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Bhagavad-gita 13.23

Bombay, October 22, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
upadrastanumanta ca
bharta bhokta mahesvarah
paramatmeti capy ukto
dehe 'smin purusah parah
[Bg. 13.23]
Translation: "Yet in this body there is another, a transcendental enjoyer who is the Lord, the supreme proprietor, who exists as the overseer and permitter, and who is known as the Supersoul."
Prabhupada: So there are two purusas. One purusa is already explained. Purusah prakrti-stho hi... (aside:) You can go. Purusah prakrti-stho hi bhunkte prakrti-jan gunan [Bg. 13.22]. So one purusa, the living entity, atma, and another purusa is Paramatma. Sometimes the Mayavadi philosophers, they do not distinguish between atma and Paramatma. But here it is distinctly explained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, that one purusa is enjoying the fruits of his activities, prakrti-sthah. Being influenced by the quality of the prakrti, material nature, he is sad-asad-janma-yonisu, he is taking birth in different types and species of life. And another purusa is there who is upadrasta. Upadrasta means he is overseer. He is simply seeing how the other purusa is working. And according to his karma, work, he is giving the result. He is the witness.
If the living entity purusa is working piously, then he is getting a different type of body. Janmaisvarya-sruta-sri [SB 1.8.26]. A nice body, born in rich man's family or brahmana's family, scholar's family, janma, opulence, aisvarya, beauty, beautiful body, and very good educationthese distinctions are there because the paramatma-purusa is observing the activities of the jivatma-purusa. And according to his karma according to his desire, He is giving a different type of body. Isvarah sarva...
Another place it is said, isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese 'rjuna tisthati [Bg. 18.61]. "That Supreme Personality of Godhead as Paramatma, Antaryami, is situated in everyone's heart." Bhramayan sarva-bhutani yantrarudhani mayaya: [Bg. 18.61] "And He is directing maya to give him a particular type of body and he is moving with that body." Yantra. Just like if you get a car, according to the price, you can get car. You can get a Rolls Royce car, Chevrolet car, Cadillac car or a Ford car or Ambassador car or a Jeep. So as you can pay for it, you get a different type of car, and you can travel, similarly, according to your karma, good and bad, you are getting a type of body. There are eight million four hundred thousand species of body. You can get one of them and suffer and enjoy.
Tatha dehantara-praptih [Bg. 2.13]. You have to change your body. Next body you can get a cat's body or dog's body, a tree's body or a demigod's body or a Brahma's body or a Indra's body, Indian body, American body, serpent body, insect body, bird's body, aquatic, any, any, There is no guarantee. That will be awarded to you according to your karma. Unfortunately, they do not know it. Just like animals. The animals do not know how to get a better body.
asitim caturas caiva
laksams tan jiva-jatisu
bhramadbhih purusam prapyam
manusyam janma-paryayat
This is statement in the Padma Pur... Janma-paryayat, by evolution, we come to this human form of body, and in this human form of body, we have got the chance to develop Krsna consciousness. And if we do not do that, then we are losing the opportunity, missing the opportunity.
Next body I shall get according to my karma. But if you become Krsna conscious in this body, in this human form of body, and if you try to understand what is Krsna, then tyaktva deham punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9], then after giving up this body, you do not accept another material body. This is Krsna consciousness movement. We are trying to educate men to become Krsna conscious so that he may not have to accept another material body.
So the other body, which is described here, Paramatma... We are atma, and He is Paramatma. We are isvara; He is Paramesvara. We are not Paramesvara. We are Brahman, He is Parabrahman. This "param" word is used. But sometimes men with little intelligence, they cannot distinguish between Paramatma and atma, Paramesvara and isvara. Here another word is used, bhokta mahesvarah. We are not bhokta. We are trying to become bhokta, or enjoyer, but we are becoming baffled. It is not possible. We cannot become bhokta. We can become being enjoyed, predominated, not the predominator. Just like one thing is enjoyed and the other is enjoyer. The Supreme Lord, He is the enjoyer. Bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka-mahesvaram [Bg. 5.29].
The same word again, mahesvara. Maha isvara. Maha means great. Isvara means controller. So we can controller a few men, but Mahesvara means He controls all living entities. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam (Katha Upanisad 2.2.13). We may be very proud of controlling a factory, a few thousands of workers, but we are not Mahesvara. The Mahesvara is Krsna, Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is in His Paramatma feature, is situated in every body. Paramatmeti ca apy ukto dehe 'smin, asmin dehe, within this body. It is also discussed that... What is that? Sarva-ksetresu bharata. What is that? No. There is a... All right.
So Paramatma, there are two souls. Ksetra-jna. Ksetra, ksetra-jna. The Arjuna's questions, I think, in this chapter. Ksetra-jnam capi mam viddhi sarva-ksetresu bharata [Bg. 13.3]. Krsna says that "I am also ksetra-jna." The body is ksetra, and the soul if ksetra-jna, one who knows about the body. Just like you have got your body, I have got my body. And I know it is my body, you know it is your body. Just like your apartment, your living room. Similarly, there is another partner. That is Krsna, Paramatma. Ksetra-jnam capi mam viddhi. I can take care of my body. I am the owner of this body. But Krsna is the owner of all bodies.
Just like the landlord and the tenantthe tenant is the occupier and the landlord is the ownersimilarly, I am the occupier of this body, and Krsna, Paramatma, He is the owner of this body. This is knowledge. I am not the owner of this body. Therefore Krsna's another name is Hrsikesa. Hrsika means the senses. We are claiming, "This is my hand," but this is not my hand. This is Krsna's hand. The same thing. The tenant may occupy the room, but he is not the owner of the room. Owner is different person. Similarly, we may occupy this body or any body, but we are not owner of this body. As soon as we know that "I am not owner of this body, I am the occupier of the body," that is knowledge. We are falsely claiming that "We are owner of the body." We are not owner of the body. I cannot therefore repair anything. If any part of my limb of my body goes wrong, I do not know how to repair it. But Krsna can do it because He is the owner, Hrsikesa. Hrsikesa. Hrsikena hrsikesa-sevanam bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. You have to pay to the owner. Similarly, we have to serve Krsna for occupying this body. That is devotion. Yajnarthe karmano 'nyatra loko 'yam karma-bandhanah [Bg. 3.9].
Because it is also explained, sarvatah pani-padam tat. Sarvatah pani-padam tat means everywhere the Supreme Lord has got His hands and legs. So what is that? How He has got hands and legs? Your hands, my hands, they are hands of Krsna. Therefore it should be used for Krsna. Just like your hand. We are claiming, "This is my hand." This hand is used for my service. Suppose If you want to eat something, you use your hand for eating, but for other's eating, you don't use your hand. He uses his own hand. This is an example. So all these hands and legs belong to Krsna. It should be used for Krsna. That is called bhakti. Hrsikena hrsikesa-sevanam bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170].
If you don't use, then that is against the laws of nature. So upadrasta anumanta. Krsna, the Supersoul, is anumanta. Anumanta means without His permission you cannot do anything. You cannot do anything. Because everything belongs to Krsna, how you can use something without permission? So anumanta. And upadrasta. Just like father and son, little child. He wants to do something and wants permission from the father or the mother. And he gives. In our childhood I remember that even for going to the privy I wanted permission of my mother, "Can I go?" That is nature. That is nature. Mother is not restricting me; still, I am asking the permission of mother. "Can I go? Can I go?" I remember it. This is natural. Similarly, we cannot do anything without the permission of the Supersoul within the heart. Sarvasya caham hrdi sannivisto mattah smrtir jnanam apohanam ca [Bg. 15.15]. Without permission. Therefore He is anumanta.
So when we do something wrong, how Krsna as antaryami, as Paramatma, gives permission? This question may be raised. But He gives permission, when I do something wrong. Because I cannot do anything without His permission. But He gives me permission as a... Karanam guna-sango 'sya. That is already explained.
He can give you permission, but the enjoyment and suffering will have to be taken by you. You insist permission, "I want to do this." And without permission, you cannot do it. Therefore Krsna gives you per..., "All right, you do it, but at your risk." Krsna does not want that you should do it, but you want to do it. Therefore He gives permission.
He wants sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam [Bg. 18.66]. That is His demand. But your demand is different, that "I shall not surrender, Sir. I want to do this." "All right, you do it at your own risk." But if you follow the instruction of Krsna, then He takes charge of you. Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami. So you do papa or punya, you enjoy the effect, but when you follow the instruction of Krsna, there is no such papa or punya. It is transcendental. Brahman. That is called Brahman. And above the gunas. Sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate. Mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena bhakti-yogena sevate [Bg. 14.26]. Krsna says, "Anyone who is engaged in rendering service unto Me," bhakti-yogena, sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate, he is not affected by the activities. He is immune from the result of all activities." Many places it is said. Yajnarthe karmano 'nyatra loko 'yam karma-bandhanah [Bg. 3.9].
If you want to do for your satisfaction, Krsna will give you permission, but you will have to enjoy or suffer the effects. Karmana daiva-netrena [SB 3.31.1]. It is very simple to understand. So therefore Krsna is called anumanta, "giving permission," "Yes, you can take. You can do it." Anumanta upadrasta.
And so far our activities are concerned... This is also explained in the Upanisads, that there are two birds in this tree body. One is observing and other is enjoying. So the observing bird is the Paramatma, Krsna. He is upadrasta. He is simply seeing your activities, how you are doing, and giving you the effect. And anumanta. Krs..., He does not want it. What you are doing now, Krsna does not want it. But because you wanted persistently to do it, so He gives permission because without His permission, you cannot do it. This is the conclusion. Upadrasta anumanta, bharta.
He is the maintainer. You cannot get anything without His mercy. There may be ample supply of necessities of life by the grace of Krsna, and there may be scarcity. So they are now complaining about overpopulation. There is no question of overpopulation. Krsna is quite competent, able to maintain everyone. But as you become godless, as you become disobedient to the laws of God, there will be restriction. You cannot have full supply of necessities of life. That time has already come. All these rascals, godless rascals, they are now suffering.
The only remedy is to become devotee. He is bharta. He can maintain many millions. There is no question of overpopulation. He can maintain. Bharta. But nature will not supply. Nature will restrict supply if you become godless. Therefore nature is very strong, strict. Daivi hy esa gunamayi mama maya duratyaya [Bg. 7.14]. He'll restrict supply.
So in this Kali-yuga people are degrading, and the supply also will be reduced. There will be no supply of milk, there will be no supply of sugar. That is stated in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. There will be no supply of rice, no supply of wheat. Now you can get black market, white market, but time is coming when there will be no supply, completely. You will be forced to eat this beef. Now it is opening, beef shop, big, big beef shop. This time has already come, gradually, and it will be increasing. Unless you take to Krsna consciousness. Kirtanad eva krsnasya mukta-sangah param vrajet [SB 12.3.51]. Kaler dosa-nidhe rajann asti hy eko mahan gunah. This Kali-yuga is suffering. So you cannot get comfortable life in this Kali-yuga being godless. Because Kali-yuga means godless. Mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah [SB 1.1.10].
So therefore everyone should take to Krsna consciousness to save himself from the onslaught of Kali-yuga, which will increase day by day. Thank you very much. (end)

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