Chapter Ten
Divisions of the Creation
vidura uvāca
antarhite bhagavati
brahmā loka-pitāmahaḥ
prajāḥ sasarja katidhā
daihikīr mānasīr vibhuḥ
viduraḥ uvāca—Śrī Vidura said; antarhite—after the disappearance; bhagavati—of the Personality of Godhead; brahmā—the first created living being; loka-pitāmahaḥ—the grandfather of all planetary inhabitants; prajāḥ—generations; sasarja—created; katidhāḥ—how many; daihikīḥ—from his body; mānasīḥ—from his mind; vibhuḥ—the great.
Śrī Vidura said: O great sage, please let me know how Brahmā, the grandfather of the planetary inhabitants, created the bodies of the living entities from his own body and mind after the disappearance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
ye ca me bhagavan pṛṣṭās
tvayy arthā bahuvittama
tān vadasvānupūrvyeṇa
chindhi naḥ sarva-saṁśayān
ye—all those; ca—also; me—by me; bhagavan—O powerful one; pṛṣṭāḥ—inquired; tvayi—unto you; arthāḥ—purpose; bahu-vit-tama—O greatly learned one; tān—all of them; vadasva—kindly describe; ānupūrvyeṇa—from beginning to end; chindhi—kindly eradicate; naḥ—my; sarva—all; saṁśayān—doubts.
O greatly learned one, kindly eradicate all my doubts, and let me know of all that I have inquired from you from the beginning to the end.
Vidura asked all relevant questions of Maitreya because he knew well that Maitreya was the right person to reply to all the points of his inquiries. One must be confident about the qualifications of his teacher; one should not approach a layman for replies to specific spiritual inquiries. Such inquiries, when replied to with imaginative answers by the teacher, are a program for wasting time.
sūta uvāca
evaṁ sañcoditas tena
kṣattrā kauṣāravir muniḥ
prītaḥ pratyāha tān praśnān
hṛdi-sthān atha bhārgava
sūtaḥ uvāca—Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī said; evam—thus; sañcoditaḥ—being enlivened; tena—by him; kṣattrā—by Vidura; kauṣāraviḥ—the son of Kuṣāra; muniḥ—great sage; prītaḥ—being pleased; pratyāha—replied; tān—those; praśnān—questions; hṛdi-sthān—from the core of his heart; atha—thus; bhārgava—O son of Bhṛgu.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: O son of Bhṛgu, the great sage Maitreya Muni, thus hearing from Vidura, felt very much enlivened. Everything was in his heart, and thus he began to reply to the questions one after another.
The phrase sūta uvāca (“Sūta Gosvāmī said”) appears to indicate a break in the discourse between Mahārāja Parīkṣit and Śukadeva Gosvāmī. While Śukadeva Gosvāmī was speaking to Mahārāja Parīkṣit, Sūta Gosvāmī was only one member of a large audience. But Sūta Gosvāmī was speaking to the sages of Naimiṣāraṇya, headed by the sage Śaunaka, a descendant of Śukadeva Gosvāmī. This, however, does not make any substantial difference in the topics under discussion.
maitreya uvāca
viriñco ’pi tathā cakre
divyaṁ varṣa-śataṁ tapaḥ
ātmany ātmānam āveśya
yathāha bhagavān ajaḥ
maitreyaḥ uvāca—the great sage Maitreya said; viriñcaḥBrahmā; api—also; tathā—in that manner; cakre—performed; divyam—celestial; varṣa-śatam—one hundred years; tapaḥ—penances; ātmani—unto the Lord; ātmānam—his own self; āveśya—engaging; yathā āha—as it was spoken; bhagavān—the Personality of Godhead; ajaḥ—the unborn.
The greatly learned sage Maitreya said: O Vidura, Brahmā thus engaged himself in penances for one hundred celestial years, as advised by the Personality of Godhead, and applied himself in devotional service to the Lord.
That Brahmā engaged himself for the Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, means that he engaged himself in the service of the Lord; that is the highest penance one can perform for any number of years. There is no retirement from such service, which is eternal and ever encouraging.
tad vilokyābja-sambhūto
vāyunā yad-adhiṣṭhitaḥ
padmam ambhaś ca tat-kāla-
kṛta-vīryeṇa kampitam
tat vilokya—looking into that; abja-sambhūtaḥ—whose source of birth was a lotus; vāyunā—by the air; yat—that; adhiṣṭhitaḥ—on which he was situated; padmam—lotus; ambhaḥ—water; ca—also; tat-kāla-kṛta—which was effected by eternal time; vīryeṇa—by its inherent force; kampitam—trembling.
Thereafter Brahmā saw that both the lotus on which he was situated and the water on which the lotus was growing were trembling due to a strong, violent wind.
The material world is called illusory because it is a place of forgetfulness of the transcendental service of the Lord. Thus one engaged in the the Lord’s devotional service in the material world may sometimes be very much disturbed by awkward circumstances. There is a declaration of war between the two parties, the illusory energy and the devotee, and sometimes the weak devotees fall victim to the onslaught of the powerful illusory energy. Lord Brahmā, however, was sufficiently strong, by the causeless mercy of the Lord, and he could not be victimized by the material energy, although it gave him cause for anxiety when it managed to totter the existence of his position.
tapasā hy edhamānena
vidyayā cātma-saṁsthayā
nyapād vāyuṁ sahāmbhasā
tapasā—by penance; hi—certainly; edhamānena—increasing; vidyayā—by transcendental knowledge; ca—also; ātma—self; saṁsthayā—situated in the self; vivṛddha—matured; vijñāna—practical knowledge; balaḥ—power; nyapāt—drank; vāyum—the wind; saha ambhasā—along with the water.
Long penance and transcendental knowledge of self-realization had matured Brahmā in practical knowledge, and thus he drank the wind completely, along with the water.
Lord Brahmā’s struggle for existence is a personal example of the continued fight between the living entities in the material world and the illusory energy called māyā. Beginning from Brahmā down to this age, the living entities are struggling with the forces of material nature. By advanced knowledge in science and transcendental realization, one can try to control the material energy, which works against our endeavors, and in the modern age advanced material scientific knowledge and penance have played very wonderful roles in controlling the powers of the material energy. Such control of the material energy, however, can be most successfully carried out if one is a soul surrendered unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead and carries out His order in the spirit of loving transcendental service.
tad vilokya viyad-vyāpi
puṣkaraṁ yad-adhiṣṭhitam
anena lokān prāg-līnān
kalpitāsmīty acintayat
tat vilokya—looking into that; viyat-vyāpi—extensively widespread; puṣkaram—the lotus; yat—that which; adhiṣṭhitam—he was situated; anena—by this; lokān—all the planets; prāk-līnān—previously merged in dissolution; kalpitā asmi—I shall create; iti—thus; acintayat—he thought.
Thereafter he saw that the lotus on which he was situated was spread throughout the universe, and he contemplated how to create all the planets, which were previously merged in that very same lotus.
The seeds of all the planets in the universe were impregnated in the lotus on which Brahmā was situated. All the planets were already generated by the Lord, and all the living entities were also born in Brahmā. The material world and the living entities were all already generated in seedling forms by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Brahmā was to disseminate the same seedlings all over the universe. The real creation is therefore called sarga, and, later on, the manifestation by Brahmā is called visarga.
padma-kośaṁ tadāviśya
ekaṁ vyabhāṅkṣīd urudhā
tridhā bhāvyaṁ dvi-saptadhā
padma-kośam—the whorl of the lotus; tadā—then; āviśya—entering into; bhagavat—by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; karma—in activities; coditaḥ—being encouraged by; ekam—one; vyabhāṅkṣīt—divided into; urudhā—great division; tridhā—three divisions; bhāvyam—capable of further creation; dvi-saptadhā—fourteen divisions.
Thus engaged in the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Brahmā entered into the whorl of the lotus, and as it spread all over the universe he divided it into three divisions of worlds and later into fourteen divisions.
etāvāñ jīva-lokasya
saṁsthā-bhedaḥ samāhṛtaḥ
dharmasya hy animittasya
vipākaḥ parameṣṭhy asau
etāvān—up to this; jīva-lokasya—of the planets inhabited by the living entities; saṁsthā-bhedaḥ—different situations of habitation; samāhṛtaḥ—performed completely; dharmasya—of religion; hi—certainly; animittasya—of causelessness; vipākaḥ—mature stage; parameṣṭhī—the highest personality in the universe; asau—that.
Lord Brahmā is the most exalted personality in the universe because of his causeless devotional service unto the Lord in mature transcendental knowledge. He therefore created all the fourteen planetary divisions for inhabitation by the different types of living entities.
The Supreme Lord is the reservoir of all the qualities of the living entities. The conditioned souls in the material world reflect only part of those qualities, and therefore they are sometimes called pratibimbas. These pratibimba living entities, as parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, have inherited different proportions of His original qualities, and in terms of their inheritance of these qualities, they appear as different species of life and are accommodated in different planets according to the plan of Brahmā. Brahmā is the creator of the three worlds, namely the lower planets, called the Pātālalokas, the middle planets, called the Bhūrlokas, and the upper planets, called the Svarlokas. Still higher planets, such as Maharloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka and Brahmaloka, do not dissolve in the devastating water. This is because of the causeless devotional service rendered unto the Lord by their inhabitants, whose existence continues up to the end of dvi-parārdha time, when they are generally liberated from the chain of birth and death in the material world.
vidura uvāca
yathāttha bahu-rūpasya
harer adbhuta-karmaṇaḥ
kālākhyaṁ lakṣaṇaṁ brahman
yathā varṇaya naḥ prabho
viduraḥ uvācaVidura said; yathā—as; āttha—you have said; bahu-rūpasya—having varieties of forms; hareḥ—of the Lord; adbhuta—wonderful; karmaṇaḥ—of the actor; kāla—time; ākhyam—of the name; lakṣaṇam—symptoms; brahman—O learned brāhmaṇa; yathā—as it is; varṇaya—please describe; naḥ—unto us; prabho—O lord.
Vidura inquired from Maitreya: O my lord, O greatly learned sage, kindly describe eternal time, which is another form of the Supreme Lord, the wonderful actor. What are the symptoms of that eternal time? Please describe them to us in detail.
The complete universe is a manifestation of varieties of entities, beginning from the atoms up to the gigantic universe itself, and all is under the control of the Supreme Lord in His form of kāla, or eternal time. The controlling time has different dimensions in relation to particular physical embodiments. There is a time for atomic dissolution and a time for the universal dissolution. There is a time for the annihilation of the body of the human being, and there is a time for the annihilation of the universal body. Also, growth, development and resultant actions all depend on the time factor. Vidura wanted to know in detail the different physical manifestations and their times of annihilation.
maitreya uvāca
nirviśeṣo ’pratiṣṭhitaḥ
puruṣas tad-upādānam
ātmānaṁ līlayāsṛjat
maitreyaḥ uvāca—Maitreya said; guṇa-vyatikara—of the interactions of the modes of material nature; ākāraḥ—source; nirviśeṣaḥ—without diversity; apratiṣṭhitaḥ—unlimited; puruṣaḥ—of the Supreme Person; tat—that; upādānam—instrument; ātmānam—the material creation; līlayā—by pastimes; asṛjat—created.
Maitreya said: Eternal time is the primeval source of the interactions of the three modes of material nature. It is unchangeable and limitless, and it works as the instrument of the Supreme Personality of Godhead for His pastimes in the material creation.
The impersonal time factor is the background of the material manifestation as the instrument of the Supreme Lord. It is the ingredient of assistance offered to material nature. No one knows where time began and where it ends, and it is time only which can keep a record of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the material manifestation. This time factor is the material cause of creation and is therefore a self expansion of the Personality of Godhead. Time is considered the impersonal feature of the Lord.
The time factor is also explained by modern men in various ways. Some accept it almost as it is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. For example, in Hebrew literature time is accepted, in the same spirit, as a representation of God. It is stated therein: “God, who at sundry times and in diverse manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets....” Metaphysically, time is distinguished as absolute and real. Absolute time is continuous and is unaffected by the speed or slowness of material things. Time is astronomically and mathematically calculated in relation to the speed, change and life of a particular object. Factually, however, time has nothing to do with the relativities of things; rather, everything is shaped and calculated in terms of the facility offered by time. Time is the basic measurement of the activity of our senses, by which we calculate past, present and future; but in factual calculation, time has no beginning and no end. Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says that even a slight fraction of time cannot be purchased with millions of dollars, and therefore even a moment of time lost without profit must be calculated as the greatest loss in life. Time is not subject to any form of psychology, nor are the moments objective realities in themselves, but they are dependent on particular experiences.
Therefore, Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī concludes that the time factor is intermixed with the activities—actions and reactions—of the external energy of the Lord. The external energy, or material nature, works under the superintendence of the time factor as the Lord Himself, and that is why material nature appears to have produced so many wonderful things in the cosmic manifestation. Bhagavad-gītā (9.10) confirms this conclusion as follows:
mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ
sūyate sa-carācaram
hetunānena kaunteya
jagad viparivartate
viśvaṁ vai brahma-tan-mātraṁ
saṁsthitaṁ viṣṇu-māyayā
īśvareṇa paricchinnaṁ
viśvam—the material phenomenon; vai—certainly; brahma—the Supreme; tat-mātram—the same as; saṁsthitam—situated; viṣṇu-māyayā—by the energy of Viṣṇu; īśvareṇa—by the Personality of Godhead; paricchinnam—separated; kālena—by the eternal time; avyakta—unmanifested; mūrtinā—by such a feature.
This cosmic manifestation is separated from the Supreme Lord as material energy by means of kāla, which is the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Lord. It is situated as the objective manifestation of the Lord under the influence of the same material energy of Viṣṇu.
As stated previously by Nārada before Vyāsadeva (Bhāg. 1.5.20), idaṁ hi viśvaṁ bhagavān ivetaraḥ: this unmanifested world is the self-same Personality of Godhead, but it appears to be something else beyond or besides the Lord. It appears so because of its being separated from the Lord by means of kāla. It is something like the tape-recorded voice of a person who is now separated from the voice. As the tape recording is situated on the tape, so the whole cosmic manifestation is situated on the material energy and appears separate by means of kāla. The material manifestation is therefore the objective manifestation of the Supreme Lord and exhibits His impersonal feature so much adored by impersonalist philosophers.
yathedānīṁ tathāgre ca
paścād apy etad īdṛśam
yathā—as it is; idānīm—at present; tathā—so it was; agre—in the beginning; ca—and; paścāt—at the end; api—also; etat īdṛśam—it continues to be the same.
This cosmic manifestation is as it is now, it was the same in the past, and it will continue in the same way in the future.
There is a systematic schedule for the perpetual manifestation, maintenance and annihilation of the material world, as stated in Bhagavad-gītā (9.8): bhūta-grāmam imaṁ kṛtsnam avaśaṁ prakṛter vaśāt. As it is created now and as it will be destroyed later on, so also it existed in the past and again will be created, maintained and destroyed in due course of time. Therefore, the systematic activities of the time factor are perpetual and eternal and cannot be stated to be false. The manifestation is temporary and occasional, but it is not false as claimed by the Māyāvādī philosophers.
sargo nava-vidhas tasya
prākṛto vaikṛtas tu yaḥ
kāla-dravya-guṇair asya
tri-vidhaḥ pratisaṅkramaḥ
sargaḥ—creation; nava-vidhaḥ—of nine different kinds; tasya—its; prākṛtaḥ—material; vaikṛtaḥ—by the modes of material nature; tu—but; yaḥ—that which; kāla—eternal time; dravya—matter; guṇaiḥ—qualities; asya—its; tri-vidhaḥ—three kinds; pratisaṅkramaḥ—annihilation.
There are nine different kinds of creations besides the one which naturally occurs due to the interactions of the modes. There are three kinds of annihilations due to eternal time, the material elements and the quality of one’s work.
The scheduled creations and annihilations take place in terms of the supreme will. There are other creations due to interactions of material elements which take place by the intelligence of Brahmā. Later these will be more explicitly explained. At present, only preliminary information is given. The three kinds of annihilations are (1) due to the scheduled time of the annihilation of the entire universe, (2) due to a fire which emanates from the mouth of Ananta, and (3) due to one’s qualitative actions and reactions.
ādyas tu mahataḥ sargo
guṇa-vaiṣamyam ātmanaḥ
dvitīyas tv ahamo yatra
ādyaḥ—the first; tu—but; mahataḥ—of the total emanation from the Lord; sargaḥ—creation; guṇa-vaiṣamyam—interaction of the material modes; ātmanaḥ—of the Supreme; dvitīyaḥ—the second; tu—but; ahamaḥ—false ego; yatra—wherein; dravya—material ingredients; jñāna—material knowledge; kriyā-udayaḥ—awakening of activities (work).
Of the nine creations, the first one is the creation of the mahat-tattva, or the sum total of the material ingredients, wherein the modes interact due to the presence of the Supreme Lord. In the second, the false ego is generated in which the material ingredients, material knowledge and material activities arise.
The first emanation from the Supreme Lord for material creation is called the mahat-tattva. The interaction of the material modes is the cause of false identification, or the sense that a living being is made of material elements. This false ego is the cause of identifying the body and mind with the soul proper. Material resources and the capacity and knowledge to work are all generated in the second term of creation, after the mahat-tattva. Jñāna indicates the senses which are sources of knowledge, and their controlling deities. Work entails the working organs and their controlling deities. All these are generated in the second creation.
bhūta-sargas tṛtīyas tu
tan-mātro dravya-śaktimān
caturtha aindriyaḥ sargo
yas tu jñāna-kriyātmakaḥ
bhūta-sargaḥ—creation of matter; tṛtīyaḥ—is the third; tu—but; tat-mātraḥ—sense perception; dravya—of the elements; śaktimān—generator; caturthaḥ—the fourth; aindriyaḥ—in the matter of the senses; sargaḥ—creation; yaḥ—that which; tu—but; jñāna—knowledge-acquiring; kriyā—working; ātmakaḥ—basically.
The sense perceptions are created in the third creation, and from these the elements are generated. The fourth creation is the creation of knowledge and of working capacity.
vaikāriko deva-sargaḥ
pañcamo yan-mayaṁ manaḥ
ṣaṣṭhas tu tamasaḥ sargo
yas tv abuddhi-kṛtaḥ prabhoḥ
vaikārikaḥ—interaction of the mode of goodness; deva—the demigods, or controlling deities; sargaḥ—creation; pañcamaḥ—fifth; yat—that which; mayam—sum total; manaḥ—mind; ṣaṣṭhaḥ—sixth; tu—but; tamasaḥ—of darkness; sargaḥ—creation; yaḥ—that which; tu—expletive; abuddhi-kṛtaḥ—made foolish; prabhoḥ—of the master.
The fifth creation is that of the controlling deities by the interaction of the mode of goodness, of which the mind is the sum total. The sixth creation is the ignorant darkness of the living entity, by which the master acts as a fool.
The demigods in the higher planets are called devas because they are all devotees of Lord Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu-bhaktaḥ smṛto daiva āsuras tad-viparyayaḥ: all the devotees of Lord Viṣṇu are devas, or demigods, whereas all others are asuras. That is the division of the devas and the asuras. Devas are situated in the mode of goodness of material nature, whereas the asuras are situated in the modes of passion or ignorance. The demigods, or controlling deities, are entrusted with departmental management of all the different functions of the material world. For example, one of our sense organs, the eye, is controlled by light, light is distributed by the sun rays, and their controlling deity is the sun. Similarly, mind is controlled by the moon. All other senses, both for working and for acquiring knowledge, are controlled by the different demigods. The demigods are assistants of the Lord in the management of material affairs.
After the creation of the demigods, all entities are covered by the darkness of ignorance. Each and every living being in the material world is conditioned by his mentality of lording it over the resources of material nature. Although a living entity is the master of the material world, he is conditioned by ignorance, by the false impression of being the proprietor of material things.
The energy of the Lord called avidyā is the bewildering factor of the conditioned souls. The material nature is called avidyā, or ignorance, but to the devotees of the Lord engaged in pure devotional service, this energy becomes vidyā, or pure knowledge. This is confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā. The energy of the Lord transforms from mahāmāyā to yogamāyā and appears to pure devotees in her real feature. The material nature therefore appears to function in three phases: as the creative principle of the material world, as ignorance and as knowledge. As disclosed in the previous verse, in the fourth creation the power of knowledge is also created. The conditioned souls are not originally fools, but by the influence of the avidyā function of material nature they are made fools, and thus they are unable to utilize knowledge in the proper channel.
By the influence of darkness, the conditioned soul forgets his relationship with the Supreme Lord and is overwhelmed by attachment, hatred, pride, ignorance and false identification, the five kinds of illusion that cause material bondage.
ṣaḍ ime prākṛtāḥ sargā
vaikṛtān api me śṛṇu
rajo-bhājo bhagavato
līleyaṁ hari-medhasaḥ
ṣaṭ—six; ime—all these; prākṛtāḥ—of the material energy; sargāḥ—creations; vaikṛtān—secondary creations by Brahmā; api—also; me—from me; śṛṇu—just hear; rajaḥ-bhājaḥ—of the incarnation of the mode of passion (Brahmā); bhagavataḥ—of the greatly powerful; līlā—pastime; iyam—this; hari—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; medhasaḥ—of one who has such a brain.
All the above are natural creations by the external energy of the Lord. Now hear from me about the creations by Brahmā, who is an incarnation of the mode of passion and who, in the matter of creation, has a brain like that of the Personality of Godhead.
saptamo mukhya-sargas tu
ṣaḍ-vidhas tasthuṣāṁ ca yaḥ
tvaksārā vīrudho drumāḥ
saptamaḥ—the seventh; mukhya—principle; sargaḥ—creation; tu—indeed; ṣaṭ-vidhaḥ—six kinds of; tasthuṣām—of those who do not move; ca—also; yaḥ—those; vanaspati—fruit trees without flowers; oṣadhi—trees and plants existing until the fruit is ripe; latā—creepers; tvaksārāḥ—pipe plants; vīrudhaḥ—creepers without support; drumāḥ—trees with flowers and fruits.
The seventh creation is that of the immovable entities, which are of six kinds: the fruit trees without flowers, trees and plants which exist until the fruit is ripe, creepers, pipe plants, creepers which have no support, and trees with flowers and fruits.
utsrotasas tamaḥ-prāyā
antaḥ-sparśā viśeṣiṇaḥ
utsrotasaḥ—they seek their subsistence upwards; tamaḥ-prāyāḥ—almost unconscious; antaḥ-sparśāḥ—slightly feeling within; viśeṣiṇaḥ—with varieties of manifestation.
All the immovable trees and plants seek their subsistence upwards. They are almost unconscious but have feelings of pain within. They are manifested in variegatedness.
tiraścām aṣṭamaḥ sargaḥ
so ’ṣṭāviṁśad-vidho mataḥ
avido bhūri-tamaso
ghrāṇa-jñā hṛdy avedinaḥ
tiraścām—species of lower animals; aṣṭamaḥ—the eighth; sargaḥ—creation; saḥ—they are; aṣṭāviṁśat—twenty-eight; vidhaḥ—varieties; mataḥ—considered; avidaḥ—without knowledge of tomorrow; bhūri—extensively; tamasaḥ—ignorant; ghrāṇa-jñāḥ—can know desirables by smell; hṛdi avedinaḥ—can remember very little in the heart.
The eighth creation is that of the lower species of life, and they are of different varieties, numbering twenty-eight. They are all extensively foolish and ignorant. They know their desirables by smell, but are unable to remember anything within the heart.
In the Vedas the symptoms of the lower animals are described as follows: athetareṣāṁ paśūnāḥ aśanāpipāse evābhivijñānaṁ na vijñātaṁ vadanti na vijñātaṁ paśyanti na viduḥ śvastanaṁ na lokālokāv iti; yad , bhūri-tamaso bahu-ruṣaḥ ghrāṇenaiva jānanti hṛdyaṁ prati svapriyaṁ vastv eva vindanti bhojana-śayanādy-arthaṁ gṛhṇanti. “Lower animals have knowledge only of their hunger and thirst. They have no acquired knowledge, no vision. Their behavior exhibits no dependence on formalities. Extensively ignorant, they can know their desirables only by smell, and by such intelligence only can they understand what is favorable and unfavorable. Their knowledge is concerned only with eating and sleeping.” Therefore, even the most ferocious lower animals, such as tigers, can be tamed simply by regularly supplying meals and accommodations for sleeping. Only snakes cannot be tamed by such an arrangement.
gaur ajo mahiṣaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
sūkaro gavayo ruruḥ
dvi-śaphāḥ paśavaś ceme
avir uṣṭraś ca sattama
gauḥ—the cow; ajaḥ—the goat; mahiṣaḥ—the buffalo; kṛṣṇaḥ—a kind of stag; sūkaraḥ—hog; gavayaḥ—a species of animal; ruruḥ—deer; dvi-śaphāḥ—having two hooves; paśavaḥ—animals; ca—also; ime—all these; aviḥ—lamb; uṣṭraḥ—camel; ca—and; sattama—O purest.
O purest Vidura, of the lower animals the cow, goat, buffalo, kṛṣṇa stag, hog, gavaya animal, deer, lamb and camel all have two hooves.
kharo ’śvo ’śvataro gauraḥ
śarabhaś camarī tathā
ete caika-śaphāḥ kṣattaḥ
śṛṇu pañca-nakhān paśūn
kharaḥ—ass; aśvaḥ—horse; aśvataraḥmule; gauraḥ—white deer; śarabhaḥ—bison; camarī—wild cow; tathā—thus; ete—all these; ca—and; eka—only one; śaphāḥ—hoof; kṣattaḥ—O Vidura; śṛṇu—just hear now; pañca—five; nakhān—nails; paśūn—animals.
The horse, mule, ass, gaura, śarabha bison and wild cow all have only one hoof. Now you may hear from me about the animals who have five nails.
śvā sṛgālo vṛko vyāghro
mārjāraḥ śaśa-śallakau
siṁhaḥ kapir gajaḥ kūrmo
godhā ca makarādayaḥ
śvā—dog; sṛgālaḥ—jackal; vṛkaḥ—fox; vyāghraḥ—tiger; mārjāraḥ—cat; śaśa—rabbit; śallakausajāru (with thorns on the body); siṁhaḥ—lion; kapiḥ—monkey; gajaḥ—elephant; kūrmaḥ—tortoise; godhāgosāpa (snake with four legs); ca—also; makara-ādayaḥ—the alligator and others.
The dog, jackal, tiger, fox, cat, rabbit, sajāru, lion, monkey, elephant, tortoise, alligator, gosāpa, etc., all have five nails in their claws. They are known as pañca-nakhas, or animals having five nails.
kākolūkādayaḥ khagāḥ
kaṅka—heron; gṛdhra—vulture; baka—crane; śyena—hawk; bhāsa—the bhāsa; bhallūka—the bhallūka; barhiṇaḥ—the peacock; haṁsa—swan; sārasa—the sārasa; cakrāhva—the cakravāka; kāka—crow; ulūka—owl; ādayaḥ—and others; khagāḥ—the birds.
The heron, vulture, crane, hawk, bhāsa, bhallūka, peacock, swan, sārasa, cakravāka, crow, owl and others are the birds.
arvāk-srotas tu navamaḥ
kṣattar eka-vidho nṛṇām
rajo ’dhikāḥ karma-parā
duḥkhe ca sukha-māninaḥ
arvāk—downwards; srotaḥ—passage of food; tu—but; navamaḥ—the ninth; kṣattaḥ—O Vidura; eka-vidhaḥ—one species; nṛṇām—of human beings; rajaḥ—the mode of passion; adhikāḥ—very prominent; karma-parāḥ—interested in working; duḥkhe—in misery; ca—but; sukha—happiness; māninaḥ—thinking.
The creation of the human beings, who are of one species only and who stock their eatables in the belly, is the ninth in the rotation. In the human race, the mode of passion is very prominent. Humans are always busy in the midst of miserable life, but they think themselves happy in all respects.
The human being is more passionate than the animals, and thus the sex life of the human being is more irregular. The animals have their due time for sexual intercourse, but the human being has no regular time for such activities. The human being is endowed with a higher, advanced stage of consciousness for getting relief from the existence of material miseries, but due to his ignorance he thinks that his higher consciousness is meant for advancing in the material comforts of life. Thus his intelligence is misused in the animal propensities—eating, sleeping, defending and mating—instead of spiritual realization. By advancing in material comforts the human being puts himself into a more miserable condition, but, illusioned by the material energy, he always thinks himself happy, even while in the midst of misery. Such misery of human life is distinct from the natural comfortable life enjoyed even by the animals.
vaikṛtās traya evaite
deva-sargaś ca sattama
vaikārikas tu yaḥ proktaḥ
kaumāras tūbhayātmakaḥ
vaikṛtāḥ—creations of Brahmā; trayaḥ—three kinds; eva—certainly; ete—all these; deva-sargaḥ—appearance of the demigods; ca—also; sattama—O good Vidura; vaikārikaḥ—creation of demigods by nature; tu—but; yaḥ—which; proktaḥ—described before; kaumāraḥ—the four Kumāras; tu—but; ubhaya-ātmakaḥ—both ways (namely vaikṛta and prākṛta).
O good Vidura, these last three creations and the creation of demigods (the tenth creation) are vaikṛta creations, which are different from the previously described prākṛta (natural) creations. The appearance of the Kumāras is both.
TEXTS 28–29
deva-sargaś cāṣṭa-vidho
vibudhāḥ pitaro ’surāḥ
gandharvāpsarasaḥ siddhā
yakṣa-rakṣāṁsi cāraṇāḥ
bhūta-preta-piśācāś ca
vidyādhrāḥ kinnarādayaḥ
daśaite vidurākhyātāḥ
sargās te viśva-sṛk-kṛtāḥ
deva-sargaḥ—creation of the demigods; ca—also; aṣṭa-vidhaḥ—eight kinds; vibudhāḥ—the demigods; pitaraḥ—the forefathers; asurāḥ—the demons; gandharva—the expert artisans in the higher planets; apsarasaḥ—the angels; siddhāḥ—persons who are perfect in mystic powers; yakṣa—the superprotectors; rakṣāṁsi—giants; cāraṇāḥ—the celestial singers; bhūta—jinn; preta—evil spirits; piśācāḥ—attendant spirits; ca—also; vidyādhrāḥ—the celestial denizens named Vidyādharas; kinnara—superhuman beings; ādayaḥ—and others; daśa ete—all these ten (creations); vidura—O Vidura; ākhyātāḥ—described; sargāḥ—creations; te—unto you; viśva-sṛk—the creator of the universe (Brahmā); kṛtāḥ—done by him.
The creation of the demigods is of eight varieties: (1) the demigods, (2) the forefathers, (3) the asuras, or demons, (4) the Gandharvas and Apsarās, or angels, (5) the Yakṣas and Rākṣasas, (6) the Siddhas, Cāraṇas and Vidyādharas, (7) the Bhūtas, Pretas and Piśācas, and (8) the superhuman beings, celestial singers, etc. All are created by Brahmā, the creator of the universe.
As explained in the Second Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the Siddhas are inhabitants of Siddhaloka, where the residents travel in space without vehicles. At their mere will they can pass from one planet to another without difficulty. Therefore, in the upper planets the inhabitants are far superior to the inhabitants of this planet in all matters of art, culture and science, since they possess brains superior to those of human beings. The spirits and jinn mentioned in this connection are also counted among the demigods because they are able to perform uncommon functions not possible for men.
ataḥ paraṁ pravakṣyāmi
vaṁśān manvantarāṇi ca
evaṁ rajaḥ-plutaḥ sraṣṭā
kalpādiṣv ātmabhūr hariḥ
sṛjaty amogha-saṅkalpa
ātmaivātmānam ātmanā
ataḥ—here; param—after; pravakṣyāmi—I shall explain; vaṁśān—descendants; manvantarāṇi—different advents of Manus; ca—and; evam—thus; rajaḥ-plutaḥ—infused with the mode of passion; sraṣṭā—the creator; kalpa-ādiṣu—in different millenniums; ātma-bhūḥ—self-advent; hariḥ—the Personality of Godhead; sṛjati—creates; amogha—unfailing; saṅkalpaḥ—determination; ātmā eva—He Himself; ātmānam—Himself; ātmanā—by His own energy.
Now I shall describe the descendants of the Manus. The creator, Brahmā, as the incarnation of the passion mode of the Personality of Godhead, creates the universal affairs with unfailing desires in every millennium by the force of the Lord’s energy.
The cosmic manifestation is an expansion of one of the many energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the creator and the created are both emanations of the same Supreme Truth, as stated in the beginning of the Bhāgavatam: janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1].
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Third Canto, Tenth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “Divisions of the Creation.”

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