samvatsarah parivatsara
ida-vatsara eva ca
anuvatsaro vatsaras ca
viduraivam prabhasyate
samvatsarah—orbit of the sun; parivatsarah—circumambulation of Brhaspati; ida-vatsarah—orbit of the stars; eva—as they are; ca—also; anuvatsarah—orbit of the moon; vatsarah—one calendar year; ca—also; vidura—O Vidura; evam—thus; prabhasyate—they are so told.
There are five different names for the orbits of the sun, moon, stars and luminaries in the firmament, and they each have their own samvatsara.
The subject matters of physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, time and space dealt with in the above verses of Srimad-Bhagavatam are certainly very interesting to students of the particular subject, but as far as we are concerned, we cannot explain them very thoroughly in terms of technical knowledge. The subject is summarized by the statement that above all the different branches of knowledge is the supreme control of kala, the plenary representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Nothing exists without Him, and therefore everything, however wonderful it may appear to our meager knowledge, is but the work of the magical wand of the Supreme Lord. As far as time is concerned, we beg to subjoin herewith a table of timings in terms of the modern clock.
One truti-8/13,500second
One vedha-8/135second
One lava-8/45second
One nimesa-8/15second
One ksana-8/5second
One kastha-8seconds
One laghu-2minutes
One danda-30minutes
One prahara-3hours
One day-2hours
One night-12hours
One paksa-15days
Two paksas comprise one month, and twelve months comprise one calendar year, or one full orbit of the sun. A human being is expected to live up to one hundred years. That is the way of the controlling measure of eternal time.
The Brahma-samhita (5.52) affirms this control in this way:
“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, under whose control even the sun, which is considered to be the eye of the Lord, rotates within the fixed orbit of eternal time. The sun is the king of all planetary systems and has unlimited potency in heat and light.”

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