### Transcription of Common Core State StandardS

1 **Common** Core **State** **StandardS** for Mathematics **Common** Core **State** **StandardS** for MATHEMATICS. Table of Contents Introduction 3. **StandardS** for Mathematical Practice 6. **StandardS** for Mathematical Content Kindergarten 9. Grade 1 13. Grade 2 17. Grade 3 21. Grade 4 27. Grade 5 33. Grade 6 39. Grade 7 46. Grade 8 52. High School Introduction High School Number and Quantity 58. High School Algebra 62. High School Functions 67. High School Modeling 72. High School Geometry 74. High School Statistics and Probability 79. Glossary 85. Sample of Works Consulted 91. **Common** Core **State** **StandardS** for MATHEMATICS. Introduction Toward greater focus and coherence Mathematics experiences in early childhood settings should concentrate on (1) number (which includes whole number, operations, and relations) and (2). geometry, spatial relations, and measurement, with more mathematics learning time devoted to number than to other topics.

2 Mathematical process goals should be integrated in these content areas. Mathematics Learning in Early Childhood, National Research Council, 2009. The composite **StandardS** [of Hong Kong, Korea and Singapore] have a number of features that can inform an international benchmarking process for the development of K 6 mathematics **StandardS** in the First, the composite **StandardS** concentrate the early learning of mathematics on the number, measurement, and geometry strands with less emphasis on data analysis and little exposure to algebra. The Hong Kong **StandardS** for grades 1 3 devote approximately half the targeted time to numbers and almost all the time remaining to geometry and measurement. Ginsburg, Leinwand and Decker, 2009. Because the mathematics concepts in [ ] textbooks are often weak, the presentation becomes more mechanical than is ideal. We looked at both traditional and non-traditional textbooks used in the US and found this conceptual weakness in both.

3 Ginsburg et al., 2005. There are many ways to organize curricula. The challenge, now rarely met, is to avoid those that distort mathematics and turn off students. Steen, 2007. For over a decade, research studies of mathematics education in high-performing countries have pointed to the conclusion that the mathematics curriculum in the United States must become substantially more focused and coherent in order to improve mathematics achievement in this country. To deliver on the promise of **Common** **StandardS** , the **StandardS** must address the problem of a curriculum that is a mile wide and an inch deep. These **StandardS** are a substantial answer to that challenge. It is important to recognize that fewer **StandardS** are no substitute for focused **StandardS** . Achieving fewer **StandardS** would be easy to do by resorting to broad, general statements. Instead, these **StandardS** aim for clarity and specificity.

4 Assessing the coherence of a set of **StandardS** is more difficult than assessing their focus. William Schmidt and Richard Houang (2002) have said that content **StandardS** and curricula are coherent if they are: articulated over time as a sequence of topics and performances that are logical and reflect, where appropriate, the sequential or hierarchical nature of the disciplinary content from which the subject matter derives. That is, INTRODUCTION |. what and how students are taught should reflect not only the topics that fall within a certain academic discipline, but also the key ideas that determine how knowledge is organized and generated within that discipline. This implies 3. **Common** Core **State** **StandardS** for MATHEMATICS. that to be coherent, a set of content **StandardS** must evolve from particulars ( , the meaning and operations of whole numbers, including simple math facts and routine computational procedures associated with whole numbers and fractions) to deeper structures inherent in the discipline.

5 These deeper structures then serve as a means for connecting the particulars (such as an understanding of the rational number system and its properties). (emphasis added). These **StandardS** endeavor to follow such a design, not only by stressing conceptual understanding of key ideas, but also by continually returning to organizing principles such as place value or the properties of operations to structure those ideas. In addition, the sequence of topics and performances that is outlined in a body of mathematics **StandardS** must also respect what is known about how students learn. As Confrey (2007) points out, developing sequenced obstacles and challenges for students absent the insights about meaning that derive from careful study of learning, would be unfortunate and unwise. In recognition of this, the development of these **StandardS** began with research-based learning progressions detailing what is known today about how students' mathematical knowledge, skill, and understanding develop over time.

6 Understanding mathematics These **StandardS** define what students should understand and be able to do in their study of mathematics. Asking a student to understand something means asking a teacher to assess whether the student has understood it. But what does mathematical understanding look like? One hallmark of mathematical understanding is the ability to justify, in a way appropriate to the student's mathematical maturity, why a particular mathematical statement is true or where a mathematical rule comes from. There is a world of difference between a student who can summon a mnemonic device to expand a product such as (a + b)(x + y) and a student who can explain where the mnemonic comes from. The student who can explain the rule understands the mathematics, and may have a better chance to succeed at a less familiar task such as expanding (a + b + c)(x + y). Mathematical understanding and procedural skill are equally important, and both are assessable using mathematical tasks of sufficient richness.

7 The **StandardS** set grade-specific **StandardS** but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations. It is also beyond the scope of the **StandardS** to define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needs. At the same time, all students must have the opportunity to learn and meet the same high **StandardS** if they are to access the knowledge and skills necessary in their post-school lives. The **StandardS** should be read as allowing for the widest possible range of students to participate fully from the outset, along with appropriate accommodations to ensure maximum participaton of students with special education needs. For example, for students with disabilities reading should allow for use of Braille, screen reader technology, or other assistive devices, while writing should include the use of a scribe, computer, or speech-to-text technology.

8 In a similar vein, speaking and listening should be interpreted broadly to include sign language. No set of grade-specific **StandardS** INTRODUCTION |. can fully reflect the great variety in abilities, needs, learning rates, and achievement levels of students in any given classroom. However, the **StandardS** do provide clear signposts along the way to the goal of college and career readiness for all students. The **StandardS** begin on page 6 with eight **StandardS** for Mathematical Practice. 4. **Common** Core **State** **StandardS** for MATHEMATICS. How to read the grade level **StandardS** **StandardS** define what students should understand and be able to do. Clusters are groups of related **StandardS** . Note that **StandardS** from different clusters may sometimes be closely related, because mathematics is a connected subject. Domains are larger groups of related **StandardS** . **StandardS** from different domains may sometimes be closely related.

9 Domain Number and Operations in Base Ten Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. 1. Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100. Standard 2. Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms Cluster based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction. 3. Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 ( , 9 80, 5 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. These **StandardS** do not dictate curriculum or teaching methods. For example, just because topic A appears before topic B in the **StandardS** for a given grade, it does not necessarily mean that topic A must be taught before topic B. A teacher might prefer to teach topic B before topic A, or might choose to highlight connections by teaching topic A and topic B at the same time.

10 Or, a teacher might prefer to teach a topic of his or her own choosing that leads, as a byproduct, to students reaching the **StandardS** for topics A and B. What students can learn at any particular grade level depends upon what they have learned before. Ideally then, each standard in this document might have been phrased in the form, Students who already know .. should next come to learn .. But at present this approach is unrealistic not least because existing education research cannot specify all such learning pathways. Of necessity therefore, grade placements for specific topics have been made on the basis of **State** and international comparisons and the collective experience and collective professional judgment of educators, researchers and mathematicians. One promise of **Common** **State** **StandardS** is that over time they will allow research on learning progressions to inform and improve the design of **StandardS** to a much greater extent than is possible today.