books. In the Age of Kali, however, people should simply chant the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." The Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra is specifically mentioned in many Upaniṣads, such as the Kali-santaraṇa Upaniṣad, where it is said:
hare kṛṣṇa hare kṛṣṇa
kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa hare hare
hare rāma hare rāma
rāma rāma hare hare
iti ṣoḍaśakaṁ nāmnāṁ
tapta-hema-sama-kānti, prakāṇḍa śarīra
nava-megha jini kaṇṭha-dhvani ye gambhīra
tapta-hema—as molten gold; sama-kānti—same luster; prakāṇḍa—enormous; śarīra—body; nava-megha—new clouds; jini—conquering; kaṇṭha-dhvani—the sound of the voice; ye—that; gambhīra—deep.
The luster of His expansive body resembles molten gold. The deep sound of His voice conquers the thundering of newly assembled clouds.
dairghya-vistāre yei āpanāra hāta
cāri hasta haya 'mahā-puruṣa' vikhyāta
dairghya—in length; vistāre—and in breadth; yei—who; āpanāra—of his own; hāta—hand; cāri—four; hasta—cubits; haya—is; mahā-puruṣa—as a great personality; vikhyāta—celebrated.
One who measures four cubits in height and in breadth by his own hand is celebrated as a great personality.
'nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala' haya tāṅra nāma
nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala-tanu caitanya guṇa-dhāma
nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala—nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala; haya—is; tāṅra—of him; nāma—the name; nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala—nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala; tanu—having such a body; caitanya—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; guṇa-dhāma—the abode of good qualities.
Such a person is called nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who personifies all good qualities, has the body of a nyagrodha-parimaṇḍala.
No one other than the Supreme Lord Himself, who has engaged the conditioned souls by His own illusory energy, can possess these bodily features. These features certainly indicate an incarnation of Viṣṇu and no one else.
ā-jānu-lambita-bhuja—arms that reach the knees; kamala-locana—with lotus eyes; tila-phula—the blossom of the sesame plant; jini—conquering; nāsā—whose nose; sudhā-aṁśu-vadana—whose face is like the moon.
His arms are long enough to reach His knees, His eyes are just like lotus flowers, His nose is like a sesame flower, and His face is as beautiful as the moon.
śānta, dānta, kṛṣṇa-bhakti-niṣṭhā-parāyaṇa
bhakta-vatsala, suśīla, sarva-bhūte sama
śānta—peaceful; dānta—controlled; kṛṣṇa-bhakti—to the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa; niṣṭhā-parāyaṇa—fully devoted; bhakta-vatsala—affectionate toward the devotees; su-śīla—good character; sarva-bhūte—to all living beings; sama—equal.
He is peaceful, self-controlled and fully devoted to the transcendental service of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He is affectionate toward His devotees, He is gentle, and He is equally disposed toward all living beings.
candanera aṅgada-bālā, candana-bhūṣaṇa
nṛtya-kāle pari' karena kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana
candanera—of sandalwood; aṅgada—and armlets; bālā—bangles; candana—of sandalwood pulp; bhūṣaṇa—decorations; nṛtya-kāle—at the time of dancing; pari'-putting on; karena—does; kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana—congregational chanting of the name of Kṛṣṇa.
He is decorated with sandalwood bangles and armlets and anointed with the pulp of sandalwood. He especially wears these decorations to dance in śrī-kṛṣṇa-saṅkīrtana.
ei saba guṇa lañā muni vaiśampāyana
sahasra-nāme kaila tāṅra nāma-gaṇana
ei—these; saba—all; guṇa—qualities; lañā—taking; muni—the sage; vaiśampāyana—named Vaiśampāyana; sahasra-nāme—in the Viṣṇu-sahasra-nāma; kaila—did; tāṅra—of Him; nāma-gaṇana—counting of the name.
Recording all these qualities of Lord Caitanya, the sage Vaiśampāyana included His name in the Viṣṇu-sahasra-nāma.
dui līlā caitanyera--ādi āra śeṣa
dui līlāya cāri cāri nāma viśeṣa
dui—two; līlā—pastimes; caitanyera—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; ādi—first; āra—and; śeṣa—final; dui—two; līlāya—in pastimes; cāri—four; cāri—and four; nāma—names; viśeṣa—specific.
The pastimes of Lord Caitanya have two divisions-the early pastimes [ādi-līlā] and the later pastimes [śeṣa-līlā]. He has four names in each of these two līlās.
sannyāsa-kṛc chamaḥ śānto
suvarṇa—of gold; varṇaḥ—having the color; hema-aṅgaḥ—whose body was like molten gold; vara-aṅgaḥ—having a most beautiful body; candana-aṅgadī—whose body was smeared with sandalwood; sannyāsa-kṛt—practicing the renounced order of life; śamaḥ—equipoised; śāntaḥ—peaceful; niṣṭhā—devotion; śānti—and of peace; parāyaṇaḥ—the highest resort.
"In His early pastimes He appears as a householder with a golden complexion. His limbs are beautiful, and His body, smeared with the pulp of sandalwood, seems like molten gold. In His later pastimes He accepts the sannyāsa order, and He is equipoised and peaceful. He is the highest abode of peace and devotion, for He silences the impersonalist nondevotees."
This is a verse from the Mahābhārata (Dāna-dharma, Viṣṇu-sahasra-nāma-stotra). In his commentary on the Viṣṇu-sahasra-nāma called the Nāmārtha-sudhā, Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, commenting upon this verse, asserts that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to the evidence of the Upaniṣads. He explains that suvarṇa-varṇaḥ means a golden complexion. He also quotes the Vedic injunction yadā paśyaḥ paśyate rukma-varṇaṁ kartāram īśaṁ puruṣaṁ brahma-yonim (Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 3.1.3). Rukma-varṇaṁ kartāram īśam refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead as having a complexion the color of molten gold. Puruṣam means the Supreme Lord, and brahma-yonim indicates that He is also the Supreme Brahman. This evidence, too, proves that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa. Another meaning of the description of the Lord as having a golden hue is that Lord Caitanya's personality is as fascinating as gold is attractive. Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa has explained that the word varāṅga means "exquisitely beautiful."
Lord Caitanya accepted sannyāsa, leaving aside His householder life, to preach His mission. He has equanimity in different senses. First, He describes the confidential truth of the Personality of Godhead, and second, He satisfies everyone by knowledge and attachment to Kṛṣṇa. He is peaceful because He renounces all topics not related to the service of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa has explained that the word niṣṭhā indicates His being rigidly fixed in chanting the holy name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Lord Caitanya subdued all disturbing opponents of devotional service, especially the monists, who are actually averse to the personal feature of the Supreme Lord.
vyakta kari' bhāgavate kahe bāra bāra
kali-yuge dharma--nāma-saṅkīrtana sāra
vyakta—evident; kari'-making; bhāgavate—in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; kahe—they say; bāra bāra—time and time again; kali-yuge—in the Age of Kali; dharma—the religion; nāma-saṅkīrtana—congregational chanting of the holy name; sāra—the essence.
In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is repeatedly and clearly said that the essence of religion in the Age of Kali is the chanting of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.
iti dvāpara urv-īśa
kalāv api yathā śṛṇu
iti—thus; dvāpare—in the Dvāpara Age; uru-īśa—O King; stuvanti—they praise; jagat-īśvaram—the Lord of the universe; nānā—various; tantra—of scriptures; vidhānena—by the regulations; kalau—in the Age of Kali; api—also; yathā—in which manner; śṛṇu—please hear.
"O King, in this way people in Dvāpara-yuga worshiped the Lord of the universe. In Kali-yuga they also worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the regulations of the revealed scriptures. Kindly now hear of that from me.
This verse is spoken by Saint Karabhājana in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.31).
yajanti hi su-medhasaḥ
kṛṣṇa-varṇam—repeating the syllables kṛṣ-ṇa; tviṣā—with a luster; akṛṣṇam—not black (golden); sa-aṅga—along with associates; upāṅga—servitors; astra—weapons; pārṣadam—confidential companions; yajñaiḥ—by sacrifice; saṅkīrtana-prāyaiḥ—consisting chiefly of congregational chanting; yajanti—they worship; hi—certainly; su-medhasaḥ—intelligent persons.
"In the Age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Kṛṣṇa. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Kṛṣṇa Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions."
This text is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.32). Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī has explained this verse in his commentary on the Bhāgavatam, known as the Krama-sandarbha, wherein he says that Lord Kṛṣṇa also appears with a golden complexion. That golden Lord Kṛṣṇa is Lord Caitanya, who is worshiped by intelligent men in this age. That is confirmed in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam by Garga Muni, who said that although the child Kṛṣṇa was blackish, He also appears in three other colors-red, white and yellow. He exhibited His white and red complexions in the Satya and Tretā ages respectively. He did not exhibit the remaining color, yellow-gold, until He appeared as Lord Caitanya, who is known as Gaura Hari.
Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī explains that kṛṣṇa-varṇam means Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. Kṛṣṇa-varṇa and Kṛṣṇa Caitanya are equivalent. The name Kṛṣṇa appears with both Lord Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya Kṛṣṇa. Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but He always engages in describing Kṛṣṇa and thus enjoys transcendental bliss by chanting and remembering His name and form. Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself appears as Lord Caitanya to preach the highest gospel.
Lord Caitanya always chants the holy name of Kṛṣṇa and describes it also, and because He is Kṛṣṇa Himself, whoever meets Him will automatically chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa and later describe it to others. He injects one with transcendental Kṛṣṇa consciousness, which merges the chanter in transcendental bliss. In all respects, therefore, He appears before everyone as Kṛṣṇa, either by personality or by sound. Simply by seeing Lord Caitanya one at once remembers Lord Kṛṣṇa. One may therefore accept Him as viṣṇu-tattva. In other words, Lord Caitanya is Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.
Sāṅgopāṅgāstra-pārṣadam further indicates that Lord Caitanya is Lord Kṛṣṇa. His body is always decorated with ornaments of sandalwood and with sandalwood paste. By His superexcellent beauty He subdues all the people of the age. In other descents the Lord sometimes used weapons to defeat the demoniac, but in this age the Lord subdues them with His all-attractive figure as Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī explains that His beauty is His astra, or weapon, to subdue the demons. Because He is all-attractive, it is to be understood that all the demigods lived with Him as His companions. His acts were uncommon and His associates wonderful. When He propagated the saṅkīrtana movement, He attracted many great scholars and ācāryas, especially in Bengal and Orissa. Lord Caitanya is always accompanied by His best associates like Lord Nityānanda, Advaita, Gadādhara and Śrīvāsa.
Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī cites a verse from the Vedic literature which says that there is no necessity of performing sacrificial demonstrations or ceremonial functions. He comments that instead of engaging in such external, pompous exhibitions, all people, regardless of caste, color or creed, can assemble together and chant Hare Kṛṣṇa to worship Lord Caitanya. Kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇam indicates that prominence should be given to the name of Kṛṣṇa. Lord Caitanya taught Kṛṣṇa consciousness and chanted the name of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, to worship Lord Caitanya, everyone should together chant the mahā-mantra-Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare. To propagate worship in churches, temples or mosques is not possible, because people have lost interest in that. But anywhere and everywhere, people can chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Thus worshiping Lord Caitanya, they can perform the highest activity and fulfill the highest religious purpose of satisfying the Supreme Lord.
Śrīla Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, a famous disciple of Lord Caitanya, said, "The principle of transcendental devotional service having been lost, Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya has appeared to deliver again the process of devotion. He is so kind that He is distributing love of Kṛṣṇa. Everyone should be attracted more and more to His lotus feet, as humming bees are attracted to a lotus flower."
śuna, bhāi, ei saba caitanya-mahimā
ei śloke kahe tāṅra mahimāra sīmā
śuna—please hear; bhāi—O brothers; ei—this; saba—all; caitanya—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; mahimā—the glories; ei—this; śloke—verse; kahe—says; tāṅra—of Him; mahimāra—of the glories; sīmā—the limit.
My dear brothers, please hear all these glories of Lord Caitanya. This verse clearly summarizes His activities and characteristics.
'kṛṣṇa' ei dui varṇa sadā yāṅra mukhe
athavā, kṛṣṇake tiṅho varṇe nija sukhe
kṛṣṇa—kṛṣ-ṇa; ei—these; dui—two; varṇa—syllables; sadā—always; yāṅra—of whom; mukhe—in the mouth; athavā—or else; kṛṣṇake—Lord Kṛṣṇa; tiṅho—He; varṇe—describes; nija—His own; sukhe—in happiness.
The two syllables "kṛṣ-ṇa" are always in His mouth; or, He constantly describes Kṛṣṇa with great pleasure.
kṛṣṇa-varṇa-śabdera artha dui ta pramāṇa
kṛṣṇa vinu tāṅra mukhe nāhi āise āna
kṛṣṇa-varṇa-śabdera—of the word kṛṣṇa-varṇa; artha—the meaning; dui—two; ta—certainly; pramāṇa—examples; kṛṣṇa—Kṛṣṇa; vinu—except for; tāṅra—of Him; mukhe—in the mouth; nāhi āise—does not come; āna—anything else.
These are two meanings of the word "kṛṣṇa-varṇa." Indeed, nothing else but Kṛṣṇa issues from His mouth.
keha tāṅre bale yadi kṛṣṇa-varaṇa
āra viśeṣaṇe tāra kare nivāraṇa
keha—someone; tāṅre—to Him; bale—ascribes; yadi—if; kṛṣṇa—black; varaṇa—the color; āra—another; viśeṣaṇe—in the adjective; tāra—of that; kare—does; nivāraṇa—prevention.
If someone tries to describe Him as being of blackish complexion, the next adjective [tviṣā akṛṣṇam] immediately restricts him.
deha-kāntye haya teṅho akṛṣṇa-varaṇa
akṛṣṇa-varaṇe kahe pīta-varaṇa
deha-kāntye—in the luster of the body; haya—is; teṅho—He; akṛṣṇa—not black; varaṇa—the color; akṛṣṇa-varaṇe—by a color that is not blackish; kahe—one means; pīta—yellow; varaṇa—the color.
His complexion is certainly not blackish. Indeed, His not being blackish indicates that His complexion is yellow.
kalau yaṁ vidvāṁsaḥ sphuṭam abhiyajante dyuti-bharād
akṛṣṇāṅgaṁ kṛṣṇaṁ makha-vidhibhir utkīrtana-mayaiḥ
upāsyaṁ ca prāhur yam akhila-caturthāśrama-juṣāṁ
sa devaś caitanyākṛtir atitarāṁ naḥ kṛpayatu
kalau—in the Age of Kali; yam—Him whom; vidvāṁsaḥ—the learned men; sphuṭam—clearly manifested; abhiyajante—worship; dyuti-bharāt—due to an abundance of bodily luster; akṛṣṇa-aṅgam—whose body is not blackish; kṛṣṇam—Lord Kṛṣṇa; makha-vidhibhiḥ—by the performances of sacrifice; utkīrtana-mayaiḥ—consisting of loud chanting of the holy name; upāsyam—worshipable object; ca—and; prāhuḥ—they said; yam—whom; akhila—all; caturtha-āśrama-juṣām—of those who are in the fourth order of life (sannyāsa); saḥ—He; devaḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-ākṛtiḥ—having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; atitarām—excessively; naḥ—unto us; kṛpayatu—let Him show His mercy.
"By performing the sacrifice of congregational chanting of the holy name, learned scholars in the Age of Kali worship Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is now non-blackish because of the great upsurge of the feelings of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. He is the only worshipable Deity for the paramahaṁsas, who have attained the highest stage of the fourth order [sannyāsa]. May that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Caitanya, show us His great causeless mercy."
pratyakṣa tāṅhāra tapta-kāñcanera dyuti
yāṅhāra chaṭāya nāśe ajñāna-tamastati
pratyakṣa—vivid; tāṅhāra—of Him; tapta—molten; kāñcanera—of gold; dyuti—effulgence; yāṅhāra—of whom; chaṭāya—by the luster; nāśe—destroys; ajñāna—of ignorance; tamastati—the extent of the darkness.
One can vividly see His glowing complexion of molten gold, which dispels the darkness of ignorance.
jīvera kalmaṣa-tamo nāśa karibāre
aṅga-upāṅga-nāma nānā astra dhare
jīvera—of the living entity; kalmaṣa—of sinful activities; tamaḥ—the darkness; nāśa karibāre—for destroying; aṅga—associates; upāṅga—devotees; nāma—holy names; nānā—various; astra—weapons; dhare—He holds.
The sinful life of the living beings results from ignorance. To destroy that ignorance, He has brought various weapons, such as His plenary associates, His devotees and the holy name.
bhaktira virodhī karma-dharma vā adharma
tāhāra 'kalmaṣa' nāma, sei mahā-tamaḥ
bhaktira—to devotional service; virodhī—averse; karma—activity; dharma—religious; vā—or; adharma—irreligious; tāhāra—of that; kalmaṣa—sin; nāma—the name; sei—this; mahā-tamaḥ—great darkness.
The greatest ignorance consists of activities, whether religious or irreligious, that are opposed to devotional service. They are to be known as sins [kalmaṣa].
bāhu tuli' hari bali' prema-dṛṣṭye cāya
kariyā kalmaṣa nāśa premete bhāsāya
bāhu tuli'-raising the arms; hari bali'-chanting the holy name; prema-dṛṣṭye—with His glance of deep love; cāya—He looks; kariyā—causing; kalmaṣa—to sins; nāśa—destruction; premete—in love of God; bhāsāya—He floods.
Raising His arms, chanting the holy name and looking upon all with deep love, He drives away all sins and floods everyone with love of Godhead.
smitālokaḥ śokaṁ harati jagatāṁ yasya parito
girāṁ tu prārambhaḥ kuśala-paṭalīṁ pallavayati
padālambhaḥ kaṁ vā praṇayati na hi prema-nivahaṁ
sa devaś caitanyākṛtir atitarāṁ naḥ kṛpayatu
smita—smiling; ālokaḥ—glance; śokam—the bereavement; harati—takes away; jagatām—of the world; yasya—whose; paritaḥ—all around; girām—of the speech; tu—also; prārambhaḥ—the beginning; kuśala—of auspiciousness; paṭalīm—the mass; pallavayati—causes to blossom; pada-ālambhaḥ—the taking hold of the lotus feet; kam vā—what possibly; praṇayati—leads to; na—not; hi—certainly; prema-nivaham—quantity of love of Godhead; saḥ—He; devaḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caitanya-ākṛtiḥ—having the form of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; atitarām—excessively; naḥ—unto us; kṛpayatu—may He show His mercy.
"May the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of Lord Śrī Caitanya bestow His causeless mercy upon us. His smiling glance at once drives away all the bereavements of the world, and His very words enliven the auspicious creepers of devotion by expanding their leaves. Taking shelter of His lotus feet invokes transcendental love of God at once."
śrī-aṅga, śrī-mukha yei kare daraśana
tāra pāpa-kṣaya haya, pāya prema-dhana
śrī-aṅga—His body; śrī-mukha—His face; yei—anyone who; kare—does; daraśana—seeing; tāra—of him; pāpa-kṣaya—destruction of sins; haya—there is; pāya—obtains; prema-dhana—the wealth of love of Godhead.
Anyone who looks upon His beautiful body or beautiful face becomes freed from all sins and obtains the wealth of love of Godhead.
anya avatāre saba sainya-śastra saṅge
caitanya-kṛṣṇera sainya aṅga-upāṅge
anya—other; avatāre—in incarnations; saba—all; sainya—soldiers; śastra—and weapons; saṅge—along with; caitanya-kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa as Lord Caitanya; sainya—soldiers; aṅga—plenary parts; upāṅge—and associates.
In other incarnations the Lord descended with armies and weapons, but in this incarnation His soldiers are His plenary parts and associates.
sadopāsyaḥ śrīmān dhṛta-manuja-kāyaiḥ praṇayitāṁ
vahadbhir gīr-vāṇair giriśa-parameṣṭhi-prabhṛtibhiḥ
sva-bhaktebhyaḥ śuddhāṁ nija-bhajana-mudrām upadiśan
sa caitanyaḥ kiṁ me punar api dṛśor yāsyati padam
sadā—always; upāsyaḥ—worshipable; śrīmān—beautiful; dhṛta—who accepted; manuja-kāyaiḥ—the bodies of men; pranayitām—love; vahadbhiḥ—who were bearing; giḥ-vāṇaiḥ—by the demigods; giriśa—Lord Śiva; parameṣṭhi—Lord Brahmā; prabhṛtibhiḥ—headed by; sva-bhaktebhyaḥ—unto His own devotees; śuddhām—pure; nija-bhajana—of His own worship; mudrām—the mark; upadiśan—instructing; saḥ—He; caitanyaḥ—Lord Caitanya; kim—what; me—my; punaḥ—again; api—certainly; drśoḥ—of the two eyes; yāsyati—He will go; padam—to the abode.
"Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is always the most worshipable Deity of the demigods, including Lord Śiva and Lord Brahmā, who came in the garb of ordinary men, bearing love for Him. He instructs His own pure devotional service to His own devotees. Will He again be the object of my vision?"
āṅgopāṅga astra kare sva-kārya-sādhana
'aṅga'-śabdera artha āra śuna diyā mana
āṅga-upāṅga—plenary parts and associates; astra—weapons; kare—do; sva-kārya—of their own business; sādhana—as the accomplishment; aṅga-śabdera—of the word aṅga; artha—the meaning; āra—another; śuna—please hear; diyā—giving; mana—the mind.
His plenary parts and associates perform the work of weapons as their own specific duties. Please hear from me another meaning of the word "aṅga."
'aṅga'-śabde aṁśa kahe śāstra-paramāṇa
aṅgera avayava 'upāṅga'-vyākhyāna
aṅga-śabde—by the word aṅga, or limb; aṁśa—part; kahe—says; śāstra—of the scriptures; paramāṇa—the evidence; aṅgera—of the limb; avayava—the constituent part; upāṅga-vyākhyāna—the exposition of the word upāṅga.
According to the evidence of the revealed scriptures, a bodily limb [aṅga] is also called a part [aṁśa], and a part of a limb is called a partial part [upāṅga].
nārāyaṇas tvaṁ na hi sarva-dehinām
nārāyaṇo 'ṅgaṁ nara-bhū-jalāyanāt
tac cāpi satyaṁ na tavaiva māyā
nārāyaṇaḥ—Lord Nārāyaṇa; tvam—You; na—not; hi—certainly; sarva—all; dehinām—of the embodied beings; ātmā—the Supersoul; asi—You are; adhīśa—O Lord; akhila-loka—of all the worlds; sākṣī—the witness; nārāyaṇaḥ—known as Nārāyaṇa; aṅgam—plenary portion; nara—of Nara; bhū—born; jala—in the water; ayanāt—due to the place of refuge; tat—that; ca—and; api—certainly; satyam—highest truth; na—not; tava—Your; eva—at all; māyā—the illusory energy.
"O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone's dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father, Nārāyaṇa? 'Nārāyaṇa' refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara [Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu], and that Nārāyaṇa is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are absolute and are not creations of māyā."
jala-śāyī antar-yāmī yei nārāyaṇa
seho tomāra aṁśa, tumi mūla nārāyaṇa
jala-śāyī—lying in the water; antaḥ-yāmī—indwelling Supersoul; yei—He who; nārāyaṇa—Lord Nārāyaṇa; seho—He; tomāra—Your; aṁśa—plenary portion; tumi—You; mūla—original; nārāyaṇa—Nārāyaṇa.
The manifestation of the Nārāyaṇa who predominates in everyone's heart, as well as the Nārāyaṇa who lives in the waters [Kāraṇa, Garbha and Kṣīra], is Your plenary portion. You are therefore the original Nārāyaṇa.
'aṅga'-śabde aṁśa kahe, seho satya haya
māyā-kārya nahe--saba cid-ānanda-maya
aṅga-śabde—by the word aṅga; aṁśa—plenary portion; kahe—one means; seho—that; satya—the truth; haya—is; māyā—of the material energy; kārya—the work; nahe—is not; saba—all; cit-ānanda-maya—full of knowledge and bliss.
The word "aṅga" indeed refers to plenary portions. Such manifestations should never be considered products of material nature, for they are all transcendental, full of knowledge and full of bliss.
In the material world, if a fragment is taken from an original object, the original object is reduced by the removal of that fragment. But the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not at all affected by the actions of māyā. The Īśopaniṣad says:
oṁ pūrṇam adaḥ pūrṇam idaṁ
pūrṇāt pūrṇam udacyate
pūrṇasya pūrṇam ādāya
"The Personality of Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete in itself. Because He is the complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance." (Śrī Īśopaniṣad, Invocation)
In the realm of the Absolute, one plus one equals one, and one minus one equals one. Therefore one should not conceive of a fragment of the Supreme Lord in the material sense. In the spiritual world there is no influence of the material energy or material calculations of fragments. In the Fifteenth Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā, the Lord says that the living entities are His parts and parcels. There are innumerable living entities throughout the material and spiritual universes, but still Lord Kṛṣṇa is full in Himself. To think that God has lost His personality because His many parts and parcels are distributed all over the universe is an illusion. That is a material calculation. Such calculations are possible only under the influence of the material energy, māyā. In the spiritual world the material energy is conspicuous only by its absence.
In the category of viṣṇu-tattva there is no loss of power from one expansion to the next, any more than there is a loss of illumination as one candle kindles another. Thousands may be kindled by an original candle, and all will have the same candle power. In this way it is to be understood that although all the viṣṇu-tattvas, from Kṛṣṇa and Lord Caitanya to Rāma, Nṛsiṁha, Varāha and so on, appear with different features in different ages, all are equally invested with supreme potency.
Demigods such as Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva come in contact with the material energy, and their power and potency are therefore of different gradations. All the incarnations of Viṣṇu, however, are equal in potency, for the influence of māyā cannot even approach Them.
advaita, nityānanda--caitanyera dui aṅga
aṅgera avayava-gaṇa kahiye upāṅga
advaita—Advaita Ācārya; nityānanda—Lord Nityānanda; caitanyera—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dui—two; aṅga—limbs; aṅgera—of the limbs; avayava-gaṇa—the constituent parts; kahiye—I say; upāṅga—parts.
Śrī Advaita Prabhu and Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu are both plenary portions of Lord Caitanya. Thus They are the limbs [aṅgas] of His body. The parts of these two limbs are called the upāṅgas.
aṅgopāṅga tīkṣṇa astra prabhura sahite
sei saba astra haya pāṣaṇḍa dalite
aṅga-upāṅga—plenary portions and parts; tīkṣṇa—sharp; astra—weapons; prabhura sahite—along with Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; sei—these; saba—all; astra—weapons; haya—are; pāṣaṇḍa—the atheists; dalite—to trample.
Thus the Lord is equipped with sharp weapons in the forms of His parts and plenary portions. All these weapons are competent enough to crush the faithless atheists.
The word pāṣaṇḍa is very significant here. One who compares the Supreme Personality of Godhead to the demigods is known as a pāṣaṇḍa. Pāṣaṇḍas try to bring the Supreme Lord down to a mundane level. Sometimes they create their own imaginary God or accept an ordinary person as God and advertise him as equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They are so foolish that they present someone as the next incarnation of Lord Caitanya or Kṛṣṇa although His activities are all contradictory to those of a genuine incarnation, and thus they fool the innocent public. One who is intelligent and who studies the characteristics of the Supreme Personality of Godhead with reference to the Vedic context cannot be bewildered by the pāṣaṇḍas.
Pāṣaṇḍas, or atheists, cannot understand the pastimes of the Supreme Lord or transcendental loving service to the Lord. They think that devotional service is no better than ordinary fruitive activities (karma). As the Bhagavad-gītā (4.8) confirms, however, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees, saving the righteous and chastising the miscreants (paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām), always curb these nonsensical atheists. Miscreants always want to deny the Supreme Personality of Godhead and put stumbling blocks in the path of devotional service. The Lord sends His bona fide representatives and appears Himself to curb this nonsense.
nityānanda gosāñi sākṣāt haladhara
advaita ācārya gosāñi sākṣāt īśvara
nityānanda gosāñi—Lord Nityānanda Gosāñi; sākṣāt—directly; hala-dhara—Lord Balarāma, the holder of the plow; advaita ācārya gosāñi—Śrī Advaita Ācārya Gosāñi; sākṣāt—directly; īśvara—the Personality of Godhead.
Śrī Nityānanda Gosāñi is directly Haladhara [Lord Balarāma], and Advaita Ācārya is the Personality of Godhead Himself.
śrīvāsādi pāriṣada sainya saṅge lañā
dui senā-pati bule kīrtana kariyā
śrīvāsa-ādi—Śrīvāsa and others; pāriṣada—associates; sainya—soldiers; saṅge—along with; lañā—taking; dui—two; senā-pati—captains; bule—travel; kīrtana kariyā—chanting the holy name.
These two captains, with Their soldiers such as Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura, travel everywhere, chanting the holy name of the Lord.
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana-vānā nityānanda rāya
ācārya-huṅkāre pāpa-pāṣaṇḍī palāya
pāṣaṇḍa-dalana—of trampling the atheists; vānā—having the feature; nityānanda—Lord Nityānanda; rāya—the honorable; ācārya—of Advaita Ācārya; huṅkāre—by the war cry; pāpa—sins; pāṣaṇḍī—and atheists; palāya—run away.
Lord Nityānanda's very features indicate that He is the subduer of the unbelievers. All sins and unbelievers flee from the loud shouts of Advaita Ācārya.
saṅkīrtana-yajñe tāṅre bhaje, sei dhanya
saṅkīrtana-pravartaka—the initiator of congregational chanting; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; saṅkīrtana—of congregational chanting; yajñe—by the sacrifice; tāṅre—Him; bhaje—worships; sei—he; dhanya—fortunate.
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya is the initiator of saṅkīrtana [congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord]. One who worships Him through saṅkīrtana is fortunate indeed.
sei ta' sumedhā, āra kubuddhi saṁsāra
sarva-yajña haite kṛṣṇa-nāma-yajña sāra
sei—he; ta'-certainly; su-medhā—intelligent; āra—others; ku-buddhi—poor understanding; saṁsāra—in the material world; sarva-yajña haite—than all other sacrifices; kṛṣṇa-nāma—of chanting the name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; yajña—the sacrifice; sāra—the best.
Such a person is truly intelligent, whereas others, who have but a poor fund of knowledge, must endure the cycle of repeated birth and death. Of all sacrificial performances, the chanting of the Lord's holy name is the most sublime.
Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the father and inaugurator of the saṅkīrtana movement. One who worships Him by sacrificing his life, money, intelligence and words for the saṅkīrtana movement is recognized by the Lord and endowed with His blessings. All others may be said to be foolish, for of all sacrifices in which a man may apply his energy, a sacrifice made for the saṅkīrtana movement is the most glorious.
koṭi aśvamedha eka kṛṣṇa nāma sama
yei kahe, se pāṣaṇḍī, daṇḍe tāre yama
koṭi—ten million; aśvamedha—horse sacrifices; eka—one; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; nāma—name; sama—equal to; yei—one who; kahe—says; se—he; pāṣaṇḍī—atheist; daṇḍe—punishes; tāre—him; yama—Yamarāja.
One who says that ten million aśvamedha sacrifices are equal to the chanting of the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa is undoubtedly an atheist. He is sure to be punished by Yamarāja.
In the list of the ten kinds of offenses in chanting the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hare Kṛṣṇa, the eighth offense is dharma-vrata-tyāga-hutādi-sarva-śubha-kriyā-sāmyam api pramādaḥ. One should never consider the chanting of the holy name of Godhead equal to pious activities like giving charity to brāhmaṇas or saintly persons, opening charitable educational institutions, distributing free food and so on. The results of pious activities do not equal the results of chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.
The Vedic scriptures say:
go-koṭi-dānaṁ grahaṇe khagasya
govinda-kīrter na samaṁ śatāṁśaiḥ
"Even if one distributes ten million cows in charity during an eclipse of the sun, lives at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamunā for millions of years, or gives a mountain of gold in sacrifice to the brāhmaṇas, he does not earn one hundredth part of the merit derived from chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa." In other words, one who accepts the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa to be some kind of pious activity is completely misled. Of course, it is pious; but the real fact is that Kṛṣṇa and His name, being transcendental, are far above all mundane pious activity. Pious activity is on the material platform, but chanting of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa is completely on the spiritual plane. Therefore, although pāsaṇḍīs do not understand this, pious activity can never compare to the chanting of the holy name.
e-śloka jīva-gosāñi kariyāchena vyākhyāne
bhāgavata-sandarbha-granthera—of the book called Bhāgavata-sandarbha; maṅgala-ācaraṇe—in the auspicious introduction; e-śloka—this verse; jīva-gosāñi—Jīva Gosvāmī; kariyāchena—has made; vyākhyāne—in explaining.
In the auspicious introduction of Bhāgavata-sandarbha, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī has given the following verse as an explanation.
antaḥ kṛṣṇaṁ bahir gauraṁ
kalau saṅkīrtanādyaiḥ sma
antaḥ—internally; kṛṣṇam—Lord Kṛṣṇa; bahiḥ—externally; gauram—fair-colored; darśita—displayed; aṅga—limbs; ādi—beginning with; vaibhavam—expansions; kalau—in the Age of Kali; saṅkīrtana-ādyaiḥ—by congregational chanting, etc.; sma—certainly; kṛṣṇa-caitanyam—unto Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; āśritāḥ—sheltered.
"I take shelter of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is outwardly of a fair complexion but is inwardly Kṛṣṇa Himself. In this Age of Kali He displays His expansions [His aṅgas and upāṅgas] by performing congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord."
Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī has placed the verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam quoted in text 52 (kṛṣṇa-varṇaṁ tviṣākṛṣṇam) as the auspicious introduction to his Bhāgavata-sandarbha, or Ṣaṭ-sandarbha. He has composed this text (81), which is, in effect, an explanation of the Bhāgavatam verse, as the second verse of the same work. The verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam was enunciated by Karabhājana, one of the nine great sages, and it is elaborately explained by the Sarva-saṁvādinī, Jīva Gosvāmī's commentary on his own Ṣaṭ-sandarbha.
Antaḥ kṛṣṇa refers to one who is always thinking of Kṛṣṇa. This attitude is a predominant feature of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. Even though many devotees always think of Kṛṣṇa, none can surpass the gopīs, among whom Rādhārāṇī is the leader in thinking of Kṛṣṇa. Rādhārāṇī's Kṛṣṇa consciousness surpasses that of all other devotees. Lord Caitanya accepted the position of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī to understand Kṛṣṇa; therefore He was always thinking of Kṛṣṇa in the same way as Rādhārāṇī. By thinking of Lord Kṛṣṇa, He always overlapped Kṛṣṇa.
Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, who was outwardly very fair, with a complexion like molten gold, simultaneously manifested His eternal associates, opulences, expansions and incarnations. He preached the process of chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, and those who are under His lotus feet are glorious.
upa-purāṇeha śuni śrī-kṛṣṇa-vacana
kṛpā kari vyāsa prati kariyāchena kathana
upa-purāṇeha—in the Upapurāṇas; śuni—we hear; śrī-kṛṣṇa-vacana—the words of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛpā kari—having mercy; vyāsa prati—toward Vyāsadeva; kariyāchena—He did; kathana—speaking.
In the Upapurāṇas we hear Śrī Kṛṣṇa showing His mercy to Vyāsadeva by speaking to him as follows.
aham eva kvacid brahman
kalau pāpa-hatān narān
aham—I; eva—certainly; kvacit—somewhere; brahman—O brāhmaṇa; sannyāsa-āśramam—the renounced order of life; āśritaḥ—taking recourse to; hari-bhaktim—devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; grāhayāmi—I shall give; kalau—in the Age of Kali; pāpa-hatān—sinful; narān—to men.
"O learned brāhmaṇa, sometimes I accept the renounced order of life to induce the fallen people of the Age of Kali to accept devotional service to the Lord."
bhāgavata, bhārata-śāstra, āgama, purāṇa
caitanya-kṛṣṇa-avatāre prakaṭa pramāṇa
bhāgavata-Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; bhārata-śāstra-Mahābhārata; āgama-works of Vedic literature; purāṇa-the Purāṇas; caitanya-as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛṣṇa-of Lord Kṛṣṇa; avatāre-in the incarnation; prakaṭa-displayed; pramāṇa-evidence.
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the Mahābhārata, the Purāṇas and other works of Vedic literature all give evidence to prove that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the incarnation of Kṛṣṇa.
pratyakṣe dekhaha nānā prakaṭa prabhāva
alaukika karma, alaukika anubhāva
pratyakṣe—directly; dekhaha—just see; nānā—various; prakaṭa—manifested; prabhāva—influence; alaukika—uncommon; karma—activities; alaukika—uncommon; anubhāva—realizations in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
One can also directly see Lord Caitanya's manifest influence in His uncommon deeds and uncommon Kṛṣṇa conscious realization.
dekhiyā nā dekhe yata abhaktera gaṇa
ulūke nā dekhe yena sūryera kiraṇa
dekhiyā—seeing; nā dekhe—they do not see; yata—all; abhaktera—of nondevotees; gaṇa—crowds; ulūke—the owl; nā dekhe—does not see; yena—just as; sūryera—of the sun; kiraṇa—rays.
But faithless unbelievers do not see what is clearly evident, just as owls do not see the rays of the sun.
tvāṁ śīla-rūpa-caritaiḥ parama-prakṛṣṭaiḥ
sattvena sāttvikatayā prabalaiś ca śāstraiḥ
prakhyāta-daiva-paramārtha-vidāṁ mataiś ca
naivāsura-prakṛtayaḥ prabhavanti boddhum
tvām—You; śīla—character; rūpa—forms; caritaiḥ—by acts; parama—most; prakṛṣṭaiḥ—eminent; sattvena—by uncommon power; sāttvikatayā—with the quality of predominant goodness; prabalaiḥ—great; ca—and; śāstraiḥ—by the scriptures; prakhyāta—renowned; daiva—divine; parama-artha-vidām—of those who know the highest goal; mataiḥ—by the opinions; ca—and; na—not; eva—certainly; āsura-prakṛtayaḥ—those whose disposition is demoniac; prabhavanti—are able; boddhum—to know.
"O my Lord, those influenced by demoniac principles cannot realize You, although You are clearly the Supreme by dint of Your exalted activities, forms, character and uncommon power, which are confirmed by all the revealed scriptures in the quality of goodness and the celebrated transcendentalists in the divine nature."
This is a verse from the Stotra-ratna (12) of Yāmunācārya, the spiritual master of Rāmānujācārya. The authentic scriptures describe the transcendental activities, features, form and qualities of Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa explains Himself in the Bhagavad-gītā, the most authentic scripture in the world. He is further explained in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, which is considered the explanation of the Vedānta-sūtra. Lord Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by these authentic scriptures, not simply by vox populi. In the modern age a certain class of fools think that they can vote anyone into the position of God, as they can vote a man into the position of a political executive head. But the transcendental Supreme Personality of Godhead is perfectly described in the authentic scriptures. In the Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says that only fools deride Him, thinking that anyone can speak like Kṛṣṇa.
Even according to historical references, Kṛṣṇa's activities are most uncommon. Kṛṣṇa has affirmed, "I am God," and He has acted accordingly. Māyāvādīs think that everyone can claim to be God, but that is their illusion, for no one else can perform such extraordinary activities as Kṛṣṇa. When He was a child on the lap of His mother, He killed the demon Pūtanā. Then He killed the demons Tṛṇāvarta, Vatsāsura and Baka. When He was a little more grown up, He killed the demons Aghāsura and Ṛṣabhāsura. Therefore God is God from the very beginning. The idea that someone can become God by meditation is ridiculous. By hard endeavor one may realize his godly nature, but he will never become God. The asuras, or demons, who think that anyone can become God, are condemned.
The authentic scriptures are compiled by personalities like Vyāsadeva, Nārada, Asita and Parāśara, who are not ordinary men. All the followers of the Vedic way of life have accepted these famous personalities, whose authentic scriptures conform to the Vedic literature. Nevertheless, the demoniac do not believe their statements, and they purposely oppose the Supreme Personality of Godhead and His devotees. Today it is fashionable for common men to write whimsical words as so-called incarnations of God and be accepted as authentic by other common men. This demoniac mentality is condemned in the Seventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā, wherein it is said that those who are miscreants and the lowest of mankind, who are fools and asses, cannot accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead because of their demoniac nature. They are compared to ulūkas, or owls, who cannot open their eyes in the sunlight. Because they cannot bear sunlight, they hide themselves from it and never see it. They cannot believe that there is such illumination.
āpanā lukāite kṛṣṇa nānā yatna kare
tathāpi tāṅhāra bhakta jānaye tāṅhāre
āpanā—Himself; lukāite—to hide; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; nānā—various; yatna—efforts; kare—makes; tathāpi—still; tāṅhāra—His; bhakta—devotees; jānaye—know; tāṅhāre—Him.
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa tries to hide Himself in various ways, but nevertheless His pure devotees know Him as He is.
sambhāvanaṁ tava parivraḍhima-svabhāvam
māyā-balena bhavatāpi niguhyamānaṁ
paśyanti kecid aniśaṁ tvad-ananya-bhāvāḥ
ullaṅghita—passed over; tri-vidha—three kinds; sīma—the limitations; sama—of equal; atiśāyi—and of excelling; sambhāvanam—by which the adequacy; tava—Your; parivraḍhima—of supremacy; svabhāvam—the real nature; māyā-balena—by the strength of the illusory energy; bhavatā—Your; api—although; niguhyamānam—being hidden; paśyanti—they see; kecit—some; aniśam—always; tvat—to You; ananya-bhāvāḥ—those who are exclusively devoted.
"O my Lord, everything within material nature is limited by time, space and thought. Your characteristics, however, being unequaled and unsurpassed, are always transcendental to such limitations. You sometimes cover such characteristics by Your own energy, but nevertheless Your unalloyed devotees are always able to see You under all circumstances."
This verse is also quoted from the Stotra-ratna (13) of Yāmunācārya. Everything covered by the influence of māyā is within the limited boundaries of space, time and thought. Even the greatest manifestation we can conceive, the sky, also has limitations. From the authentic scriptures, however, it is evident that beyond the sky is a covering of seven layers, each ten times thicker than the one preceding it. The covering layers are vast, but with or without coverings, space is limited. Our power to think about space and time is also limited. Time is eternal; we may imagine billions and trillions of years, but that will still be an inadequate estimate of the extent of time. Our imperfect senses, therefore, cannot think of the greatness of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, nor can we bring Him within the limitations of time or our thinking power. His position is accordingly described by the word ullaṅghita. He is transcendental to space, time and thought; although He appears within them, He exists transcendentally. Even when the Lord's transcendental existence is disguised by space, time and thought, however, pure devotees of the Supreme Lord can see Him in His personal features beyond space, time and thought. In other words, even though the Lord is not visible to the eyes of ordinary men, those who are beyond the covering layers because of their transcendental devotional service can still see Him.
The sun may appear covered by a cloud, but actually it is the eyes of the tiny people below the cloud that are covered, not the sun. If those tiny people rose above the cloud in an airplane, they could then see the sunshine and the sun without impediment. Similarly, although the covering of māyā is very strong, Lord Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.14):
daivī hy eṣā guṇa-mayī
mama māyā duratyayā
mām eva ye prapadyante
māyām etāṁ taranti te
"This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it." To surpass the influence of the illusory energy is very difficult, but those who are determined to catch hold of the lotus feet of the Lord are freed from the clutches of māyā. Therefore, pure devotees can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but demons, because of their miscreant behavior, cannot understand the Lord, in spite of seeing the many revealed scriptures and the uncommon activities of the Lord.
asura-svabhāve kṛṣṇe kabhu nāhi jāne
lukāite nāre kṛṣṇa bhakta-jana-sthāne
asura-svabhāve—those whose nature is demoniac; kṛṣṇe—Lord Kṛṣṇa; kabhu—at any time; nāhi—not; jāne—know; lukāite—to hide; nāre—is not able; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhakta-jana—of pure devotees; sthāne—in a place.
Those whose nature is demoniac cannot know Kṛṣṇa at any time, but He cannot hide Himself from His pure devotees.
dvau bhūta-sargau loke 'smin
daiva āsura eva ca
viṣṇu-bhaktaḥ smṛto daiva
dvau—two; bhūta—of the living beings; sargau—dispositions; loke—in the world; asmin—in this; daivaḥ—godly; āsuraḥ—demoniac; eva—certainly; ca—and; viṣṇu-bhaktaḥ—a devotee of Lord Viṣṇu; smṛtaḥ—remembered; daivaḥ—godly; āsuraḥ—demoniac; tat-viparyayaḥ—the opposite of that.
"There are two classes of men in the created world. One consists of the demoniac and the other of the godly. The devotees of Lord Viṣṇu are the godly, whereas those who are just the opposite are called demons."
This is a verse from the Padma Purāṇa. Viṣṇu-bhaktas, or devotees in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, are known as devas (demigods). Atheists, who do not believe in God or who declare themselves God, are asuras (demons). Asuras always engage in atheistic material activities, exploring ways to utilize the resources of matter to enjoy sense gratification. The viṣṇu-bhaktas, Kṛṣṇa conscious devotees, are also active, but their objective is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead by devotional service. Superficially both classes may appear to work in the same way, but their purposes are completely opposite because of a difference in consciousness. Asuras work for personal sense gratification, whereas devotees work for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord. Both work conscientiously, but their motives are different.
The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is meant for devas, or devotees. Demons cannot take part in Kṛṣṇa conscious activities, nor can devotees in Kṛṣṇa consciousness take part in demoniac activities or work like cats and dogs simply for sense gratification. Such activity does not appeal to those in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Devotees accept only the bare necessities of life to keep themselves fit to act in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The balance of their energy is used for developing Kṛṣṇa consciousness, through which one can be transferred to the abode of Kṛṣṇa by always thinking of Him, even at the point of death.
ācārya gosāñi prabhura bhakta-avatāra
kṛṣṇa-avatāra-hetu yāṅhāra huṅkāra
ācārya gosāñi—Advaita Ācārya Gosāñi; prabhura—of the Lord; bhakta-avatāra—incarnation of a devotee; kṛṣṇa—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; avatāra—of the incarnation; hetu—the cause; yāṅhāra—whose; huṅkāra—loud calls.
Advaita Ācārya Gosvāmī is an incarnation of the Lord as a devotee. His loud calling was the cause for Kṛṣṇa's incarnation.
kṛṣṇa yadi pṛthivīte karena avatāra
prathame karena guru-vargera sañcāra
kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; yadi—if; pṛthivīte—on the earth; karena—makes; avatāra—incarnation; prathame—first; karena—makes; guru-vargera—of the group of respectable predecessors; sañcāra—the advent.
Whenever Śrī Kṛṣṇa desires to manifest His incarnation on earth, first He creates the incarnations of His respectable predecessors.
pitā mātā guru ādi yata mānya-gaṇa
prathame karena sabāra pṛthivīte janama
pitā—father; mātā—mother; guru—spiritual master; ādi—headed by; yata—all; mānya-gaṇa—respectable members; prathame—first; karena—He makes; sabāra—of all of them; pṛthivīte—on earth; janama—the births.
Thus respectable personalities such as His father, mother and spiritual master all take birth on earth first.
mādhava-īśvara-purī, śacī, jagannātha
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