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etaj jnanam iti proktam
ajnanam yad ato 'nyatha
Sri Krsna has explained... The question was ksetram ksetrajnam, and jnanam and jneyam, the questions. What is this body... (aside:) I am overlapped. Krsna has explained already,
rsibhir bahudha gitam
chandobhir vividhaih prthak
There are many scriptures and many philosophers, rsis, as I explained yesterday, nasau rsir yasya matam na bhinna: "He's not a philosopher who hasn't got a different opinion." Because this material world is practically a challenge to the supreme authority. The supreme authority Krsna, He's the bhokta actually, He's the enjoyer.
jnatva mam santim rcchati
That point is missing. Real enjoyer or proprietor is Krsna. Bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram. He's the proprietor. Sarva loka, not only of this loka, earthly planet, but there are innumerable planets within this universe and there are innumerable universes also, not one universe. Yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-anda means universe. It is just like egg shape. anda. You can see this universe, the sky is..., horizon. So it is just like egg shape. All the planets and the universes, they are egg shaped. Therefore they are called anda, jagad-anda, brahmanda. So this jagad-anda...
And Brahma is called jagad-anda-natha. Jagad-anda-natha means Brahma. As in each department, for management there is a manager, similarly, in each brahmanda there is a manager who is called Brahma. And each planet, there is also a manager or head. That is the system. And the supreme head is Krsna.
Just like we have a manager, a head, on this planet. Now we have divided. Formerly this planet was one unit, and there one head, the emperor. Just like Yudhisthira Maharaja was the emperor of the whole world. Pariksit Maharaja. All kings formerly, whoever became king, emperor, he ruled over the whole planet. In each and every planet there was a ruler, but now, in the days of democracy, there are so many rulers, practically each and every one of us is a ruler. This is democracy.
But actually the arrangement is that ruler should be one, and the supreme ruler is Krsna. Ruler means isvara. So there are so many isvaras. Isvara means that actually there must be one isvara, one ruler, but because here in this material world every one of us is trying to become isvara, therefore the Mayavadi philosophy is that everyone is isvara. That's all right. But that isvara is not sublime. I may become isvara amongst my disciples, but I am not the supreme, I'm not isvara of everyone. So isvara is actually Krsna. Isvarah paramah krsnah [Bs. 5.1], the sastra says. There are isvaras, rulers. That's all right. But the supreme ruler is Krsna. Isvarah paramah krsnah sac cid ananda vigrahah [Bs. 5.1]. This is stated in the Brahma-samhita, and Krsna also says, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya [Bg. 7.7]. "There is nobody else superior than Me." That is the fact.
People are searching after Isvara, "Can you show me God?" "There is no God." "God is dead." So many philosophers and theories are there, but actually there is God. Here is God, Krsna. Isvarah paramah krsnah sac-cid-anandah vigrahah [Bs. 5.1]. Ekale isvara krsna. In Caitanya-caritamrta it is said that "Only isvara is Krsna, the Supreme." Ekala isvara krsna, ara saba bhrtya [Cc. Adi 5.142]. "All others, they are servants." Nobody is actually isvara. And we find it practically. Everyone in this material world, he may become an isvara is his group, but he is also controlled by somebody superior. That is the position of this relative isvara. But Krsna is absolute isvara. Nobody is isvara above Him. That is Krsna. So, everyone is trying to be isvara. This is the material world. Everyone is trying to be isvara.
So Krsna says that, rsibhir bahudha gitam. Because everyone is trying to be superior. Nasau rsir yasya matam na bhinna, that every philosopher must give his own opinion and it must be refuted by another. Therefore sastra says that in this way you cannot ascertain what is the reality. Tarko 'pratistha. If you want to understand the reality by your arguments, reasoning power, that is not possible. Because I may be very nice arguer, but another person may be better arguer, he can defeat me. And that is going on.
Therefore simply by arguments, you cannot reach the Absolute Truth. That is not possible. Tarko 'pratistha. And if you simply depend on the sruti, srutayo vibhinnah. The Vedic literatures are different: Sama, Yajur, Rg, Artharva. And not only that, other scriptures there are. So Srutayor vibhinnah nasau rsir yasya matam na bhinna, dharmasya tattvam nihito guhayam. To understand religious principle, it is very difficult.
Therefore our duty is, mahajano yena gatah sa panthah [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. "We have to accept that way which is given by the mahajana." Mahajana. So sastra... We are sometimes in difficulty to find out the mahajana, who is mahajana. That mahajana is also described in the sastras, who can be accepted the greatest authority, mahajana. That is stated in the Sixth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Svayambhur naradah sambhuh [SB 6.3.20]. They are mahajanas. Svayambhuh means Brahma. Brahma is mahajana. Svayambhu, Narada. Narada Muni is mahajana. And Sambhu, Lord Siva, he is also mahajana. Svayambhur naradah sambhuh kumarah [SB 6.3.20], four Kumaras. Sanat-kumaradi, they are also mahajanas. Kapila, Kapiladeva who expounded that Sankhya philosophy, Kapiladeva. He is incarnation of God. Kumarah kapilo manuh.
Svayambhuva Manu, he is also authority. Manu's name is also mentioned in the Bhagavad-gita. Imam vivasvate yogam proktavan aham avyayam vivasvan manave prahuh [Bg. 4.1]. So therefore Manu is also mahajana, he's authority. There is Manu-samhita. Our Vedic system is conducted, the law, the law-giver is Manu. From Manu, the manusya, "man", these words have come, Manu. Descendant of Manu, human society, manusya.
So Prahlada, Prahlada Maharaja is mahajana. Janaka, Janaka Maharaja. Prahlado janako bhismah, Bhismadeva, grandfather Bhismadeva, the grandfather of the Pandus. He is also mahajana. Prahlado janako bhismo balih, Bali Maharaja, he is mahajana. Vaiyasakih, Sukadeva Gosvami, and Yamaraja, he is also mahajana.
So we have to follow the footsteps of the mahajana. Otherwise we shall be bewildered. Krsna therefore, He says, rsibhir bahudha gitam: "There are many saintly persons, great sages, and they have spoken in various ways." But Krsna concludes, the Vedanta-sutra. Vedanta-sutra, He gives reference because this Vedanta-sutra comes from the disciplic succession of Brahma. Brahma-sutra. Lord Brahma, Krsna instructed Brahma. Tene brahma hrda adi-kavaye [SB 1.1.1]. Adi-kavi is Brahma, and Krsna instructed him. Tene brahma... Brahma means Vedas. Sabda-brahma. The sabda-brahma was instructed to Lord Brahma by Krsna. Therefore Krsna is the original guru.
Therefore Krsna says in the Bhagavad-gita, imam vivasvate yogam proktavan aham: [Bg. 4.1] "This yoga system, Bhagavad-gita yoga system, I first of all spoke to the sun-god." Vivasvan manave prahuh. And the sun-god, whose name is Vivasvan, he spoke to his son Manu. Manur iksvakave 'bravit. And Manu spoke to his son, Maharaja Iksvaku. Maharaja Iksvaku is coming from the dynasty of the sun-god Vivasvan. There are two ksatriya families, one from the moon god, another, the sun-god. So Maharaja Ramacandra appeared in the family of the surya-vamsa, Iksvaku, Maharaja Iksvaku.
So this is the parampara system. And everything is described in the Brahma-sutra by Vyasadeva. Vyasadeva happens to be the disciple of Narada. Narada happens to be disciple of Brahma. And from Vyasadeva, Madhvacarya; then from Madhvacarya disciplic succession, Madhavendra Puri. Madhavendra Puri was the spiritual master of Isvara Puri. Isvara Puri was the spiritual master of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the spiritual master of the Six Gosvamis of Vrndavana: rupa sanatana bhatta raghunath, sri jiva gopala bhatta dasa raghunath. So from the Gosvamis, then Kaviraja Gosvami, Visvanath Cakravarti Thakura, then Jagannath das Babaji, then Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Gaura-Kisora dasa Babaji, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. And we are servant of Bhaktisiddhanta. So there is a disciplic succession.
That parampara should be followed. Evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh [Bg. 4.2]. If we want to understand really Vedic literature, then we must follow the parampara system. There are four sampradayas, parampara: the Ramanuja Sampradaya, Madhvacarya Sampradaya, Visnu Svami Sampradaya, Nimbarka Sampradaya. So we belong to the Madhvacarya Sampradaya. Fortunately, all these acaryas, even Sankaracarya, they appeared from South India. This sampradaya, acarya-sampradaya, is going on all over India. So every sampradaya has got his commentary on the Brahma-sutra. Therefore Krsna says here, brahma sutra-padais caiva hetumadbhir viniscitaih [Bg. 13.5]. Unless a sampradaya, the four sampradayas, they do not comment on the Brahma-sutra, he'll not..., that sampradaya is not accepted. And if you do not accept the sampradaya..., sampradaya-vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah.
If you do not take your initiation mantra from the sampradaya, then it is useless. Now, there are so many apasampradaya. They do not come in disciplic succession, but becomes guru, teacher. Therefore everything is topsy-turvied. Nobody has got fixed idea what is God. Everyone has created his own philosophy. The whole thing is now confused.
Therefore Krsna specifically mentions, Brahma-sutra. Brahma-sutra-padais caiva hetumadbhir viniscitaih [Bg. 13.5]. The sampradaya must have understanding of the Brahma-sutra, Vedanta-sutra. So all the sampradayas, they have got their commentary on the Vedanta-sutra and... Even Sankaracarya. But his commentary is not accepted by the Vaisnava acaryas because he has tried to derive some meaning, interpretation. But there is no question of interpretation. When the things are clear, in the Brahma-sutra, all the sutras are very clear. So you don't require any interpretation. You can expand, explain very elaborately. That is another thing. But you cannot go beyond the sutra.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu therefore says, mayavadi bhasya sunile haya sarva nasa [Cc. Madhya 6.169]. Mayavadi bhasya means Sankara, Sariraka-bhasya of the Brahma-sutra. If you hear the Sariraka-bhasya, then you'll be doomed, you will be Godless. Therefore it has been forbidden by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. All the Vaisnava sampradayas, Ramanujya Sampradaya, Madhvacarya Sampradaya, they all, I mean to say, disagree with the commentary of Sankaracarya, Sariraka-bhasya, Brahma-sutra.
So far we are concerned, Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya, our acaryas, they took it, Srimad-Bhagavatam, as the right commentary on Brahma-sutra. Bhasyam brahma-sutranam vedartha-paribrmhitam **. This Srimad-Bhagavatam is the real bhasya of Brahma-sutra. So the Gaudiya Sampradaya did not make any commentary on the Brahma-sutra because they took it, Caitanya Mahaprabhu took it as, Srimad-Bhagavatam, as a natural commentary, because Srimad-Bhagavatam is also made by Vyasadeva and Vyasadeva is the original author of Brahma-sutra. So author made his own commentary; so there was no need of another commentary. This is the Gaudiya-siddhanta, Gaudiya-vaisnava-siddhanta.
But sometimes back, in Jaipur, there was a challenge that "The Gaudiya Sampradaya has no commentary on the Vedanta-sutra." So at that time Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura was requested... Because he was grand scholar, grand old man scholar, at that time living in Vrndavana... So he was very old at that time; so he authorized Baladeva Vidyabhusana, that "You do it." There was no need, but people are demanding, "Where is your commentary on the Vedanta-sutra?" So Baladeva Vidyabhusana, with the order of Govindaji at Jaipur, he wrote the commentary on Brahma-sutra. That name is Govinda-bhasya. So the Gaudiya-Brahma Sampradaya, they have got also commentary on Brahma-sutra. That is required.
So Krsna has explicitly explained that brahma-sutra-padais caiva hetumadbhir. Hetumadbhir viniscitam. The Brahma-sutra is called therefore nyaya-prasthana, with logic and reason, hetumadbhir, cause and effect, Everything. Because people like to understand on the basis of philosophy and reasoning everything. Yes, that is required.
Any understanding without philosophy, that is sentiment. And philosophy without religious conception is mental speculation. These two things are going on, not combined. All over the world there are many so-called religious systems, but there is no philosophy. Therefore the so-called religious system does not appeal to the modern educated persons. They are giving up religion, either Christian, Muslim, Hindu. Simply formalities, rituals, they do not like. They want to know everything on the basis of philosophy. That is Bhagavad-gita.
Bhagavad-gita is based on philosophy, this system, Krsna-bhakti. Bhagavad-gita means Krsna-bhakti, devotion to Krsna, Krsna consciousness. That is Bhagavad-gita. Bhagavad-gita, the teaching is man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. This is Bhagavad-gita. "Always think of Me." Krsna conscious, pure and simple. Man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. Everywhere Krsna stressed on His personality. Aham adir hi devanam: [Bg. 10.2] "I am the origin of all the devatas." Mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya [Bg. 7.7].
aham sarvasya prabhavo
mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam
Everything is there.
So sarva dharman parityajya mam ekam [Bg. 18.66], mam, aham, "Me." So in every verse, every chapter, Krsna... Mayy asakta-manah partha yogam yunjan mad-asrayah. Mayy asakta, "One who is attached to Me," asakta-manah, "mind attached to Me, that is yoga." Yoginam api sarvesam mad-gatenantaratmana. Mad-gata, again mat [Bg. 6.47]. Mad-gatenantaratmana, sraddhavan bhajate yo mam sa me yuktatamo matah. So everything is given stress, Krsna. But the rascal commentators, they want to make minus Krsna.
This rascaldom has played havoc in India. These rascal so-called commentators, they want to avoid Krsna. Therefore this Krsna consciousness movement is a challenge to these rascals. It is a challenge that "You want to make Krsna without Krsna. This is nonsense."
Now let us report. This morning one of our devotee has come from, Syamasundara, from London. Now our this Bhagavad-gita As It Is, is the topmost selling book in London. All the booksellers, Bhagavad-gita As It Is. So Macmillan Company is our publisher, and within one year they have published three editions, fifty thousand each. So real thing will have real value. One professor of religion from London University came to see me. He said, "Now we have rejected Dr. Radhakrishnan's Bhagavad-gita." He said. What is the name of that professor?
Pradyumna: Peringer, Dr. Peringer.
Prabhupada: So we are very sure, although we are not getting very good response in India. In India they have become so advanced: "Oh, Krsna consciousness? We know everything about Krsna. This is old story. Krsna is our countryman, and we know everything of Krsna. And what these people, Europeans and Americans, they can teach us?" This is their... So bui para[?] pandita. In Bengal it is called bui para[?] pandita, "self-advertised pandita."
Actually India should have taken very serious care of this Krsna consciousness movement for the glory of their country because this Krsna consciousness movement originally originated from India. Krsna personally presented this Bhagavad-gita, He's speaking, and it is the duty of every Indian to carry this message. As Caitanya Mahaprabhu has advised,
Caitanya Mahaprabhu said that anyone who has taken birth in India, he is fortunate. He can make his life perfect by reading at least this Bhagavad-gita and distribute the knowledge all over the world. So Krsna says, brahma-sutra padais caiva hetumadbhir viniscitam. You take Vedanta-sutra; you study from the authoritative sources. Then your life becomes perfect. And take the..., carry this message all over the world.
Formerly our, some swamiji, he also wanted to preach Vedanta-sutra, but while preaching Vedanta-sutra he learned how to eat meat and how to drink. That's all. This was done, Vedanta-sutra. And "Everyone is God." That was his conclusion. And this same message, it was not fruitive. But actually, Vedanta-sutra, because Krsna is the vedanta-vid, vedanta-krd... Krsna says,
sarvasya caham hrdi sannivistho
mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca
vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedanta-krd vedanta-vid caham
So Krsna is vedanta-krd, the compiler of Vedanta-sutra. Because Vyasadeva is incarnation of Krsna, therefore Krsna is vedanta-krd. And one who has compiled Vedanta-sutra, he is vedanta-vid also. He knows what is Vedanta. Not by others. Vedanta-vid vedanta-krd. So both vedanta-krd is Krsna, vedanta-vid is Krsna. So what Krsna says, that is Vedanta. Vedanta means... Veda means knowledge, and anta means the ultimate, anta. Every knowledge has got the ultimate end. So everyone is acquiring knowledge, but what is the end of knowledge? The end of knowledge is to understand Krsna. That is end of knowledge. Vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah vedanta-krd vedanta-vid caham [Bg. 15.15]. So Krsna therefore says, brahma-sutra-padais caiva. He's recommending. He is Vedanta. Therefore whatever Krsna says, that is the ultimate conclusion of Vedanta.
What Krsna says? Krsna says, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja [Bg. 18.66]. This is Vedanta. If you learn how to surrender to Krsna, that is real understanding of Vedanta. Bahunam janmanam ante [Bg. 7.19]. This conclusion comes of the Vedantist, so-called Vedantist. Bahunam janmanam ante jnanavan mam prapadyate. This is the ultimate understanding of Vedanta. Vasudevah sarvam iti sa mahatma sudurlabhah [Bg. 7.19]. If one understands that Krsna is everything, Krsna is the origin of everything... That is the Vedanta, janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. That is the beginning of Vedanta-sutra, the origin, to understand the origin of everything, the original source of everything. And that is Krsna.
Aham adir hi devanam [Bg. 10.2]. Brahma is one of the demigods, Lord Siva is one of the demigods, but Krsna says, aham adir hi devanam maharsinam ca sarvasah. So if we understand Krsna—vasudevah sarvam iti [Bg. 7.19], He is the origin of everything—that is all perfect knowledge. Sa mahatma sudurlabhah. But such kind of mahatma is rarely seen. Kotisv apy mahamune. Kotisv apy mahamune. Amongst the crores of men, you'll find one man may know Krsna.
So if you try to understand Krsna, tattvatah, in reality, that is perfection of life. That is perfection of life. Janma karma me divyam yo janati tattvatah [Bg. 4.9]. Simply to know, "Krsna was born at Mathura, He was the nephew of Kamsa and son of..." That is also nice. But you should try to understand tattvatah. That tattvatah means:
That is tattvatah, the cause of all causes. Janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. Cause of all causes. Everything has got cause and effect, cause and effect. So Krsna is the original cause.
aham sarvasya prabhavo
mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam
Those who are intelligent, budha, complete in knowledge. So after knowing Krsna, vasudevah sarvam iti [Bg. 7.19], after becoming mahatma, sa mahatma sudurlabhah, bhajante. Mahatmanas tu mam partha daivim prakrtim asritah bhajanty ananya-manaso [Bg. 9.13]. Without any deviation, ekam. So if you take to this Krsna consciousness without any deviation, then... There are other demigods, that is admitted. But Krsna is the root.
yatha taror mula-nisecanena
yatha pranopaharac ca yathendriyanam
tatha sarvarhanam acyutejya
You don't require to worship any other demigods. All demigods, they're our respectable. We offer all respect. A Vaisnava offers respect even to an ant, and why not these demigods? That is another thing. But the krsna-bhakta, he knows that Krsna is the Supreme; the other demigods, they're all subordinate. Krsna also says in the Bhagavad-gita, kamais tais tair hrta-jnanah prapadyante 'nya-devatah [Bg. 7.20]. There is no need.
Just like if you pour water on the root of a tree, the branches, the twigs, the flowers and leaves, they all become nourished, similarly, by worshiping Krsna, you'll satisfy all the demigods. You don't require to satisfy everyone. This is the statement in all sastras.
na kinkaro nayam rni ca rajan
sarvatmana yah saranam saranyam
gato mukundam parihrtya kartam
We are indebted to so many persons: devatas, deva, rsi, devarsi, bhuta, living entities, nrnam, human society. devarsi-bhutapta. Our family men, our friends. Devarsi-bhutapta-nrnam pitrnam [SB 11.5.41]. Pitrloka, pitr-pinda. We are indebted in so many ways. It is very difficult to liquidate all these debts. It is very difficult. But if one surrenders to Krsna, sarvatmana yah saranam saranyam gato mukundam. If one has surrendered fully to Mukunda, parihrtya kartam. There are so many duties. Therefore Krsna assures that "If you surrender to Me..." If you think that you have not worshiped others, and if you are sinful thereby, Krsna says, ma sucah, aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami: [Bg. 18.66] "I shall give you protection."
So this is Krsna consciousness movement. Try to understand and follow. Thank you very much. Hare Krsna. (end)
Link to this page: https://prabhupadabooks.com/classes/bg/13/8-12/bombay/september/30/1973
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