tirascam astamah sargah
so stavimsad-vidho matah
avido bhuri-tamaso
ghrana-jna hrdy avedinah
tirascamspecies of lower animals; astamahthe eighth; sargahcreation; sahthey are; astavimsattwenty-eight; vidhahvarieties; matahconsidered; avidahwithout knowledge of tomorrow; bhuriextensively; tamasahignorant; ghrana-jnahcan know desirables by smell; hrdi avedinahcan remember very little in the heart.
The eighth creation is that of the lower species of life, and they are of different varieties, numbering twenty-eight. They are all extensively foolish and ignorant. They know their desirables by smell, but are unable to remember anything within the heart.
In the Vedas the symptoms of the lower animals are described as follows: athetaresam pasunah asanapipase evabhivijnanam na vijnatam vadanti na vijnatam pasyanti na viduh svastanam na lokalokav iti; yad va, bhuri-tamaso bahu-rusah ghranenaiva jananti hrdyam prati svapriyam vastv eva vindanti bhojana-sayanady-artham grhnanti. Lower animals have knowledge only of their hunger and thirst. They have no acquired knowledge, no vision. Their behavior exhibits no dependence on formalities. Extensively ignorant, they can know their desirables only by smell, and by such intelligence only can they understand what is favorable and unfavorable. Their knowledge is concerned only with eating and sleeping. Therefore, even the most ferocious lower animals, such as tigers, can be tamed simply by regularly supplying meals and accommodations for sleeping. Only snakes cannot be tamed by such an arrangement.

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