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Bhagavad-gita 13.1-2

Paris, August 10, 1973
"Arjuna said: O my dear Krsna, I wish to know about prakrti (nature), purusa (the enjoyer), and the field and the knower of the field, and of knowledge and the end of knowledge. The Blessed Lord then said: This body, O son of Kunti, is called the field, and one who knows this body is called the knower of the field."
This is the special prerogative of human being, that he can understand the nature, this cosmic manifestation, and the enjoyer of the nature, and he can be fully conversant about what is the object of knowledge, jneyam.
There are three things, jneyam, jnata, and jnana. The object of knowledge, the knower is called jnata, and the object of knowledge is called jneyam. And the process by which one can understand, that is called jnana, knowledge. As soon as we speak of knowledge, there must be three things: the object of knowledge, the person who is trying to know and the process by which the object of knowledge is achieved.
So some of them... Just like the materialist scientists, they are simply trying to know the prakrti. But they do not know the purusa. Prakrti means the enjoyed, and purusa means the enjoyer. Actually enjoyer is Krsna. He's the original purusa. That will be admitted by Arjuna: purusam sasvatam. "You are the original enjoyer, purusam." Krsna is the enjoyer, and every one of us, the living entities, and the prakrti, nature, everything, is to be enjoyed by Krsna. That is Krsna's... Another purusa, we living entities. We are not purusa. We are also prakrti. We are to be enjoyed. But in this material condition, we are trying to be purusa, enjoyer. That means when the prakrti, or the living entities, wants to become purusa, that is material condition. If a woman tries to becomes a man, as that is unnatural, similarly when the living entities, who is by nature to be enjoyed...
The example, as we have given several times, that this finger captures some nice foodstuff, but actually the fingers are not enjoyer. The fingers can help the real enjoyer, namely the stomach. It can pick up some nice foodstuff and put into the mouth, and when it goes to the stomach, the real enjoyer, then all the prakrtis, all the parts of the body, all the limbs of the body, they feel satisfaction. So the enjoyer is the stomach, not any part of the body.
There is a story in Hitopanisad, Hitopadesa, from which the Aesop's Fable is translated. There, there is a story: udarendriyanam. Udara. Udara means this belly, and indriya means the senses. There is story of udarendriyanam. The senses, all the senses met together in a meeting. They said that: "We are king, senses..." (aside:) Why it is open?
"We are working." The leg said: "Yes, I am, whole day, I am walking." The hand says: "Yes, I am working whole day, wherever the body says: "You come here and pick up the food" bringing things cooking. I cooking also." Then the eyes, they said that: "I am seeing." So every limb, length of the body, they made a strike that, "No more we are going to work only for the stomach who is eating only. We are all working, and this man, or is stomach is eating only." Then the, the strike... Just like the capitalist and the worker. The worker under goes strike, no more working. So all these limbs, parts of the body, they observed striking, and after two, three days, when again they met, they talked amongst themselves that: "Why we are becoming weak? We cannot work now." You see. The legs also said: "Yes, I am feeling weak." Hands also feeling weak, everyone. So what is the cause? The cause... Then the stomach says: "Because I am not eating. So if you want to remain strong, then you must give me to eat. Otherwise... So I am the enjoyer. You are not enjoyer. You are to supply things for my enjoyment. That is your position." So they understood: "Yes, we cannot directly enjoy. It is not possible."
The enjoyment must be through the stomach. You take one rasagulla, you, the fingers, you cannot enjoy. You give it to the mouth, and when it goes to the stomach, there is immediately energy. Not only the fingers enjoy, the eyes, all other parts, they feel satisfaction and strength also. Similarly the real enjoyer is Krsna. Krsna says:
They are after santi, peacefulness, peace of the mind. Where is santi? They are working hard, day and night, to get peace of the mind. No, that is not possible.
How it is possible? Just try to understand three things only. Then you'll get something. What is that? Krsna says that: "I am the enjoyer, You are not enjoyer." Nobody's enjoyer. If you understand this, that Krsna is the enjoyer. One, out of the three items, one, bhokta. Everyone in this material world, they are, everyone is trying to become enjoyer, the first-class enjoyer, number one enjoyer. But it is not possible. Nobody can enjoy. Only Krsna is the enjoyer, and if we cooperate with Krsna, through His enjoyment, we can enjoy. This is our position. So this is real knowledge.
Every rascal is trying to become enjoyer. This is the material world. Everyone is after sense. Even the so-called prakrti, woman, the propensity is to enjoy. Purusa. Therefore here in this material world, even though a woman is dressed like a woman, his mind is purusa. He wants, she wants to enjoy. Here the woman wants a man. Although superficially it is supposed that man is the enjoyer, the woman is enjoyed. but actually the woman also wants to enjoy the man. That is maya. A prakrti cannot enjoy, become purusa. So in the Bhagavad-gita, the living entities are described as prakrti.
apareyam itas tv (anyam)
prakrtim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho
yayedam dharyate jagat
[Bg. 7.5]
So the Mayavadi philosophers, they do not know the secret; they wants to become God, enjoy. Our philosophy is different. We do not wish to become enjoyer. We want to be enjoyed. That is our real position. We want to serve Krsna. We want to offer everything to Krsna. We do not want to enjoy anything ourself. That is Vaisnavism. So here there are in the material world, there are so many universities and economic development plans, but all these rascals, they do not who will enjoy. Who is enjoyer, and who is enjoyed, they do not know. They think that: "We are enjoyer." Every nation, every community, every man is struggling: "I am enjoyer." This is called maya.
Therefore Arjuna inquires from Krsna that: prakrtim purusam. "Who is actually enjoyer, and who is enjoyed?" These two things I want to know from You." Prakrtim purusam caiva ksetram ksetra-jnam capi. Another two items, ksetram, the field of activities... Just like I am working. I am working. You are working. How you are working? Where you are working? I am working, being situated in this body. This is already described in the beginning that the living entity is within the body. Dehino 'smin yatha dehe [Bg. 2.13].
So ksetra and ksetra-jna. Ksetra means the platform on which, or the stage on which we are dancing. That is called ksetra. And ksetra-jna means the person who is dancing. That is ksetra-jna. When you, when you dance, you know that I am dancing on this ground, on this platform. So you are knower. Therefore ksetra-jna. And the platform on which you are dancing, that is ksetra. So we are all dancing... In the material world, we are all dancing. How we are dancing? Getting a particular type of body. That is ksetra. There must be some platform.
For... Just like a krsaka, a agriculturist, he is plowing the land. The land is called ksetra, and the man who is plowing, he's called ksetra-jna. He knows that; "I am plowing over this ground." So this is also another knowledge, ksetra and ksetra-jna. Then... [Sound is garbled, with words and phrases blipped out] ...etad veditum icchami. I wish to know this subject matter. Jnanam jneyam ca kesava. As well as jnanam, knowledge, what is actually knowledge, and what is the object of knowledge.
So six things he's questioning. First of all, prakrti, one, purusa, two, ksetra, three, ksetra-jna, four, knowledge, five, and the knowable object of knowledge, six. These are the subject matter, Krsna, Arjuna is asking from Krsna. Because he has accepted Krsna guru. So for bona fide inquiries, transcendental inquiries, one must approach a guru. That is the Vedic injunction. That Arjuna has already done. When he was he was to fight or not to fight, But he could not make solution. So to make a solution we must approach Krsna as guru, or Krsna's representative. Krsna and Krsna's representative... In, they are the same.
Therefore Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura says: yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasadah **. By pleasing guru, you can please Krsna. Even Krsna is not pleased, if the guru is pleased, Krsna has to be pleased. Because he's representative.
Suppose you have given somebody power of attorney to do some business. So after finishing the business, if you see the paper, not very favorable, it has not been done very nicely, still you have to accept. Because your representative has signed it. Yes. Therefore yasya prasadad bhagavat-prasadah **. Krsna not satisfied, but if your guru is satisfied, then Krsna must be satisfied. This is Krsna's obligation. Because He has sent representative. Krsna has... acaryam mam vijaniyan [SB 11.17.27]. Krsna says: "acarya, that is I am." Acaryam mam vijaniyan navamanyeta karhicit. "Never try to neglect acarya. Navamanyeta. Neither think of acarya as ordinary person. Vedic injunction is one must approach understand all this subject matter.
Jnana, knowledge and the... Books, volumes of books on any subject matter. As there are different types of magazines for differents of books. Big, big philosophers. Just like written philosophy on the sex impulse. To understand. This is rascaldom. Nobody is how to laugh, how to cry, how to eat, and how to enjoy sex life. No school, college is required to understand these things. These are everyone knows. Volumes of books are required to understand this real knowledge here.
Try to understand: ksetra-ksetra-jna. This body and the living entity, soul, who is working with this body, or working on this body. We get, a certain type of body to fulfill our certain type of desire.
The... Yesterday evening we were talking with that cardinal. So when I said that: "If you eat meat like animals, like the tigers or the fox, then Krsna will give you the facility to become, next life a tiger and fox and cat and dog, like that." These are stated. It is not my manufacturing word. These you'll find. You are human being. You must act like a human being. For human being, this Bhagavad-gita is there. Krsna is instructing to a human being, Arjuna. Not a cat, not a dog. So knowledge means it is meant for the human beings. Not for the cats and dogs. Laws means it is meant for the human being. Laws means: "You should do this, you should not do this." This is law, as state law, or any law. Nature's law. Everywhere. So human being, for human being, Krsna is advising: patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati [Bg. 9.26]. Because every human being must be a devotee of Krsna. That is his first business. So for a devotee, Krsna says: patram puspam phalam toyam yo me bhaktya prayacchati. This is the order.
Therefore next sloka is called: Bhagavan uvaca. Bhagavan uvaca means Bhagavan, the Supreme Lord, the Supreme Person, the Supreme Opulent, He's ordering. And we are servants. We are predominated. We are not predominator. Therefore it is our duty to abide by the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And that is called religion. Religion does not mean the so-called rituals. That is formalities, they're also required, but the real purpose of religion is to abide by the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is religion. So you may become... You may be a Christian, you may be a Muhammadan, you may be a Hindu, or Buddhist. It doesn't matter, whatever you may be. Whether you are abiding by the orders of God. Then you are religious.
Not that God, or God's representative says: "Thou shalt not kill." And I go on killing in the slaughterhouse. And when asked why I am killing, I give my, some interpretation of my own. This rascaldom is going on. Nobody's religious. Because nobody's following the orders of God. Neither... Anybody... Mam ca vetti na kascana. Krsna says that: "I know past, present, future, everything." That is confirmed in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. Janmady asya yatah anvayat itaratas ca arthesu abhijnah [SB 1.1.1]. Abhijnah means one who knows. And Krsna confirms it: "Yes, I know, past, present, future, everything." That is Krsna. That is God. Therefore His order is supreme. So we have to follow His order. That is real religion. Purusa. Purusa is giving order.
Just like in, in ordinary dealings, in our family affairs. The husband gives order, wife: "You should manage like this. You should do like this." Similarly prakrti, we are all prakrtis, we are abide by the orders of the Supreme. Therefore Arjuna is asking the... (aside:) What is that sound?
Arjuna is asking the Supreme Personality of Godhead that "You teach me." That is perfect teaching. If you learn something from Krsna, or from His representative, that is perfect. That is perfect knowledge. All other knowledge that you gather, that cannot be perfect. Because unless you are perfect, how you can give perfect knowledge? So every one of us is imperfect. Because we have got imperfect senses. So with imperfect knowledge...
Just like the so-called scientists, philosophers, they propose their theories; "I think," "It may be like this," "Perhaps..." These are not knowledge. These are all nonsense. You must speak definitely if you know. Just like the sastra says: jalaja nava-laksani. Definitely. Nine hundred thousand species of life within the water. Why? You could say: "About nine lakhs." No. Nine lakhs. Not about. More or less. No. Not like that. That is knowledge. That is perfect... Jalaja nava-laksani sthavara laksa-vimsati. And the trees, plants, they are two millions. Never says: "approximately." "Maybe," "perhaps." No. This is all nonsense. We don't accept such knowledge. So... But the, in the material world, these things are going on. Any rascal will give some theory. That will be accepted and he'll be offered Nobel Prize.
So that is condemned in the Srimad-Bhagavatam: sva-vid-varaha-ustra-kharaih samstutah purusah pasuh. So according to Bhagavata direction, these Nobel Prize winners are exactly like dogs, camels, hogs, sva-vid-varaha-ustra and asses. And they are praised by similar animals. That's all. The Nobel Prize winner and the Nobel Prize giver. Both of them are like dogs hogs animal and asses. That's all. This is a fact. They... If, if a person has written some theory, evolution of chemicals, and all rubbish things, it is very nice thing for the so-called dogs and camels, but those who have got eyes to see, one who has heard from Krsna, he'll understand this is nonsense. How, from chemical, you can produce life? When he's asked: "Well, sir, if I give you these chemicals, can you produce life?" Immediately he says: "That I cannot say." Why?
It is actually happening. In California University. One big professor, came, lecture, and he said that:. "By combination of these four chemicals, life has begun." So one of our students, he's also doctor in chemistry, he asked him immediately: "Sir, if I give you all these chemicals, whether you can produce life?" His answer was; "That I cannot say." Why? "That I cannot say." Then why you are proposing all this nonsense? If you do not know definitely... "No, we are trying." "In future..." This is going on. "In future." But in the common saying: "Trust no future, however pleasant." Why future? Now, what you have learned, speak that.
Therefore Arjuna is asking not to a third-class so-called philosopher and chemist and economist, but to Krsna. Krsna. Because whatever answer Krsna will give, that is fact. And sastra means the things which have been spoken by Krsna. That is sastra. And guru means who speaks... Guru means who speaks on behalf of Krsna. Sadhu-sastra-guru. This is called. So Krsna is asked. And the answer for Krsna, which He gives, that is final. No experiment. No "future." Whatever answer He gives, that is final. Otherwise, why people read Bhagavad-gita so carefully? Not now. Thousands of years. Thousands of years. Not only in India, in other countries also. So answers, real answers are there.
So this chapter, thirteenth chapter, is very important chapter. So many rascals are there. They're talking so many things. But if you want real answer, that is described by Krsna to the six questions, Krsna immediately answers in nutshell.
The first question was: prakrtim purusam caiva. Prakrtim purusam will be answered later on. The first answer He gives: idam sariram kaunteya ksetram ity abhidhiyate [Bg. 13.2]. You want to learn what is the field of activities. Field of activities is not the football ground. This body is field of activities. When I desire to play in the football ground, then I go to the football ground. But real desire is manufactured within. Idam sariram. We, we are having different types of body because we want to work differently. That is the plan. I ask so many people. They say: "God has created this world." That's fact. But as soon as we ask, "Why He has created this earth? Why He has created this universe? What is the purpose?" they cannot answer. They cannot give any reply. Because they do not know, imperfect knowledge. But anything you do, anything... Especially...
Suppose if you construct a very nice house. So I can ask you: "What is the purpose of constructing this nice house?" You will say: It is for purpose." Either we shall reside, or rent it. "It is meant for residential purpose." Similarly why this cosmic manifestation, this universe... Not only one universe, millions of universes. Material world is also not very small. Material world is only one-fourth manifestation of the whole creation. And that one-fourth... Ekamsena sthito jagat [Bg. 10.42]. Krsna says: "The whole material world is only one-fourth creation." What is that one-fourth creation? That is replied in the Brahma-samhita: yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-anda-koti. When Krsna, you have seen Krsna's, what is called? Aureum?
Devotee: Auram?
Prabhupada: Auram, yes. So that is prabha, Krsna's prabha. So just like the sun has got a shining, similarly Krsna has got. So it is borrowed from Krsna's shine. So yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-anda means these universes. There are millions, koti. And each universe... Jagad-anda-koti. Yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-kotisv asesa-vasudhadi-vibhuti-bhinnam [Bs. 5.40]. And each universe there are innumerable planets. This is material creation. So how we can know about this material creation? But we can know from Krsna. Because He knows everything. Because everything is manufactured from Him. Mattah sarvam pravartate. So we have to know like that. Janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. So He can speak perfectly what is the plan, the, of this creation, creation of the universal, universe. The plan is that we living entities, ksetra-ksetra-jna... Ksetra means this body. Idam sariram ksetram ity abhidhiyate. It is said: idam sariram kaunteya ksetram ity abhidhiyate [Bg. 13.2]. "You have asked the question: 'What is ksetra, field of activities, and who is the knower of this field,' so I answer: idam sariram kaunteya ksetram [Bg. 13.2]. This body is the field of activities."
So this material world is created by God to give us facility to work as I desire. But I must have the jurisdiction of my work. That is the... Jurisdiction my work. Just like the agriculturist, they have got their own land, demarcated. This much, my land, this much, his land, this much..." And he works, tills the field, produces food grain, according to his capacity. Similarly Krsna has given us different fields of activities. That is this body. Idam sariram kaunteya ksetram [Bg. 13.2]. Idam sariram. So from the sarira, we expand many other things. That also becomes ksetram.
So this is the purpose of creation. Krsna gives us full facility. I want to work in this way. All right, you work. Krsna says that you don't work. This will not make you happy. You are asking Me facilities to fulfill your desire under certain condition. That you may have from Me. I can give you. But you'll never be happy." That is Krsna's order. You'll never be happy. How I shall be happy? Sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja [Bg. 18.66]. You'll be happy only by this process. Simply by this process. If you manufacture, by your fertile brain, that: "I shall be happy in this way and that way," you'll never be happy. If you want to be happy at all, then this is My instruction: sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam sa... [Bg. 18.66]. Krsna is repeatedly saying this to everyone.
But he'll not do that. He'll say: "Krsna, give me this facility. Give me this facility. I shall cut throat of this man, and enjoy." "All right, you cut throat." That also Krsna gives. Krsna's very, what is called, thankless task. Somebody wants to cut my throat, and I want, nobody may cut my throat. Krsna has to adjust. He give me facility and he'll save also the man who is praying: "Sir, please save me from this cutting." Krsna... Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati [Bg. 18.61]. So this is going on.
The purpose of creation is to give the conditioned soul, the rebellious soul, who, being prakrti, whose nature being constitutional nature is that he should be enjoyed by Krsna, but he has taken the wrong direction, that "I'll not be enjoyed by Krsna. I shall become Krsna." This is... All these people, all these living entities who are in this material world, their determination is that: "Why I shall serve Krsna? I shall become Krsna." This is the disease. And to give us... Because He wants to become Krsna. He cannot become Krsna. But he is persisting. Krsna is giving this facility. That platform of facility, material facility, is this material world. This material world.
This is the purpose. But nobody knows. Ask anybody. They'll say, "God created this universe or this cosmic manifestation." That's a fact. But why He created? That why question is answered in the Bhagavad-gita. Everyone wants to enjoy this material world according to his whims and purpose. Krsna gives facility to everyone. So that facility is given according to his desire, a particular type of body. One who wants to eat anything nonsense, no discrimination, so he's allowed to get a body of a hog. Because a hog can eat even stool. He has no distinction. Here is halava, here is stool. But he'll like to eat stool. That is hog life.
Similarly those who are very much fond of eating meat and blood, they're given the body of tiger, hogs, dogs, This is nature's law. But they do not know. They do not know. They think that: "Now I am enjoying, according to my..." That is not enjoyment. Is that very nice food? But he's thinking, a flesh-eater, a meat-eater is thinking, he cannot eat meat a one. He mixes with some vegetable. Then he can eat. Is it not? If you say all these meat-eaters: "Don't eat vegetables or grains. Simply eat meat." That they cannot do. They cannot do. Ninety percent, ninety percent, he'll eat other things, grains and vegetables. And maybe ten percent or twenty percent, meat. Although we are not meat-eater, I have seen. A little piece of meat... [break]
Where the tiger is coming? That he has no brain to understand. Why there are so many varieties of life? Because according to... Just like your... In a, in a city, there are many varieties of apartment. As you are able to pay for it, or in a shop, in a store, there are many varieties of articles. But you have to purchase according to the price you can pay.
Similarly all these varieties of bodies are there according to my desire. Krsna... That is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, you know: yantrarudhani mayaya. Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese arjuna tisthati, The Lord is situated in everyone's heart. Arjuna tisthati. Bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya [Bg. 18.61]. Bhramayan. He is causing to wander all over the universe all living entities, riding on a car or machine. This machine is this body. Now I am walking, I am going here, preaching. What is the machine? The machine, first machine is my body. So who has given me this body? Mayaya. Maya, the illusory energy, has given me this body. My real body's spiritual body. Karmana daiva-netrena jantur deha upapattaye [SB 3.31.1]. These are ver, Vedic versions. We are not speaking unauthorized. Karmana. As you are working, or as you desire to work, then similar type of body will be given to you. By nature. You are, you have got this body by nature. Mayaya, yantrarudhani mayaya.
Krsna doesn't make your body. You desire. Krsna orders maya, the prakrti, material nature: "You give him such kind of body." Mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram [Bg. 9.10]. Prakrti's not working. Prakrti has given me this body not out of her own accord. Krsna has ordered: "Give this person, this living entity, such a body." Maybe it is Brahma's body. Maybe it is ant's body. Maybe it is demigod's body. Maybe it is the body of the worm in the stool. Different kinds. Eight million, four hundred thousand species of body. These bodies, we are getting according to our desire. Because except Krsna consciousness desire, all desires are subjected to the material conditions.
And as soon as we get Krsna consciousness desire, we get immediately free from this transmigration of the soul from one body to another. Tyaktva deham punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9]. If you become simply Krsna consciousness, then no more botheration of changing this body. You get your spiritual body, go back to home, back to Godhead. Thank you very much. (end)

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