Bhagavad-gītā - Chapter 1 Lectures
Bhagavad-gītā Introduction

New York, February 19-20, 1966
660219-20BG.NY
Introduction to Gītopaniṣad
(Earliest Recording of Śrīla Prabhupāda
in the Bhaktivedanta Archives)
Prabhupāda:
oṁ ajñāna-timirāndhasya
jñānāñjana-śalākayā
cakṣur unmīlitaṁ yena
tasmai śrī-gurave namaḥ
[I offer my respectful obeisances unto my spiritual master, who with the torchlight of knowledge has opened my eyes, which were blinded by the darkness of ignorance.]
[When will Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī Prabhupāda, who has established within this material world the mission to fulfill the desire of Lord Caitanya, give me shelter under his lotus feet?]
vande 'haṁ śrī-guroḥ śrī-yuta-pada-kamalaṁ śrī-gurūn vaiṣṇavāṁś ca
śrī-rūpaṁ sāgrajātaṁ saha-gaṇa-raghunāthānvitaṁ taṁ sa-jīvam
sādvaitaṁ sāvadhūtaṁ parijana-sahitaṁ kṛṣṇa-caitanya-devaṁ
śrī-rādhā-kṛṣṇa-pādān saha-gaṇa-lalitā-śrī-viśākhānvitāṁś ca
[I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master and of all the other preceptors on the path of devotional service. I offer my respectful obeisances unto all the Vaiṣṇavas and unto the six Gosvāmīs, including Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Jīva Gosvāmī and their associates. I offer my respectful obeisances unto Śrī Advaita Ācārya Prabhu, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and all His devotees, headed by Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura. I then offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and all the gopīs, headed by Lalitā and Viśākhā.]
[O my dear Kṛṣṇa, ocean of mercy, You are the friend of the distressed and the source of creation. You are the master of the cowherdmen and the lover of the gopīs, especially Rādhārāṇī. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.]
tapta-kāñcana-gaurāṅgi
rādhe vṛndāvaneśvari
vṛṣabhānu-sute devi
praṇamāmi hari-priye
[I offer my respects to Rādhārāṇī, whose bodily complexion is like molten gold and who is the Queen of Vṛndāvana. You are the daughter of King Vṛṣabhānu, and You are very dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa.]
vāñchā-kalpatarubhyaś ca
kṛpā-sindhubhya eva ca
patitānāṁ pāvanebhyo
vaiṣṇavebhyo namo namaḥ
[I offer my respectful obeisances unto all the Vaiṣṇava devotees of the Lord. They can fulfill the desires of everyone, just like desire trees, and they are full of compassion for the fallen souls.]
[I offer my obeisances to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, Prabhu Nityānanda, Śrī Advaita, Gadādhara, Śrīvāsa and all others in the line of devotion.]
[My dear Lord, and the spiritual energy of the Lord, kindly engage me in Your service. I am now embarrassed with this material service. Please engage me in Your service.]
Introduction to Gītopaniṣad by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, the author of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Easy Journey to Other Planets, editor of Back to Godhead, etc.
Bhagavad-gītā is known also Gītopaniṣad, the essence of Vedic knowledge, and one of the most important of the various Upaniṣads in Vedic literature. This Bhagavad-gītā, there are many commentations in English and what is the necessity of another English commentation of the Bhagavad-gītā can be explained in the following way. One American lady, Mrs. Charlotte Le Blanc asked me to recommend an English edition of Bhagavad-gītā which she can read. Of course, in America there are so many editions of English Bhagavad-gītā, but so far I have seen them, not only in America but also India, none of them can be said strictly as authoritative because almost every one of them have expressed their own opinion through the commentation of the Bhagavad-gītā without touching the spirit of Bhagavad-gītā as it is.
The spirit of Bhagavad-gītā is mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā itself. It is just like this. If we want to take a particular medicine, then we have to follow the particular direction mentioned on the label of the medicine. We cannot take the particular medicine according to our own direction or by the direction of a friend, but we have to take the medicine under the direction given on the label of the bottle and as directed by the physician. Similarly, the Bhagavad-gītā also should be taken or accepted as it is directed by the speaker Himself. The speaker of the Bhagavad-gītā is Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He is mentioned in every page of the Bhagavad-gītā as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Bhagavān. Of course, "bhagavān" is sometimes designated to any powerful person or any powerful demigod, but here bhagavān is certainly designated to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, a great personality, but at the same time we must know that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, as He is confirmed by all the ācāryas... I mean to say, even Śaṅkarācārya, Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya, Nimbārka Svāmī and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and many others. In India there were many authoritative scholars and ācāryas, I mean, authorities of the Vedic knowledge. All of them, including Śaṅkarācārya, has accepted Śrī Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord Himself has also established Himself as the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the Bhagavad-gītā. He is accepted so in the Brahmā-saṁhitā and all Purāṇas, especially in the Bhāgavata Purāṇa, kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28]. So therefore we should take Bhagavad-gītā as it is directed by the Personality of Godhead Himself.
So in the Fourth Chapter of Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says,
sa evāyaṁ mayā te 'dya
yogaḥ proktaḥ purātanaḥ
bhakto 'si me sakhā ceti
rahasyaṁ hy etad uttamam
[Bg. 4.3]
The idea is the Lord said to Arjuna that "This yoga, this system of yoga, Bhagavad-gītā, was first spoken by Me to the sun-god and the sun-god explained to Manu. Manu explained to Ikṣvāku, and in that way, by disciplic succession, one after another, this yoga system is coming, and in course of time this system is now lost. And therefore, I am speaking to you the very same yoga system again, the very same old yoga system of Bhagavad-gītā, or Gītopaniṣad. Because you are My devotee and you are My friend, therefore it is possible for you only to understand."
Now the purport is that Bhagavad-gītā is a treatise which is specially meant for the devotee of the Lord. There are three classes of transcendentalists, namely the jñānī, the yogī and the bhakta. Or the impersonalist or the meditator or the devotees. So here it is clearly mentioned, the Lord says to Arjuna that "I am speaking or I am making you the first man of the paramparā. Because the old paramparā or disciplic succession is now broken, therefore I wish to establish again another paramparā in the same line of thought as it was coming down from the sun-god to others. So you, you take it and you distribute it. Or the system, the yoga system of Bhagavad-gītā may now be distributed through you. You become the authority of understanding Bhagavad-gītā." Now here is a direction that Bhagavad-gītā is especially instructed to Arjuna, the devotee of the Lord, the direct student of Kṛṣṇa. And not only that, he is intimately in touch with Kṛṣṇa as friend. Therefore Bhagavad-gītā is understood by a person who has similar qualities like Kṛṣṇa. That means he must be a devotee, he must be in relation, direct relationship with the Lord. As soon as one becomes a devotee of the Lord, he has a direct relationship also with the Lord. That is a subject matter very long, but briefly it can be stated that a devotee is in relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead in five ways. One may be a devotee in a passive state, one may be a devotee in active state, one may be a devotee as a friend, one may be a devotee as parent, and one may be a devotee as conjugal lover.
So Arjuna was a devotee in relationship with the Lord as a friend. The Lord can become a friend. Of course, this friendship and the conception of friendship which we have got in the mundane world, there is a gulf of difference. This is transcendental friendship which... Not that everyone will have the relationship with the Lord. Everyone has got a particular relationship with the Lord and that particular relationship is evoked by the perfection of devotional service. At the present status of our life we have not only forgotten the Supreme Lord, but also we have forgotten our eternal relationship with the Lord. Every living being, out of many, many millions and billions of living beings, each and every living being has got a particular relationship with the Lord eternally. That is called svarūpa. Svarūpa. And by the process of devotional service one can revive that svarūpa of oneself. And that stage is called svarūpa-siddhi, perfection of one's constitutional position. So Arjuna was a devotee and he was in touch with the Supreme Lord in friendship.
Now, this Bhagavad-gītā was explained to Arjuna and how Arjuna accepted it? That should also be noted. How Arjuna accepted the Bhagavad-gītā is mentioned in the Tenth Chapter. Just like
āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve
devarṣir nāradas tathā
asito devalo vyāsaḥ
svayaṁ caiva bravīṣi me
[Bg. 10.12-13]
Now, Arjuna says, after hearing Bhagavad-gītā from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he accepts Kṛṣṇa as paraṁ brahma, the Supreme Brahman. Brahman. Every living being is Brahman, but the supreme living being or the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supreme Brahman or supreme living being. And paraṁ dhāma. Paraṁ dhāma means He is the supreme rest of everything. And pavitram. Pavitram means He is pure from material contamination. And He's addressed as puruṣam. Puruṣam means the supreme enjoyer; śāśvatam, śāśvata means from very beginning, He's the first person; divyam, transcendental; devam, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ajam, never born; vibhum, the greatest.
Now one may doubt that because Kṛṣṇa was the friend of Arjuna, therefore he might say all these things to his own friend. But Arjuna, just to drive out this kind of doubts in the mind of the readers of Bhagavad-gītā, he establishes his proposition by the authorities. He says that Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead not only by himself, Arjuna, but He is so accepted by authorities like Nārada, Asita, Devala, Vyāsa. These personalities are great personalities in distributing the Vedic knowledge. They (are) accepted by all ācāryas. Therefore Arjuna says that "Whatever You have spoken so far to me, I accept them as completely perfect." Sarvam etad ṛtaṁ manye [Bg. 10.14]. "I take it, I believe it that whatever You have spoken, they are all right. And Your Personality, Your Personality of Godhead, is very difficult to understand. And therefore You cannot be known by even the demigods. You cannot be known even by the demigods." That means the Supreme Personality Godhead cannot be known even by greater personalities than the human being, and how a human being can understand Śrī Kṛṣṇa without becoming His devotee?
Therefore Bhagavad-gītā should be taken up in a spirit of devotee of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. One should not think that he is equal, on the same level of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, or one should not think that He is an ordinary personality, maybe a very great personality. No. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So at least theoretically, on the statement of Bhagavad-gītā or on the statement, assertion of Arjuna, the person who is trying to understand the Bhagavad-gītā, we should accept Śrī Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and then, with that submissive spirit... Unless one receives this Bhagavad-gītā in a submissive spirit and aural reception, it is very difficult to understand Bhagavad-gītā because it is a great mystery.
So in this Bhagavad-gītā... We may survey what is this Bhagavad-gītā. This Bhagavad-gītā is meant for delivering persons, persons from the nescience of this material existence. Every man is in difficulty in so many ways, as Arjuna also was in difficulty in the matter of fighting the battle of Kurukṣetra. And as such he surrendered unto Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and therefore this Bhagavad-gītā was spoken. Similarly, not only Arjuna but every one of us is always full of anxieties due to our, this material existence. Asad-grahāt. It is... Our existence is in the environment or atmosphere of nonexistence. But actually, we are not nonexistent. Our existence is eternal, but some way or other we are put into this asat. Asat means which does not exist.
Now out of so many human being who are actually inquiring about his position as to what he is, why he is put into this awkward position of suffering... Unless one is awakened to this position, that "Why I am suffering? I do not want all these sufferings. I have tried to make a solution of all these sufferings, but I have failed," unless one is in that position, he is not to be considered a perfect human being. Humanity begins when this sort of inquiries are awakened in one's mind. In the Brahma-sūtra this inquiry is called brahma-jijñāsā. Athāto brahma jijñāsā. And every activity of the human being is to be considered a failure without having this inquiry in his mind. So persons who have awakened this inquiry into his mind as to "What I am, why I am suffering, wherefrom I have come or where I shall go after death," when these inquiries come, are awakened in the mind of a sane human being, then he is practically the right student for understanding Bhagavad-gītā. And he must be śraddhāvān. Śraddhāvān. He must have respect, a fond respect in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a person, as the ideal person was Arjuna.
So Lord Kṛṣṇa, He descends, yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati [Bg. 4.7], just to establish the real purpose of life. When man forgets the real purpose of life, the mission of human form of life, then it is called dharmasya glāniḥ, the disturbance of the occupation of human being. So in that circumstances, out of many, many human being, who awakens, one who awakens the spirit of understanding his position, for him this Bhagavad-gītā is spoken. We are just like swallowed by the tigress of nescience, and Lord, being causelessly merciful upon the living entities, especially for the human being, He spoke Bhagavad-gītā, making His friend Arjuna as the student.
Arjuna was certainly, being an associate of Lord Kṛṣṇa, he was above all ignorance. But still, Arjuna was put into ignorance in the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra just to question about the problems of life to the Supreme Lord so that the Lord can explain them for the benefit of future generation of human being to chalk out the plan of his life and act in that way so that his life, his mission of human life, can be perfect.
So in this Bhagavad-gītā the subject matter is comprehending five different truths. The first truth is what is God. It is the preliminary study of the science of God. So that science of God is explained here. Next, the constitutional position of the living entities, jīva. Īśvara and jīva. The Lord, the Supreme Lord, He is called īśvara. Īśvara means controller, and jīva, the living entities are... Jīvas, the living entities, they are not īśvara, or the controller. They are controlled. Artificially, if I say that "I am not controlled, I am free," this is not the sign of a sane man. A living being is controlled in every respect. At least, in his conditioned life he is controlled. So in this Bhagavad-gita the subject matter comprehends about the īśvara, the supreme controller, and about the controlled living entities and prakṛti, the nature, the material nature. And next, the time, or duration of existence of the whole universe, or this manifestation of the material nature, and the duration of time, or the eternal time, and karma. Karma means activity. Everything, the whole universe, whole cosmic manifestation is full of different activities. The living beings especially, they are all engaged in different activities. So we have to study from the Bhagavad-gītā, īśvara, what is God, jīva, what are these living entities, and prakṛti, what is this cosmic manifestation, and how it is controlled by time, and what are these activities?
Now out of these five subject matter, in the Bhagavad-gītā it establish that the Supreme Godhead or Kṛṣṇa or Brahman or Paramātmā... You may call whatever you like. But the supreme controller. There is a supreme controller. So the supreme controller is the greatest of all. And the living beings, they are in quality like the supreme controller. Just like the supreme controller, the Lord, He has control over the universal affairs, over the material nature, how the... It will be explained in the later chapters of Bhagavad-gītā that this material nature is not independent. She is acting under the direction of the Supreme Lord. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram [Bg. 9.10]. "This material nature is working under My direction," mayādhyakṣeṇa, "under My superintendence." So we, we are mistaken. When we see wonderful things happening in the cosmic nature, we should know that behind these wonderful manifestations, there is a controller. Nothing can be manifested without being controlled. It is childish to, not to consider about the controller. Just like a very nice motor car with very good speed and very good engineering arrangement is running on the street. A child may think that "How this motor car is running without the help of any horse or any pulling agent?" But a sane man or an elderly person, he knows that in spite of all engineering arrangements in the motor car, without the driver it cannot move. That engineering arrangement of a motor car, or in electric powerhouse... Now at the present moment it is the day of machinery, but we should always know that behind the machinery, behind the wonderful working of the machinery, there is a driver. So the Supreme Lord is the driver, adhyakṣa. He is the Supreme Personality under whose direction everything is working. Now these jīva, or the living entities, they have been accepted by the Lord in this Bhagavad-gītā, as we'll know it in later chapters, that they are parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord. Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ [Bg. 15.7]. Aṁśa means parts and parcels. Now as a particle of gold is also particle, a drop of water of the ocean is also salty, similarly, we, the living entities, being part and parcels of the supreme controller, īśvara, Bhagavān, or Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, we have got, I mean to say, qualitatively all the qualities of the Supreme Lord in minute. Because we are minute īśvara, subordinate īśvara. We are also trying to control. We are just trying to control over the nature. In the present days you are trying to control over the space. You are trying to float imitation planets. So this tendency of controlling or creating is there because partially we have got that controlling tendency. But we should know that this tendency is not sufficient. We have the tendency of controlling over the material nature, lording it over the material nature, but we are not the supreme controller. So that thing is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā.
Then what is this material nature? The nature is also explained. The nature, material nature, is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā as inferior, inferior prakṛti. Inferior prakṛti, and the living entities are explained as the superior prakṛti. Prakṛti means which is controlled, which is under... Prakṛti, real meaning of prakṛti is a woman or a female. Just like a husband controls the activities of his wife, similarly, the prakṛti is also subordinate, predominated. The Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the predominator, and this prakṛti, both the living entities and the material nature, they are different prakṛtis, or predominated, controlled by the Supreme. So according to Bhagavad-gītā, the living entities, although they are parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, they are taken as prakṛti. It is clearly mentioned in the Seventh Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā yes, apareyam itas tu viddhi aparā [Bg. 7.5]. This material nature is aparā iyam. Itas tu, and beyond this there is another prakṛti. And what is that prakṛti? Jīva-bhūta, these...
So this prakṛti, the constitution of this prakṛti is constituted by three qualities: the mode of goodness, the mode of passion, and mode of ignorance. And above these modes, three different kinds of modes, goodness, passion, and, I mean to say, ignorance, there is eternal time. There is eternal time. And by combination of these modes of nature and under the control, under the purview of this eternal time, there are activities. There are activities, which is called karma. These activities are being done from time immemorial and we are suffering or enjoying the fruits of our activities. Just like in the present life also, we enjoy the activities, the fruits of our activities. Suppose I am a businessman and I have worked very hard with intelligence and I have amassed a vast amount of bank balance. Now I am the enjoyer. Similarly, suppose I started my business with a vast amount of money, but I failed to make a successful..., I lost all the money. So I am sufferer. So similarly, in every field of our life we enjoy, we enjoy the result of our work. This is called karma.
So these things, īśvara, jīva, prakṛti, or the Supreme Lord, or the living entity, the material nature, the eternal time, and our different activities, these things are explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Now out of these five, the Lord, the living entities, and the material nature and time, these four items are eternal. Now manifestation, manifestation of prakṛti may be temporary, but it is not false. Some philosophers say that this manifestation of material nature is false, but according to the philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā or according to the philosophy of the Vaiṣṇavas, they do not accept the manifestation of the world as false. They accept that the manifestation is real, but it is temporary. It is just like a cloud takes place in the sky and the rainy season begins, and after the rainy season there are so many new green vegetation all over the field, we can see. And as soon as the rainy season is finished, then the cloud is vanquished. Generally, gradually, all this vegetation dry up and again the land becomes barren. Similarly, this material manifestation takes place at a certain interval. We'll understand it, we'll know it, from the pages of the Bhagavad-gītā. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19]. This manifestation becomes magnificent at a certain interval, and again it disappears. That is the work of the prakṛti. But it is working eternally; therefore prakṛti is eternal. It is not false. Because the Lord has accepted, mama prakṛti, "My prakṛti." Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām [Bg. 7.5]. Bhinnā prakṛti, bhinnā prakṛti, aparā prakṛti, this material nature is a separated energy of the Supreme Lord, and the living entities, they are also energy of the Supreme Lord, but they are not separated. They are eternally related. So the Lord, the living entity, the nature, material nature, and time, they are all eternal. But the other item, karma, is not eternal. The effects of karma or activity may be very old. We are suffering or enjoying the results of our activities from a time immemorial, but still, we can change the result of our karma, or activity. That will depend on our perfect knowledge. We are engaged in various activities undoubtedly, but we do not know what sort of activities we shall adopt that will give us relief from the actions and reactions of all activities. That is also explained in the Bhagavad-gītā.
Now, the position of īśvara is supreme consciousness. Position of īśvara, or the Supreme Lord, is supreme consciousness. And the jīvas, or the living entities, being parts and parcels of the Supreme Lord, he is also conscious. A living entity is also conscious. The living entity is explained as prakṛti, energy, and the material nature is also explained as prakṛti, but amongst the two, one prakṛti, the jīvas, they are conscious. The other prakṛti is not conscious. That is the difference. Therefore the jīva prakṛti is called superior because the jīvas has consciousness similar to the Lord. The Lord is supreme consciousness. One should not claim that a jīva, a living entity is also supremely conscious. No. A living being cannot be supremely conscious at any stage of his perfection. This is a misleading theory. This is misleading theory. But he is conscious. That's all. But he is not supreme conscious.
The supreme conscious, it will be explained in the Bhagavad-gītā in the chapter where the distinction between the jīva and īśvara is explained. Kṣetra-kṣetra-jña. This kṣetra-jña has been explained that the Lord is also kṣetra-jña, or conscious, and the jīvas, or the living beings, they are also conscious. But the difference is that a living being is conscious within his limited body, but the Lord is conscious of all bodies. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati [Bg. 18.61]. The Lord lives within the core of heart in every living being, therefore He is conscious of the psychic movements, activities, of the particular jīva. We should not forget. It is also explained that the Paramātmā, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is living in everyone's heart as īśvara, as the controller and He is giving direction. He is giving direction. Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭhaḥ [Bg. 15.15], everyone's heart He is situated, and He gives direction to act as he desires. The living entity forgets what to do. First of all he makes his determination to act in a certain way, and then he is entangled in the actions and reactions of his own karma. But after giving up one type of body, when he enters another type of body... Just like we give up one kind of dress, one type of dress, for another type of dress, similarly, it is explained in this Bhagavad-gītā that vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya [Bg. 2.22]. One, as one changes his different dresses, similarly the living entities, they are also changing different bodies, transmigration of the soul, and pulling on the actions and reactions of his past activities. So these activities can be changed when a living being is in the mode of goodness, in sanity, and he understands what sort of activities he should adopt, and if he does so, then the whole action and reactions of his past activities can be changed. Therefore karma is not eternal. Other things, out of the four, five items—īśvara, jīva, prakṛti, kāla, and karma—these four items are eternal, whereas the karma, the item known as karma, that is not eternal.
Now the conscious īśvara, the supreme conscious īśvara, and difference between the supreme conscious īśvara, or the Lord, and the living being is, in the present circumstances, is like this. Consciousness, consciousness of, both of the Lord and the living entities, they are, this consciousness is transcendental. It is not that this consciousness is generated by the association of this matter. That is a mistaken idea. The theory that consciousness develops under certain circumstances of material combination is not accepted in the Bhagavad-gītā. They cannot. Consciousness may be pervertedly reflected by the cover of material circumstances, just like light reflected through a colored glass may seem according to the color. Similarly, the consciousness of Lord, it is not materially affected. The Supreme Lord, just like Kṛṣṇa, He says that mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ [Bg. 9.10]. When He descends in this material world, His consciousness is not materially affected. Had His consciousness been materially affected, He was unfit to speak about the transcendental subject matter in the Bhagavad-gītā. One cannot say anything about the transcendental world without being free from the materially contaminated consciousness. So the Lord was not materially contaminated. But our consciousness, at the present moment, is materially contaminated. So whole thing, as the Bhagavad-gītā teaches, we have to purify the materially contaminated consciousness and in that pure consciousness, the actions will be done. That will make us happy. We cannot stop. We cannot stop our activity. The activities are to be purified. And these purified activities are called bhakti. Bhakti means they are, they appear also just like ordinary activity, but they are not contaminated activities. They are purified activities. So an ignorant person may see that a devotee is working like an ordinary man, but a person with poor fund of knowledge, he does not know that the activities of a devotee or the activities of the Lord, they are not contaminated by the impure consciousness of matter, impurity of the three guṇas, modes of nature, but transcendental consciousness. So our consciousness is materially contaminated, we should know.
Now when we are such materially contaminated, that is called our conditioned stage. Conditioned stage. And the false ego, the false consciousness... The false consciousness is exhibited under the impression that "I am one of the product of this material nature." That is called false ego. The whole material activities, yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke [SB 10.84.13]. Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke, one who is absorbed in the thought of bodily conception. Now, the whole Bhagavad-gītā was explained by the Lord because Arjuna represented himself with bodily conception. So one has to get free from the bodily conception of life. That is the preliminary activity for a transcendentalist who wants to get free, who wants to be liberated. And he has to learn first of all that he is not this material body. So this consciousness, or material consciousness, when we are freed from this material consciousness, that is called mukti. Mukti or liberation means to become free from material consciousness. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata also the definition of liberation is said, muktir hitvānyathā rūpaṁ svarūpeṇa vyavasthitiḥ [SB 2.10.6]. Svarūpeṇa vyavasthitiḥ. Mukti means liberation from the contaminated consciousness of this material world and to become situated in pure consciousness. And the whole instruction, instruction of Bhagavad-gītā, is targeted to awaken that pure consciousness. We'll find in the last stage of the instruction of Bhagavad-gītā that Kṛṣṇa is asking Arjuna whether he is now in purified consciousness. Whether he was in purified consciousness. The purified consciousness is to act according to the direction of the Lord. That is purified consciousness. That is the whole sum and substance of purified consciousness. Consciousness is already there, but because we are part and parcels, therefore we are affected. There is affinity of being affected by the material modes. But the Lord being Supreme, He is never affected. He is never affected. That is the difference between the Lord and the Supreme..., Supreme Lord and the...
Now this consciousness is... What is this consciousness? This consciousness is that "I am." What I am? When in contaminated consciousness this "I am" means that "I am the lord of all I survey." This is impure consciousness. And "I am the enjoyer." The whole material world is moving that every living being is thinking that "I am the lord and I am the creator of this material world." The consciousness has got two psychic movement or two psychic division. One is that "I am the creator," and the other is "I am the enjoyer." So the Supreme Lord is actually the creator and He is actually the enjoyer. And the living entities, being part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, he's not actually the creator or the enjoyer, but he's a cooperator. Just like the whole machine. The part of the machine is the cooperator, is the cooperator. Or if we can study just the constitution of our body. Now, in the body there are hands, there are legs, there are eyes, and all these instruments, working, but all these parts and parcels of the body, they are not enjoyer. The stomach is the enjoyer. The leg is moving from one place to another. The hand is collecting, the hand is preparing foodstuff, and the teeth is chewing, and everything, all parts of body, are engaged in satisfying the stomach because the stomach is the principle fact within the organization of this body. And everything should be given to the stomach. Prāṇopahārāc ca yathendriyāṇām [SB 4.31.14]. Just like you can see a tree green by pouring water in the root. Or you can become healthy... The parts of the body—the hands, the legs, the eyes, the ears, the fingers—everything keeps in healthy stage when the parts of the body cooperate with the stomach. Similarly, the supreme living being, the Lord, He is the enjoyer. He is the enjoyer and He is the creator. And we, I mean to say, subordinate living beings, the products of the energy of the Supreme Lord, we are just to cooperate with Him. That cooperation will help. Just for example, a good foodstuff taken by the fingers. If the fingers think that "Why should we give it to the stomach? Let us enjoy." That is a mistake. The fingers are unable to enjoy. If fingers want the fruit of enjoyment of that particular foodstuff, the fingers must put it into the stomach. So the whole arrangement is that the central figure, central figure of creation, central figure of enjoyment, is the Supreme Lord, and the living entities, they are simply cooperator. By cooperation, by cooperation they enjoy. The relation is just like the master and the servant. If the master is satisfied, if the master is fully satisfied, the servants are automatically satisfied. That is the law. Similarly, the Supreme Lord should be satisfied, although the tendency for becoming creator and the tendency to enjoy this material world is, they are also in the living entities because it is there in the Supreme Lord. He has created, He has created the manifested cosmic world.
Therefore we shall find in this Bhagavad-gītā that the complete whole, comprising the supreme controller, the controlled living entities, the cosmic manifestation, the eternal time, and the activities, all of them are completely explained. So the whole thing taking together completely is called the Absolute Truth. The complete whole, or the Supreme Absolute Truth, is therefore the complete Personality of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa. As I have explained, that the manifestation are due to His different energies, and He is the complete whole.
The impersonal Brahman is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā that impersonal Brahman is also subordinate to the complete person. Brahmaṇo 'haṁ pratiṣṭhā [Bg. 14.27]. Impersonal Brahman is also. It is... The impersonal Brahman is more explicitly explained in the Brahma-sūtra as the rays. As there is the rays of the sunshine, sun planet, similarly, the impersonal Brahman is the shining rays of the Supreme Brahman or the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore impersonal Brahman is incomplete realization of the absolute complete whole, and so also the conception of Paramātmā. These things are also explained. Puruṣottama-yoga. When we shall read the chapter of Puruṣottama-yoga it will be seen that the Supreme Personality, Puruṣottama, is above the impersonal Brahman and partial realization of Paramātmā.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is called sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. In the Brahma-saṁhitā, the beginning is started like this: īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ/ anādir ādir govindaḥ sarva-kāraṇa-kāraṇam [Bs. 5.1]." Govinda, Kṛṣṇa, is the cause of all causes. He is the primal Lord." So the Supreme Personality of Godhead is sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Impersonal Brahman realization is the realization of His sat part, eternity. And Paramātmā realization is the realization of sat-cit, eternal knowledge part realization. But realization of the Personality of Godhead as Kṛṣṇa is realization of all the transcendental features like sat, cit, and ānanda, in complete vigraha. Vigraha means form. Vigraha means form. Avyaktaṁ vyaktim āpannaṁ manyante mām abuddhayaḥ [Bg. 7.24]. People with less intelligence, they consider the Supreme Truth as impersonal, but He is a person, a transcendental person. This is confirmed in all Vedic literature. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). So, as we are also persons, individual living beings, we are persons, we have got our individuality, we are all individual, similarly the Supreme Truth, the Supreme Absolute, He is also, at the ultimate issue He is a person. But realization of the Personality of Godhead is realization of all the transcendental features like sat, cit, and ānanda, in complete vigraha. Vigraha means form. Therefore the complete whole is not formless. If He is formless or if He is less in any other thing, He cannot be complete whole. The complete whole must have everything within our experience and beyond our experience. Otherwise He cannot be complete. The complete whole Personality of Godhead has immense potencies. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate [Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]. That is also explained in Bhagavad-gītā, how He is acting in different potencies. This phenomenal world, or the material world, where we are now put, is also complete by itself because pūrṇam idam [Īśopaniṣad, Invocation]. The 24 elements of which, according to Sāṅkhya philosophy, the 24 elements of which this material universe is a temporary manifestation, are completely adjusted to produce complete things which are necessary for the maintenance and subsistence of this universe. No extraneous effort by any other unit is required for the maintenance of the universe. It's at its own time, fixed up by the energy of the complete whole, and when the time is complete, these temporary manifestations will be annihilated by the complete arrangement of the complete. There is complete facility for the small complete units, namely, the living entities, to realize the complete. And all sorts of incompleteness is experienced on account of incomplete knowledge of the complete. So the Bhagavad-gītā is the complete knowledge of the Vedic wisdom.
The whole Vedic knowledge is infallible. There are different examples how we take Vedic knowledge as infallible. Take for example, so far the Hindus are concerned, and how they accept the Vedic knowledge as complete, here is an insignificant example. Just like the cow dung. The cow dung is the stool of an animal. According to smṛti or Vedic wisdom, if one touches the stool of an animal he has to take his bath to purify himself. But in the Vedic scriptures the cow dung is as stated as pure. Rather, impure place or impure things are purified by touch of the cow dung. Now if one argues how it is that in one place it is said that the stool of the animal is impure and another place it is said that the cow dung which is also the stool of an animal, it is pure, so it is contradictory. But actually, it may appear to be contradictory, but because it is Vedic injunction, therefore for our practical purposes we accept it. And by that acceptance we are not committing mistake. It has been found by modern chemists, modern science, one Dr. Lal Mohan Gosal, he has very minutely analyzed the cow dung and he has found that cow dung is a composition of all antiseptic properties. So similarly, he has also analyzed the water of the Ganges out of curiosity. So my idea is that Vedic knowledge is complete because it is above all doubts and all mistakes. So, and Bhagavad-gītā is the essence of all Vedic knowledge. The Vedic knowledge is therefore infallible. It comes down through the perfect disciplic succession.
Therefore Vedic knowledge is not a thing of research. Our research work is imperfect because we are searching everything with imperfect senses. Therefore the result of our research work is also imperfect. It cannot be perfect. We have to accept the perfect knowledge. The perfect knowledge is coming down, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, just we have begun, evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ [Bg. 4.2]. We have to receive the knowledge from the right source in disciplic succession of spiritual master beginning from the Lord Himself. So Bhagavad-gītā is spoken by the Lord Himself. And Arjuna, the, I mean to say, the student who took lessons of the Bhagavad-gītā, he accepted the whole story as it is, without any cutting. That is also not allowed, that we accept a certain portion of Bhagavad-gītā and reject another portion. That is also not accepted. We must accept the Bhagavad-gītā without interpretation, without any cutting, and without our own whimsical participation in the matter because it should be taken as the most perfect Vedic knowledge. The Vedic knowledge is received from the transcendental sources because the first word was spoken by the Lord Himself. The words spoken by the Lord is called apauruṣeya, or not delivered by any person of the mundane world, who is infected with four principles of imperfectness. A living being of the mundane world has four defective principles of his life, and they are 1) that he must commit mistake, 2) he must be sometimes illusioned, and 3) he must try to cheat others, and 4) he's endowed with imperfect senses. With all these four principles of imperfectness, one cannot deliver the perfect form of information in the matter of all-pervading knowledge. The Vedas are not like that. The Vedic knowledge was imparted in the heart of Brahmā, the first created living being. And Brahmā in his turn disseminated the knowledge to his sons and disciples as they were originally received from the Lord. The Lord, being pūrṇam or all-perfect, there is no chance of His becoming subjected to the laws of material nature. One should therefore be intelligent enough to know that except the Lord, nobody is the proprietor of anything within the universe. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā:
The Lord is the original creator. He is the creator of Brahmā, He is the creator... That is also explained. He is the creator of Brahmā. In the 11th Chapter the Lord is addressed as prapitāmaha [Bg. 11.39] because Brahmā is addressed as pitāmaha, the grandfather, but He is the creator of the grandfather also. So nobody should claim to be the proprietor of anything, but he must accept things which are set aside by the Lord as his quota of maintenance. Now, there are many examples how we have to utilize the allotment of the Lord. That is also explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Arjuna, he decided in the beginning that he should not fight. That was his own contemplation. Arjuna said to the Lord that it was not possible for him to enjoy the kingdom after killing his own kinsmen. And that point of view was due to his conception of the body. Because he was thinking that the body was himself and the bodily relatives, his brothers, his nephews, his father-in-law or his grandfather, they were expansion of his body, and he was thinking in that way to satisfy his bodily demands. And the whole thing was spoken by the Lord just to change the view. And he agreed to work under the direction of the Lord. And he said, kariṣye vacanaṁ tava [Bg. 18.73].
Therefore in this world the human being is not meant for quarreling like the cats and dogs. They must be intelligent enough to realize the importance of the human life and refuse to act like ordinary animal. He should... A human being should realize the aim of human life. This direction is given in all the Vedic literature, and the essence is given in the Bhagavad-gītā. Vedic literature are meant for the human being and not for the cats and dogs. The cats and dogs can kill their eatable animals, and for that there is no question of sin on their part. But if a man kills an animal for the satisfaction of his uncontrolled taste, he must be responsible for breaking the laws of nature. And in the Bhagavad-gītā it is clearly explained that there are three kinds of activities according to the different modes of nature: the activities of goodness, the activities of passion, the activities of ignorance. Similarly, there are three kinds of eatables also: eatables in goodness, eatables on passion, eatables on ignorance. They're all clearly described, and if we properly utilize the instructions of the Bhagavad-gītā, then our whole life will become purified and ultimately we shall (be) able to reach the destination. Yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama [Bg. 15.6].
That information is given in the Bhagavad-gītā, that beyond this material sky, there is another spiritual sky; that is called sanātana sky. In this sky, this covered sky, we find everything temporary. It is manifested, it stays for some time, gives us some by-product, and then it becomes dwindling, and then vanishes. That is the law of this material world. You take this body, you take a fruit or anything what is created here, it has got its annihilation at the end. So beyond this temporary world there is another world for which the information is there, that paras tasmāt tu bhāvaḥ anyaḥ [Bg. 8.20]. There is another nature which is eternal, sanātana, which is eternal. And the jīva, jīva is also described as sanātana. Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ jīva-loke sanātanaḥ [Bg. 15.7]. Sanātana, sanātana means eternal. And the Lord is also described as sanātana in the 11th Chapter. So because we have got intimate relation with the Lord and we are all qualitatively one... The sanātana-dhama and the sanātana Supreme Personality and the sanātana living entities, they are on the same qualitatively plane. Therefore the whole target of Bhagavad-gītā is to revive our sanātana occupation or sanātana..., that is called sanātana-dharma, or eternal occupation of the living entity. We are now temporarily engaged in different activities and all these activities being purified. When we give up all these temporary activities, sarva-dharmān parityajya [Bg. 18.66], and when we take up the activities as desired by the Supreme Lord, that is called our pure life. [break] Therefore, sanātana-dharma, as mentioned above, that the Supreme Lord is sanātana, and the transcendental abode, which is beyond the spiritual sky, that is also sanātana. And the living entities, they are also sanātana. So association of the sanātana Supreme Lord, sanātana living entities, in the sanātana eternal abode is the ultimate aim of human form of life. The Lord is so kind upon the living entities because the living entities are claimed to be all sons of the Supreme Lord. The Lord declares sarva-yoniṣu kaunteya sambhavanti mūrtayo yāḥ [Bg. 14.4]. Every living, every type of living entity... There are different types of living entities according to their different karma, but the Lord claims that He is the father of all living entities, and therefore the Lord descends to reclaim all these forgotten conditioned souls back to the sanātana-dhāma, the sanātana sky, so that the sanātana living entity may again reinstall in his sanātana position in eternal association of the Lord. He comes Himself by different incarnations, He sends His confidential servitor as sons or associates or ācāryas to reclaim the conditioned souls.
And therefore sanātana-dharma does not mean any sectarian process of religion. It is the eternal function of the eternal living entities in relationship with the eternal Supreme Lord. So far sanātana-dharma is concerned, it means the eternal occupation. Śrīpāda Rāmānujācārya has explained the word sanātana as "the thing which has neither any beginning nor any end." And when we speak of sanātana-dharma we must take it for granted on the authority of Śrīpāda Rāmānujācārya that it has no beginning, nor any end. The word religion is a little different from sanātana-dharma. Religion conveys the idea of faith. Faith may change. One may have faith in a particular process, and he may change the faith afterwards and adopt another faith. But sanātana-dharma means which cannot be changed, which cannot be changed. Just like water and liquidity. Liquidity cannot be changed from water. Heat and fire. Heat cannot be changed from fire. Similarly, the eternal function of the eternal living entity, which is known as sanātana-dharma, cannot be changed. It is not possible to change. We have to find out what is that eternal function of the eternal living entity. When we speak of sanātana-dharma therefore, we must take it for granted on the authority of Śrīpāda Rāmānujācārya that it has no beginning nor any end. The thing which has no end, no beginning, must not be any sectarian thing or limited by any boundary. When we hold on the conference on the sanātana-dharma, people belonging to some of the noneternal religious faiths may wrongly consider it that we are dealing in some sectarian thing. But if we go deep into the matter and take everything in the light of modern science, it will be possible for us to see sanātana-dharma as the business of all the people of the world, nay, all the living entities of the universe. Non-sanātana religious faith may have some beginning in the annals of the human society, but there cannot be any history of the sanātana-dharma because it continues to remain with the history of the living entities. So far living entities are concerned, we find it from the authority of the śāstras that living entities have also no birth or death. In the Bhagavad-gītā it is clearly stated that the living entity is never born, nor does it ever die. He's eternal, indestructible, and continues to live after the destruction of his temporary material body. With reference to the above concept of sanātana-dharma we may try to understand the concept of religion from the Sanskrit root meaning of the word dharma. It means that which is constantly with the particular object. As we have already mentioned, when we speak of fire it is concluded at the same time that there is heat and light along with the fire. Without heat and without light, there is no meaning of the word fire. Similarly, we must find out the essential part of a living being which is always companion with him. That part of constant companion of the living being is his eternal quality, and the eternal part of the living being's quality is his eternal religion. When Sanātana Gosvāmī asked Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu about the svarūpa—we have already discussed about the svarūpa of every living being—svarūpa or real constitution of the living being, the Lord replied that the constitutional position of the living being is to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But if we analyze this part of the statement of Lord Caitanya, we can very well see that every living being is constantly engaged in the business of rendering service to another living being. A living being serves another living being in different capacities, and by doing so, the living entity enjoys life. A lower animal serves a human being, a servant serves his master, A serves B master, B serves C master, and C serves D master, and so on. Under the circumstances, we can see that a friend serves another friend, and the mother serves the son, or the wife serves the husband, or husband serves the wife. If we go on searching in that spirit, it will be seen that there is no exception in the society of the living being where we do not find the activity of service. The politician present his manifesto before the public and convinces voters about his service capacity. The voter also gives the politician his valuable vote on expectation that the politician will give service to the society. The shopkeeper serves the customer and the artisan serves the capitalist. The capitalist serves his family and the family serves the head man in terms of the eternal capacity of eternal being. In this way we can see no living being is exempted from the practice of rendering service to other living being, and therefore we can conclude that service is a thing which is the constant companion of the living being, and therefore it may be safely concluded that rendering of service by a living being is the eternal religion of the living being. When a man professes to belong to a particular type of faith with reference to the particular time and circumstances of birth, and thus one claims to be a Hindu, a Muslim, a Christian, Buddhist, or any other sect, and sub-sect, such designations are non-sanātana-dharma. A Hindu may change his faith to become a Muslim, or a Muslim may change his faith to become a Hindu or a Christian, etc., but in all circumstances such change of religious faith does not allow a person to change his eternal engagement of rendering service to other. A Hindu or a Muslim or a Christian, in all circumstances, he is servant of somebody, and thus to profess a particular type of faith is not to be considered as sanātana-dharma, but the constant companion of the living being, that is, rendering of service, is the sanātana-dharma. So factually, we are related in the service relationship with the Supreme Lord. The Supreme Lord is the supreme enjoyer, and we living entities are eternally His supreme servitors. We are created for His enjoyment, and if we partake, participate in that eternal enjoyment with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, that makes us happy, not otherwise. Independently, as we have already explained that independently, any part of the body, the hand, the feet, the fingers, or any part of the body, independently, cannot be happy without cooperation with the stomach, similarly, the living entity can never be happy without rendering his transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord. Now, in the Bhagavad-gītā the worship of different demigods is not approved, is not approved because... It is said in the Bhagavad-gītā [Bg. 7.20], the Lord says, kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ prapadyante 'nya-devatāḥ. Kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ. Those who are directed by lust, only they worship the demigods other than the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa. We also may remember that when we speak of "Kṛṣṇa" it is not a sectarian name. The "Kṛṣṇa" name means the highest pleasure. It is confirmed that the Supreme Lord is the reservoir, is the storehouse of all pleasure. We are all hankering after pleasure. Ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). The living entities or the Lord, because we are full of consciousness, therefore our consciousness is after happiness. Happiness. The Lord is also perpetually happy, and if we associate with the Lord, cooperate with Him, take part in His association, then also we become happy. The Lord descends on this mortal world to show His pastimes in Vṛndāvana full of happiness. When Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was in Vṛndāvana, His activities with His cowherd boys friends, with His damsels, with His friends, damsel friends, and with the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana and His occupation of cowherding in His childhood, and all these pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa were full of happiness. The whole of Vṛndāvana, the whole population of Vṛndāvana, was after Him. They did not know except Kṛṣṇa. Even Lord Kṛṣṇa restricted His father, Nanda Mahārāja
in worshiping the demigod Indra because He wanted to establish that people need not worship any other demigod except the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because the ultimate aim of life is to return to the abode of the Supreme Lord. The abode of Lord Kṛṣṇa is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, 15th Chapter, 6th verse,
Now the description of that eternal sky... When we speak of sky, because we have material conception of the sky, therefore we think of sky with sun, moon, stars, like that. But the Lord says that the eternal sky, there is no need of sun. Na tad bhāsayate sūryo na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ [Bg. 15.6]. Neither in that eternal sky there is need of moon. Na pāvakaḥ means neither there is necessity of electricity or fire for illuminating because the spiritual sky is already illuminated by the brahmajyoti. Brahmajyoti, yasya prabhā [Bs. 5.40], the rays of the supreme abode. Now in these days when people are trying to reach other planets, it is not very difficult to understand the abode of the Supreme Lord. The abode of the Supreme Lord is in the spiritual sky, and it is named as Goloka. In the Brahmā-saṁhitā it is very nicely described, goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ [Bs. 5.37]. The Lord, although resides eternally in His abode, Goloka, still He is akhilātma-bhūtaḥ, He can be approached from here also. And the Lord therefore comes to manifest His real form, sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1], so that we may not have to imagine. There is no question of imagination. The Lord's presence, by His causeless mercy He presents Himself in His Śyāmasundara-rūpa. Unfortunately, people with less intelligence deride at Him. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā [Bg. 9.11]. Because the Lord comes as one of us and just like plays with us as a human being, therefore we need not consider that Lord is one of us. It is His omnipotency that He presents Himself with His real form before us and displays His pastimes, just the prototype of His abode. So that abode of Lord, there are innumerable planets also in that brahmajyoti. Just like we have got innumerable planets floating on the sun rays, similarly, in the brahmajyoti, which is emanating from the abode of the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇaloka, Goloka, ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis [Bs. 5.37], all those planets are spiritual planets. They are ānanda-cinmaya; they are not material planets. So the Lord says,
Now anyone who can approach that spiritual sky will not be required to come back again in this material sky. So long we are in the material sky, what to speak of approaching the moon planet.... The moon planet, of course, is the nearest planet, but even we approach the highest planet, which is called Brahmaloka, there also we have the same miseries of material life, I mean to say, the miseries of birth, death, old age, and diseases. No planets in the material universe is free from the four principles of material existence. The Lord therefore says in the Bhagavad-gītā, ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna [Bg. 8.16]. The living entities are traveling from one planet to another. It is not that we can simply go to other planets by the mechanical arrangement of the sputnik. Anyone who desires to go to other planet, there is process. Yānti deva-vratā devān pitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ [Bg. 9.25]. If anyone wants to go to any other planet, say, moon planet, we need not try to go by the sputnik. The Bhagavad-gītā instructs us, yānti deva-vratā devān. These moon planets or sun planets or the planets above this Bhūloka, they are called Svargaloka. Svargaloka. Bhūloka, Bhuvarloka, Svargaloka. There are different status of planets. So Devaloka, they are known just like that. The Bhagavad-gītā gives a very simple formula that you can go to the higher planets, Devaloka. Yānti deva-vratā devān. Yānti deva-vratā devān. Deva-vratā, if we practice the process of worshiping the particular demigod, then we can go to that particular planet also. We can go to the sun planet even, we can go to the moon planet, we can go to the heavenly planet, but Bhagavad-gītā does not advise us to go to any one of these planets in the material world because even we go to the Brahmaloka, the highest planet, which is calculated by the modern scientist that we can reach the highest planet by traveling with sputniks for 40,000 years. Now it is not possible to live 40,000 years and reach the highest planet of this material universe. But if one devotes his life in the worshipment of the particular demigod he can approach the particular planet, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: yānti deva-vratā devān pitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ [Bg. 9.25]. Similarly, there is Pitṛloka. Similarly, one who likes to approach the supreme planet, supreme planet... The supreme planet means the Kṛṣṇaloka. In the spiritual sky there are innumerable planets, sanātana planets, eternal planets, which are never destroyed, annihilated. But of all those spiritual planets there is one planet, the original planet, which is called Goloka Vṛndāvana. So these informations are there in the Bhagavad-gītā and we are given the opportunity for leaving this material world and get our eternal life in the eternal kingdom. Now in the 15th Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā, the real picture of this material world is given. It is said there that
Now, this material world is described in the Fifteenth chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā as a tree which has got its root upwards, ūrdhva-mūlam. Have you experience of any tree which has its root upwards? We have got this experience of a tree, root upwards by reflection. If we stand on the bank of a river or any reservoir of water, we can see that the tree on the bank of the reservoir of water is reflected in the water as trunk downwards and the root upwards. So this material world is practically a reflection of the spiritual world. Just like the reflection of the tree on the bank of a reservoir of water is seen downwards, similarly, this material world, it is called shadow. Shadow. As in the shadow there cannot be any reality, but at the same time, from the shadow we can understand that there is reality. The example of shadow in the, shadow of water in the desert, suggests that in the desert there is no water, but there is water. Similarly, in the reflection of the spiritual world, or in this material world, there is undoubtedly, there is no happiness, there is no water. But the real water, or the actual happiness, is in the spiritual world. The Lord suggests that one has to reach that spiritual world in the following manner, nirmāna-mohā.
That padam avyayam, that eternal kingdom, can be reached by one who is nirmāna-mohā. Nirmāna-mohā. Nirmāna means we are after designations. Artificially we want some designations. Somebody wants to become sir, somebody wants to become lord, somebody wants to become the president, or somebody wants to become a rich man, somebody wants to become something else, king. All these designations, so long we'll have attachment for all these designations... Because after all these designations belong to the body, and we are not this body. This is the first conception of spiritual realization. So one has no attraction for designation. And jita-saṅga-doṣā, saṅga-doṣā. Now we are associated with the three modes of material qualities, and if we become detached by devotional service of the Lord... So long we are not attracted by devotional service of the Lord, we cannot be detached from the three modes of material nature. Therefore the Lord says, vinivṛtta-kāmāḥ, these designations or these attachments are due to our lust, desire. We want to lord it over the material nature. So, so long we do not give up this propensity of lording it over the material nature, up to that time there is no possibility of going back to the kingdom of the Supreme, the sanātana-dhāma. Dvandvair vimuktāḥ sukha-duḥkha-saṁjñair gacchanty amūḍhāḥ, amūḍhāḥ padam avyayaṁ tat [Bg. 15.5]. That eternal kingdom, which is never destructible like this material world, can be approached by amūḍhāḥ. Amūḍhāḥ means nonbewildered, one who is not bewildered by the attraction of this false enjoyment. And one is situated in the supreme service of the Lord, he is the right person to approach that eternal kingdom. And that eternal kingdom does not require any sun, any moon, or any electricity. That is a glimpse idea of approaching of the eternal kingdom. In another place in the Bhagavad-gītā it is also said that
Avyakta means nonmanifested. Even the part of material world is not manifested before us. Our senses are so imperfect that we cannot see how many stars, how many planets there are in this material universe. Of course, through the Vedic literature we get information of all the planets. We may believe or not believe, but all the important planets in which we have connection, they are described in the Vedic literature, especially in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. But the spiritual world, which is beyond this material sky, paras tasmāt tu bhāvo 'nyo [Bg. 8.20], but that avyakta, that nonmanifested spiritual sky, is the paramāṁ gatim, that is, one should desire, one should hanker after reaching that supreme kingdom. And once approaching that supreme kingdom, yaṁ prāpya, one approaching or one achieving that supreme kingdom, na nivartante, one hasn't got to return back to this material world. And that place which is the eternal abode of Lord, that from where we haven't got to return, that is our, that should be our... [break] Now a question may be raised, what is the way how to approach the supreme abode of the Lord. That is also described in the Bhagavad-gītā. It is said on the 8th Chapter, verses 5, 6, 7, 8, the process of approaching the Supreme Lord or Supreme Lord's abode is also given there. It is said like this:
Anta-kāle, at the end of life, at the time of death. Anta-kāle ca mām eva, one who thinks of Kṛṣṇa, smaran, if he can remember. A dying person, at the time of death, if he remembers the form of Kṛṣṇa and while remembering in that way, if he quits the present body, then surely he approaches the spiritual kingdom, mad-bhāvam. Bhāvam means the spiritual nature. Yaḥ prayāti sa mad-bhāvaṁ yāti. Mad-bhāvam means just like the nature or the transcendental nature of the Supreme Being. As we have described above, that the Supreme Lord is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1]. He has His form, but His form is eternal, sat; and full of knowledge, cit; and full of bliss, ānanda. Now just we can compare our present body, whether this body is sac-cid-ānanda. No. This body is asat. Instead of being sat it is asat. Antavanta ime dehā [Bg. 2.18], Bhagavad-gītā says that this body is antavat, perishable. And... Sac-cid-ānanda. Instead of becoming sat, it is asat, just the opposite. And instead of becoming cit, full of knowledge, it is full of ignorance. We have no knowledge of the spiritual kingdom, neither we have got any perfect knowledge of this material world. So many things unknown to us, therefore this body is ignorant. Instead of becoming full of knowledge it is ignorant. The body is perishable, full of ignorance, and nirānanda. Instead of becoming full of bliss, it is full of miseries. All the miseries that we experience in this material world, it is all due to this body. The Lord says that anta-kāle ca mām eva smaran muktvā kalevaram [Bg. 8.5]. One who quits this material body, simply by remembering Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he at once gets the spiritual body of sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1]. The process of quitting this body and getting another body in the material world is also organized. A man dies after it has been decided what form of body he will have in the next life. But that is decided by higher authorities. Just like according to our service we are promoted or degraded. Similarly, according to our acts we are... Acts of this life, the activities of this life are preparation ground for the next life. We are preparing for our next life by our activities of this life. So if we can prepare our this life for getting promotion to the kingdom of God, then surely, after leaving, after quitting this material body... The Lord says yaḥ prayāti, one who goes, sa mad-bhāvaṁ yāti [Bg. 8.5], mad-bhāvam, he gets the same spiritual body as the Lord has or the same spiritual nature. Now, there are different kinds of transcendentalists as we have already explained above. The brahmavādī, paramātmavādī and the devotees. In spiritual sky or in the brahmajyoti there are spiritual planets, innumerable spiritual planets, we have already discussed. And the number of those planets are far, far greater than all the universes of this material world. This material world is ekāṁśena sthito jagat [Bg. 10.42]. This is one-fourth part manifestation of the whole creation. Three-fourths part of the creation is the spiritual world and in the one-fourth part of this creation there are millions of universes like this which we are experiencing at the present moment. And in one universe there are millions and billions of planets. So there are millions and billions of suns and stars and moons in all this material world, but all this material world constitute only one-fourth manifestation of the whole creation. The three-fourths manifestation is in the spiritual sky. Now, this mad-bhāvam, one who desires to merge into the existence of the Supreme Brahman, they merge in the brahmajyoti of the Supreme Lord. Mad-bhāvam means that brahmajyoti as well as the spiritual planets in the brahmajyoti. And the devotees, who want to enjoy in the association of the Lord, they enter into the planets, Vaikuṇṭha planets. There are innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets, and the Lord, Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, by His plenary expansion as Nārāyaṇa with four hands with different names, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, and Mādhava, Govinda... There are many innumerable names of this four-handed Nārāyaṇa. So one of the planets, that is also mad-bhāvam, that is also within the spiritual nature. So any transcendentalist who at the end of life, either he thinks of the brahmajyoti or meditates upon the Paramātmā or thinks of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa, in either case, they enter into the spiritual sky. But only the devotees, those who have practiced personal touch with the Supreme Lord, they enter into the Vaikuṇṭha planets or in the Goloka Vṛndāvana planet. The Lord says, yaḥ prayāti sa mad-bhāvaṁ yāti nāsty atra saṁśayaḥ [Bg. 8.5]. There is no doubt. One should not disbelieve. That is the question. So you are reading Bhagavad-gītā throughout the whole life, but when the Lord speaks something which does not tally with our imagination, we reject it. That is not the process of Bhagavad-gītā reading. Just like Arjuna said that sarvam etaṁ ṛtam manye, "I believe in everything, whatever You have said." Similarly, hear, hearing. The Lord says that at the time of death, whoever thinks of Him, either as Brahman or Paramātmā or the Personality of Godhead, certainly he enters into the spiritual sky and there is no doubt about it. One should not disbelieve it. And the process is, general rule is also stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, how one can, how it is possible to get into the spiritual kingdom simply by thinking of the Supreme at the time of death. Because the general process is also mentioned:
There are different bhāvas. Now, this material nature is also one of the bhāvas, as we have already explained, that this material nature is also the display of one of the energies of the Supreme Lord. In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa the total energies of the Supreme Lord have been summarized.
All the energies, potencies of the..., parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate [Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]. The Supreme Lord has diverse energies, innumerable energies, which we cannot conceive. But great learned sages, liberated souls, they have studied and they have summarized the whole energies into three parts, into three headings. The first is... All the energies are viṣṇu-śakti. All the energies, they are different potencies of the Lord Viṣṇu. Now, that energy is parā, transcendental. And kṣetra-jñākhyā tathā parā, and the living entities, kṣetra-jña, they are also belonging to the group of that superior energy, as it is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā also. We have already explained. And the other energies, the material energy is tṛtīyā karma-saṁjñānyā [Cc. Madhya 6.154]. The other energy is in the mode of ignorance. So that is material energy. So material energy is also bhagavad-(indistinct). So at the time of death, either we can remain in the material energy, or this material world, or we can transfer into the spiritual world. That is the criterion. So the Bhagavad-gītā says,
Now, as we are accustomed to think either of this material energy or of the spiritual energy, now, how to transfer the thinking? The thinking of the material energy, how it can be transferred into thinking of the spiritual energy? So for thinking in the spiritual energy the Vedic literatures are there. Just like thinking in the material energies, there are so many literatures—newspapers, magazines, novels, fictions, and so many things. Full of literatures. So our thinkings are absorbed in these literatures. Similarly, if we want to transfer our thinking in the spiritual atmosphere, then we have to transfer our reading capacity to the Vedic literature. The learned sages therefore made so many Vedic literatures, the Purāṇas. The Purāṇas are not stories. They are historical records. In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta there is a verse which reads as follows. anādi-bahirmukha jīva kṛṣṇa bhuli' gela ataeva kṛṣṇa veda-purāṇa kailā [Cc. Madhya 20.117]. That these forgetful living entities, conditioned souls, they have forgotten the relationship with the Supreme Lord, and they are engrossed in thinking of the material activities. And just to transfer their thinking power to the spiritual capacity, the Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa, he has made so many Vedic literatures. Vedic literatures means first he divided the Vedas into four. Then he explained them by the Purāṇas. Then for the incapable persons, just like strī, śūdra, vaiśya, he made the Mahābhārata. And in the Mahābhārata he introduced this Bhagavad-gītā. Then again he summarized the whole Vedic literature in the Vedānta-sūtra. And the Vedānta-sūtra for future guidance, he made a natural commentation by himself which is called Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is called bhāṣyo 'yaṁ brahma-sūtrāṇām. It is the natural commentation of Vedānta-sūtra. So all these literatures, if we transfer our thought, tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ, sadā. Sadā tad-bhāva-bhāvitaḥ [Bg. 8.6]. One who is engaged always... Just like the materialist is always engaged in reading some material literature like newspaper, magazines, and fiction, novel, etc., and so many scientific or philosophies, all these things of different degrees of thought. Similarly, if we transfer our, that reading capacity for these Vedic literatures, as presented by, as very kindly presented by Vyāsadeva, then it is quite possible for us to remember at the time of death the Supreme Lord. That is the only way suggested by the Lord Himself. Not suggested, it is the fact. Nāsty atra saṁśayaḥ [Bg. 8.5]. Undoubtedly. There is no doubt about it. Tasmāt, the Lord suggested therefore, tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu mām anusmara yudhya ca [Bg. 8.7]. He advises Arjuna that mām anusmara yudhya ca. He does not say that "You simply go on remembering Me and give up your present occupational duty." No. That is not suggested. The Lord never suggests something impractical. This material world, to maintain this body, one has to work. The work is divided into four divisions of social order: brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. The intelligent class of the society, they are working in a different way, and the administrator class of society, they are also working in a different way. The mercantile society, the productive society, they are also working in a different way, and the laborer class, they are also working in different way. In the human society, either as laborer or as mercantile men, or as politicians, administrators, or as the highest class of intelligent class of men in literary career, scientific researches, everybody is engaged in some work, and one has to work, struggle for existence. So Lord advises that "You need not give up your occupation, but at the same time you can remember." Mām anusmara [Bg. 8.7]. That will make you, that will help you in remembering Me at the time of death. If you don't practice remembering Me always, along with your struggle for existence, then it is not possible." It is not possible. The same thing is advised by Lord Caitanya, kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ [Cc. Ādi 17.31]. Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā. One should practice to chant the name of the Lord always. The name of Lord and the Lord is not different. So here the instruction of Lord Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna that mām anusmara [Bg. 8.7], "You just remember Me," and Lord Caitanya's instruction that "You chant always the name of Kṛṣṇa." Here Kṛṣṇa says that "You always remember Me," or you remember Kṛṣṇa, and Lord Caitanya says, "You always chant the name of Kṛṣṇa." So there is no difference because Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa's name are nondifferent in the Absolute. In the absolute status there is no difference between one thing to another. That is the absolute status. So the Lord being absolute, there is no difference between His name and Himself. So we have to practice like that. tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu [Bg. 8.7]. Always, twenty-four hours, we have to mold our activities of life in such way that we can remember it twenty-four hours. How it is possible? Yes, it is possible. It is possible. A very crude example is set by the ācāryas in this connection. And what is that example? It is said that a woman who is attached to another man, although she has got a husband, still, she's attached to another man. And this sort of attachment becomes very strong. This is called parakīya-rasa. Either in case of man or woman. If man has got attachment for another woman besides his wife, or a woman has got attachment for another man besides her husband, that attachment is very strong. That attachment is very strong. So the ācāryas give this example as a bad character woman who has got attachment for other's husband, she always thinks, at the same time, shows her husband that she is very much busy in the family affairs so that her husband may not doubt her character. So as she is always remembering the time of meeting with her lover at night, in spite of doing all this household work very nicely, similarly one has to remember the supreme husband, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, always in spite of doing his material duties very nicely. That is possible. It requires a strong sense of love. When you have got a strong sense of love for the Supreme Lord, then it is possible that we can go on discharging our duty, at the same time remember the Lord. So we have to develop that sense. Just like Arjuna was always thinking of Lord. He, out of twenty-four hours, not for a second he could forget Kṛṣṇa. Constant companion of Kṛṣṇa. At the same time, a warrior. Lord Kṛṣṇa did not advise Arjuna to give up his fighting, go to the forest, go to the Himalaya and meditate. When yoga system was advised to Arjuna, Arjuna declined, that "This system is not possible for me." Then the Lord said, yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntarātmanā [Bg. 6.47]. Mad-gatenāntarātmanā śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ. So one who thinks of the Supreme Lord always, he's the greatest yogī, he is the supermost jñānī, and he is also the greatest devotee at the same time. The Lord advises that tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu mām anusmara yudhya ca [Bg. 8.7]. "As a kṣatriya you cannot give up your fighting business. You have to fight. So at the same time if you practice remembering Me always, then it will be possible," anta-kāle ca mām eva smaran [Bg. 8.5], "then it will be possible to remember Me also at the time of death." Mayy arpita-mano-buddhir mām evaiṣyasy asaṁśayaḥ. Again He says that there is no doubt. If one is completely surrendered into the se
rvice of the Lord, into the transcendental loving service of the Lord, mayy arpita-mano-buddhir [Bg. 8.7]. Because we work not with our body actually. We work with our mind and intelligence. So if our intelligence and mind are always engaged in the thought of the Supreme Lord, then naturally our senses are also engaged in the service of the Lord. That is the secret of Bhagavad-gītā. One has to learn this art, how one can be absorbed both by the mind and intelligence twenty-four hours thinking of the Lord. And that will help one to transfer himself into the kingdom of God or in the spiritual atmosphere after leaving this material body. The modern scientists, they are trying for years and years together for reaching the moon planet, and they have no approach as yet. But here in the Bhagavad-gītā, here is a suggestion. Suppose a man lives for another fifty years and he... So nobody tries to elevate himself in the spiritual ideas for fifty years. That's a very good idea. But even for ten years or five years one sincerely tries for this practice, mayy arpita-mano-buddhir... [Bg. 8.7] It is simply a question of practice. And that practice can be very easily possible by the devotional process, śravaṇaṁ. Śravaṇaṁ. The easiest process is to hear.
These nine processes. So the easiest process is simply hearing. Hearing of this Bhagavad-gītā or Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from the realized person, that will train up oneself, one, into the thoughts of the Supreme Being twenty-four hours, which will lead one ultimately, anta-kāle, to remember the Supreme Lord, and thus leaving this body, he will have a spiritual body, a spiritual body, just fit for association with the Lord. The Lord therefore says,
Anucintayan, constantly thinking of Himself only. It is not very difficult process. One has to learn this process from the experienced person in this line. Tad vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet [MU 1.2.12]. One should approach a person who is already in the practice. So abhyāsa-yoga-yuktena. This is called abhyāsa-yoga, practicing. Abhyāsa... How to remember the Supreme Lord always. Cetasā nānya-gāminā. The mind, the mind is always flying to this, to that. So one has to practice to concentrate the mind into the form of the Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa always, or in the sound, in His name which is made easier. Instead of concentrating my mind—my mind may be very restless, going hither and thither, but I can concentrate my ear into the sound vibration of Kṛṣṇa and that will also help me. That is also abhyāsa-yoga. Cetasā nānya-gāminā paramaṁ puruṣaṁ divyaṁ. Paramaṁ puruṣa, that Supreme Personality of Godhead in the spiritual kingdom, in the spiritual sky, one can approach, anucintayan, constantly thinking. So these processes, the ways and means, all are stated in the Bhagavad-gītā and there is no bar for anyone. It is not that a particular class of men can approach. Thinking of Lord Kṛṣṇa is possible, hearing of Lord Kṛṣṇa is possible by everyone. And the Lord says in the Bhagavad-gītā,
The Lord says that even a human being in the lowest status of life, lowest status of life, or even a fallen woman, or a mercantile man, or a laborer class of man... The mercantile class of men, the laborer class of men, and the woman class, they are counted in the same category because their intelligence is not so developed. But the Lord says, they also, or even lower than them, māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye 'pi syuḥ [Bg. 9.32], not only they or lower than them, or anyone, it does not matter who is he, or who is she, anyone who accepts this principle of bhakti-yoga and accepts the Supreme Lord as the summum bonum of life, the highest target, highest goal of life, māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye 'pi syuḥ, te 'pi yānti parāṁ gatim, that parāṁ gatim in the spiritual kingdom and the spiritual sky, everyone can approach. Simply one has to practice the system. That system is hinted in the Bhagavad-gītā very nicely and one can adopt it and make his life perfect and make a permanent solution of life. That is the sum and substance of the whole Bhagavad-gītā. Therefore, the conclusion is that Bhagavad-gītā is a transcendental literature which one should read very carefully. Gītā-śāstram idaṁ puṇyaṁ yaḥ paṭhet prayataḥ pumān. And the result will be, if he properly follows the instruction, then he can be freed from all miseries of life, all anxieties of life. Bhaya-śokādi-varjitaḥ. All fears of life, in this life, as well as he'll get a spiritual life in the next life.
So another advantage is that if one reads Bhagavad-gītā very sincerely and with all seriousness, then by the grace of the Lord, the reactions of his past misdeeds will not act upon him. The Lord says very loudly in the Bhagavad-gītā in the last portion, ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi śucaḥ [Bg. 18.66]. The Lord takes the responsibility. One who surrenders unto the Lord, He takes the responsibility to indemnify, to indemnify from all reactions of sins.
mala-nirmocanaṁ puṁsāṁ
jala-snānaṁ dine dine
sakṛd gītāmṛta-snānam
saṁsāra-mala-nāśanam
One cleanses oneself daily by taking bath in the water, but one who takes once bath in the sacred Ganges water of Bhagavad-gītā, his, the dirty material life is altogether vanquished.
Because Bhagavad-gītā is spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, therefore people should..., people may not read all other Vedic literatures. Simply if he attentively and regularly reads and hears Bhagavad-gītā, gītā su-gītā kartavyā... And one should adopt this means by all means. Gītā su-gītā kartavyā kim anyaiḥ śāstra-vistaraiḥ. Because at the present age people are embarrassed with so many things that it is hardly possible to divert his attention in all the Vedic literatures. This one literature will do because it is essence of all Vedic literature, and especially spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
bhāratāmṛta-sarvasvaṁ
viṣṇu-vaktrād viniḥsṛtam
gītā-gaṅgodakaṁ pītvā
punar janma na vidyate
As it is said that one who drinks the water of the Ganges, he also gets salvation, then what to speak of Bhagavad-gītā? Bhagavad-gītā is the nectar in the whole Mahābhārata, and is spoken by Viṣṇu. Lord Kṛṣṇa is the original Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu-vaktrād viniḥsṛtam. It is coming out of the mouth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And gaṅgodakaṁ, the Ganges is said to be emanated from the lotus feet of the Lord, and Bhagavad-gītā is emanated from the mouth of the Lord. Of course, there is no difference between the mouth and the feet of the Supreme Lord. Still, from neutral position we can study that Bhagavad-gītā is even more important than the Ganges water.
sarvopaniṣado gāvo
dogdhā gopāla-nandana
pārtho vatsaḥ su-dhīr bhoktā
dugdhaṁ gītāmṛtaṁ mahat
Just... This Gītopaniṣad is just like a cow, and the Lord is famous as cow boy, and He was milking this cow. Sarvopaniṣado. And it is the essence of all Upaniṣads and represented as the cow. And the Lord being expert cow boy, He is milking the cow. And pārtho vatsaḥ. And Arjuna is just like the calf. And su-dhīr bhoktā. And learned scholars and pure devotees, they are to take this milk. Su-dhīr bhoktā dugdhaṁ gītāmṛtaṁ mahat. The nectar, the milk of Bhagavad-gītā, is meant for learned devotees.
Now the world should learn from the Bhagavad-gītā, the lesson. Evaṁ śāstraṁ devakī-putra-gītam. There is one scripture only, one common scripture for the whole world, for the people of the whole world, and that is this Bhagavad-gītā. Devo devakī-putra eva. And there is one God for the whole world, is Śrī Kṛṣṇa. And eko mantras tasya nāmāni. And one hymn, mantra, one hymn only, one prayer, or one hymn, is to chant His name, Hare Kṛṣṇa Hare Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa Hare Hare, Hare Rāma Hare Rāma Rāma Rāma Hare Hare. Eko mantras tasya nāmāni yāni karmāpy ekaṁ tasya devasya sevā. And there is one work only, that is to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If one learns from Bhagavad-gītā, then the people are very much anxious to have one religion, one God, one scripture, and one business or one activity of life. This is summarized in the Bhagavad-gītā. That one, one God, is Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is not sectarian God. Kṛṣṇa, from the name of Kṛṣṇa... Kṛṣṇa means, as we have explained above, Kṛṣṇa means the greatest pleasure. So therefore... (break—end)
Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā As It Is

Los Angeles, November 23, 1968
681123BG.LA
Prabhupāda: Somebody come read Bhagavad-gītā. You will read? Come on. Our publication by Macmillan Company, Bhagavad-gītā, is out.
Devotee: Where shall I read from?
Prabhupāda: Introduction.
Devotee: This is the introduction to Bhagavad-gītā As It Is.
nama oṁ viṣṇu-pādāya kṛṣṇa-preṣṭhāya bhū-tale
śrīmate bhaktivedānta-svāmin iti nāmine
"The Bhagavad-gītā is also known as the Gītopaniṣad. It is the essence of the Vedic knowledge and one of the most important Upaniṣads in Vedic literature. There are many commentaries on the Bhagavad-gītā, and the necessity for another should be explained in the following basis. An American lady asked me to recommend an English edition of the Bhagavad-gītā which she could read. I was unable to do so in good conscience. Of course there are many translations, but of those I have seen, not only in America but those also in India, none can be said to be authoritative, because in almost every one of them the author has expressed his personal opinion through the commentaries without touching the spirit of the Bhagavad-gītā as it is. The spirit of the Bhagavad-gītā is mentioned in the Gītā itself. It is like this: If we want to take a particular medicine, then we have to follow the directions written on the label of the bottle. We cannot take the medicine according to our own directions or the directions of a friend ot in knowledge of this medicine. We must follow the directions on the label or the directions of our physician. The Bhagavad-gītā also should be accepted as it is directly by the speaker Himself. The speaker is Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. He is mentioned on every page as the Supreme Personality of Godhead or Bhagavān. Bhagavān sometimes means any powerful person or demigod, but here it means Kṛṣṇa."
Prabhupāda: Most of you must have read some editions of Bhagavad-gītā. I will give you instances. One of the English translations, commentaries by Dr. Radhakrishnan, in the Ninth Chapter the Lord says,
man-manā bhava mad-bhakto
mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru
mām evaiṣyasi kaunteya
asaṁśaya...
The Lord says that "You, you just always remain thinking of Me." That means always remain in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Simply this Kṛṣṇa consciousness means some way or other you have to think of Kṛṣṇa always. Some way or other you just engage yourself in some activities so that it can remind you about Kṛṣṇa. That is the process. Therefore those who are elevated devotees, they, in everything, they remember Kṛṣṇa. That is the perfection. (Bengali) Here is a light. A perfect devotee sees the light, not the light as it is, but he sees some relationship with Kṛṣṇa or Kṛṣṇa in the light. This is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā also, that prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ. Raso 'ham apsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ. Kṛṣṇa says that "I am the taste of the water." Now the..., when you are thirsty you want water. You feel some nice taste in the water by which your thirst is satisfied, "Yes, now I am satisfied." So Kṛṣṇa says, "I am that taste." Similarly He says prabhāsmi śaśi-sūryayoḥ: "The light in the sun, in the moon, that I amthat light." In this way He has described. So when one is highly elevated in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, in everything, in every action and every phenomenon he will see only Kṛṣṇa. That is the perfection of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
So that is being taught in the Ninth Chapter, and in this verse, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto, "Always think of Me," this is the sum and substance of all spiritual advancement. What is that? Smartavyaṁ satato viṣṇuḥ. One should always be absorbed in the thought of Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is called samādhi. That is perfection of yoga. The yoga system is the practice of the most lower class of men. I mean to say spiritually, not materially. Because their mind is so much distracted from here and there, they have to concentrate the mind by practice and focus the mind on Viṣṇu. That is the yoga perfection, real. Now they are manufacturing so many other things, but the real yoga practice is this, that you have to draw your attention from everything and focus the same on Viṣṇu form. That is yoga system. Dhyānāvasthita manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ. This is the definition of yogi. They are in meditation, dhyānāvasthita. Dhyānāvasthita means meditation. So those who are yogis... You have heard so much about meditation—there is very popular word in your country—and what is that meditation? The meditation is to focus the mind on the form of Viṣṇu. Dhyānāvasthita manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ.
So this instruction you will find in the Ninth Chapter, man-manā bhava mad-bhaktaḥ [Bg. 9.34], "Always think of Me." That is the perfection of life, always thinking of Viṣṇu. But one commentator, very big commentator, he says, "This meditation is not up to Kṛṣṇa." Just see. Kṛṣṇa says "Just meditate upon Me," in the Bhagavad-gītā, and the commentator says, "It is not up to Kṛṣṇa." In this way, in similar way or a different way, every commentary on Bhagavad-gītā so far published I have seen, their business is how to divert one's attention from Kṛṣṇa, although in the Bhagavad-gītā the main factor is Kṛṣṇa. That is mentioned here. What is that? Read on. This Bhagavad-gītā has come. Yes.
Devotee: The last sentence was, "Bhagavān sometimes mean any, any, means any powerful person or demigod, but here it means Kṛṣṇa. This is confirmed by all the great..."
Prabhupāda: Now this bhagavān, you have heard, many times I have explained, bhaga. Bhaga means opulence. There are six kinds of opulences. What is that? Wealth, and then influence, strength, reputation and knowledge, beauty and renunciation. Is it not six? If a man is wealthy, very rich, just like in your country Rockefeller, Ford, there are many rich men in your, the..., your country is very rich. So if one is very rich he is called opulent. If a man is very reputed, famous man, he is also opulent. If a man is very influential, he is also opulent. If a man is very strong... Now the strong man, formerly strong men had request, ahh, respect. All the kings, they were respected on their personal strength. They used to..., they had to fight with the opponents. So that is also opulence. Then beauty. A very beautiful man or woman, that is also opulence. And wise, very learned, wise man, that is also opulence—scientist, philosopher, mathematician. So they are also opulent. And renouncer. Renouncer, that one who give up everything, he has everything in his possession, but he disposes himself, that is called renunciation. Just like king, Mahārāja Bharata, under whose name India is called Bhārata-varṣa. He was the emperor of the world, but at the age of twenty-four years only he gave up everything—his young wife, young children. Lord Buddha, Lord Buddha was prince, but very young boy, at the age of twenty years or something like that, he gave up everything, his father's kingdom. This is called renunciation. At the present moment (chuckles) hardly there is any sense of renunciation, but formerly there were many kings, many princes who renounced everything for spiritual advancement. So these six principles are called bhaga.
So these six principles are there. Just like we are minute part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. Fragment, very small fragment. So every one of us have got some money according to our capacity. Every one of us has got some strength or some reputation or some beauty or some knowledge. Comparatively it may be that your position may be greater than me or other's position may be greater than you, that not all of us on the same level. There are comparative positions. So bhagavān means you go on searching. When you find a person that nobody is richer than Him, nobody is stronger than Him, nobody is richer than Him, nobody is reputed than Him, nobody is wiser than him, nobody is beautiful, more beautiful than Him, and nobody is renouncer than Him, He is Bhagavān, He is God.
So all these you will find in Kṛṣṇa. That is the significance of Kṛṣṇa. When Kṛṣṇa was present on this material world so nobody could excel Him in any of these opulences. Nobody. So far richness is concerned, He exhibited His richness with His (indistinct). He married 16,108 wives, and each wife had a palace, and the palace did not require light. It was bedecked with valuable jewels, so at night the light from the jewels will illuminate the rooms. Can you imagine such house? (laughter) And not only that, that He married 16,000 wives and He was apart from them, no. With each wife He was present. With some wife He is talking, with some wife He is playing, with some wife He is looking after the children. In this way Nārada travelled all the houses, all the palaces, he saw Kṛṣṇa is there engaged. This is called opulence. So far power is concerned, there were so many fights with Kṛṣṇa, nobody could conquer. So far beauty is concerned, you know Kṛṣṇa's beauty, even from the picture. And the, all the gopīs, in Vṛndāana... Kṛṣṇa at the age of fifteen, sixteenth year, naturally at that time boys are very beautiful, any, any man even. So He was so beautiful that they, all the gopīs prayed to Yogamāyā. Everyone prayed, "My dear mother, please give me Kṛṣṇa as my husband." So this is, but (indistinct) significance is the, that the day they prayed the next day there was... Perhaps you know that Kṛṣṇa's vastraṇaṁ-līlā. Vastraṇaṁ-līlā means... In India still there are places in Punjab when girls and women take bath they keep their clothings in the river, I mean to say, not in the bathroom. In the rivers, they keep their clothings on the shore, on the bank, and they dip into the water completely naked. So that place is completely separate for the women. No man can go there. That is the system still somewhere. They will take bath fully and they will come and again dress. And woman, woman, they are all naked, there was no shame. They, no man and no boy can go there. This vastraṇaṁ-līlā was that Kṛṣṇa stealthily went there and tookup all their clothes, and got up on a tree, (laughter) (laughs) with the clothings. And they cannot come out of the water. "Kṛṣṇa, You are very naughty. Give us our clothes. Give us our clothes." That was vastraṇaṁ-līlā.(laughter) The purpose was the, the people interpret in a different way, but the purpose is very significant. Only devotees can understand that all these girls, day before, they prayed to Yogamāyā that, everyone prayed, that "Let us have Kṛṣṇa as our husband." Now Kṛṣṇa was at that time only 15, 16 years, no older. In India still the boys of 15, 16 years, they are not married. At least he must be 20, 22 years. And girls are married between 12 to 16 years. That is the Vedic system. Neither it was possible for Kṛṣṇa to marry all the girls, but they all prayed. So how to fulfil their desire? That was vastraṇaṁ-līlā. The vastraṇaṁ-līlā means that according to any human civilization, system, a woman can become naked only before husband. So Kṛṣṇa fulfilled that, that "You are naked, I am before you,so I am your husband." That's all. Wholesale acceptance. That was the purpose. But the nonsense people they differently, differently interpret.
So Kṛṣṇa's opulence, beauty, strength, and so far wisdom, at least you can test. Now the wisdom, see preliminary wisdom only. Preliminary talks on spiritual matter is discussed in this Bhagavad-gītā. And this book is still read, even after five thousand years, all over the world. Just see His wisdom. That is a test. Big scholars, big religionists, philosophers, they are bewildered still about Bhagavad-gītā. Therefore there are so many interpretations. But this, what is this Bhagavad-gītā? Bhagavad-gītā is the A B C D of spiritual knowledge. It is not very high depth of spiritual knowledge. High depth of spiritual knowledge is in the Srimad Bhagavatam. This is only entrance. Just like children are taught a b c d., or first book of knowledge. It is only the first book of knowledge. And what is that first book of knowledge? The first book of knowledge teaches from the very beginning that you are not this body. That is the beginning of knowledge, spiritual knowledge. And the whole world, great philosophers, the geat politicians... Now yesterday the boys gave me one paper. There is discussion about Transcendental Meditation. There was publication of our activities also, and some others are... So the so-called Transcendental Meditation they are discussing on the mind. And the Bhagavad-gītā, mind is immediately rejected as matter. So Transcendental Meditation, they're on the platform of the mind. Just see. And the Bhagavad-gītā says that mind is external nature only.
indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur
indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ
manasas tu parā buddhir
yo buddheḥ paratas tu saḥ
In the gross material concept of life we are under the impression that "I am this body." Therefore we are concerned with the senses. If our senses are gratified, we think we are now satisfied. So this is the gross type of existence, I mean to say, existence of ignorance. Illusion. Māyā. When one is under the thought that "I am this," this is illusion. Illusion means you accept something, something is presented as reality, and you accept it. Just like the example is given water in the desert. Mirage. There is no water, but a, an animal is hankering, is running after water in the desert. That is practical, that due to sunshine there is a reflection, it appears in the desert. Sometimes you might have seen—not here, in India we have seen several times—that exactly there is a vast water, and it is reflecting, the reflection. That is called mirage. There is not a drop of water, but the animal, when he is thirsty he..., it thinks that "There is water." He jumps into the desert and the water is going ahead, going ahed, and he is running after it and then dying. So this illusion, that "I am this body." So we are after this sense gratification. Body means the senses. So that is mirage, illusion. Just like the animal is running after water in the desert.
So even this yoga system, the haṭha yoga system, that is also based on this illusion. They are trying to put this water under certain exercise and thinking that they are elevating themselves in spirit. But Bhagavad-gītā, in the beginning, says that you are not this body, neither this mind. This is the beginning of Bhagavad-gītā, and that is a b c d. Any person who does not know that I am not this body he has no even a-b-c-d knowledge of spiritual kingdom. If one is attracted with this bodily function or mind, mental function, he is outside the spiritual purview altogether. He rejected immediately. That test is in the Bhagavad-gītā. These people, the so-called yogis, so-called karmīs... Karmīs means the ordinary worker, those who are running in the street with motor car, this way and that way, very busy. You see. What are they? They are karmīs. Karmīs means under the bodily concept. They are thinking that comfort of this body and sense gratification is the end of life. That is karmī. If they have got very nice apartment, a nice wife and good bank balance and a very nice dress, oh, there is perfection. That's all. That is karmī. And jñānī means that when they are confused. Just like there are a section of people in your country, they have seen enough of this material affair, happiness, or they are searching after something wrongly. But actually those who are intelligent, they don't remain confused. Actually they want to see "What is my actual position." They are called jñānī, man of knowledge.
So jñāna, or knowledge, is on the mental plane and karma is on the bodily plane. So somebody, some section of people, they are engaged in this bodily platform, and some section of people are engaged in the mental platform. Whatever religion and process of elevation of life we have manufactured, they can be grouped in two ways: mental and bodily. That's all. And Bhagavad-gītā is transcendental. Neither on the mental plane nor on the bodily plane. Therefore the last instruction of Bhagavad-gītā is sarva-dharmān parityajya. Dharma, you have created so many religious principles, so many concocted spiritual ways of life or material ways of life. Somebody are materialists and somebody are so-called spiritualists. So Kṛṣṇa says that you have to give up all this nonsense—on the mental platform and bodily platform. You have come to the transcendental platform. And what is that transcendental platform? To understand your relationship with Kṛṣṇa. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Read.
Devotee: "This is confirmed by all the great teachers, including Śaṅkara and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. In India there are many authorities on Vedic knowledge and they have virtually all accepted Śrī Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. We should therefore accept the Bhagavad-gītā as it is, directed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead..."
Prabhupāda: And here is an important fact. The other day while I was walking, I saw one advertisement of tourist agent. India, (indistinct) can view wonderful land. The wonderful land. Anyway, so I asked Karttikeya(?), "So India is considered very wonderful?" He said "Yes." Anyway, India is still considered the land of spiritual cultivation. Even one Chinese author, he has written that if you want to study religion, then you have to go India. He is impartial. He is not Indian nor an American or any country. He is Chinese. Chinese are considered to be Communist country, but he has very impartially said that if you have to learn what is religion then you have to go to India. Anyway India, actually it is the land of religion, dharma-kṣetra, although it has gone down at the present moment. But anyway, there are two sections in the..., amongst the Indian, bona fide religionists. That means bona fide religionists means those who are following the Vedic principles. They are called bona fide. Anyway, that is, that wa the system in the bygone ages, even one thousand years ago. And now that, just like Buddha, Buddha religion. Buddha religion is also Indian religion. Lord Buddha, He was Indian. He, just like Lord Caitanya began His propaganda from Bengal, Lord Buddha made His propaganda from Bihar. He was Indian. But the defect was that He did not acknowledge the authority of the Vedas. Therefore His philosophy was considered atheism. And this Śaṅkarācārya drove away all the Buddhists from the land of India. Therefore they took shelter in China, Japan, Burma. Outside India. So anyway, strict religionists they are followers of Vedas, and they are divided into two groups: one group led by Śaṅkarācārya and the other group is led by the Vaiṣṇavas, or generally Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya or Lord Caitanya. They are all the same, Vaiṣṇava. Now all these two groups, following the Vedic principles, they accept Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So far India's authoritative persons are concerned, there is no two opinions, that Kṛṣṇa is not God. Both of them accept Kṛṣṇa the Supreme Personality. So far we are concerned, Vaiṣṇavas, we accept. There is no doubt about it. There are four different parties of Vaiṣṇavas. All of them accept Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. There are eight commentaries on the very authoritative, very large commentaries on the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam of these Vaiṣṇavas, and all of them accept Kṛṣṇa. So far the other party is concerned, the impersonalists led by Śaṅkarācārya, a great stalwart scholar, he also accepts Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He says, sa bhagavān svayaṁ kṛṣṇa: "The concept of Personality of Godhead, here is Kṛṣṇa." And people may misunderstand; therefore he has specifically mentioned Kṛṣṇa who has appeared as the son of Devakī and Vasudeva. Particularly, just like when you have to put your identification, you have to give the, your father's name or your husband's name. Similarly, the same principle as Śaṅkarācārya has followed. He has said "Kṛṣṇa, the Kṛṣṇa who is, wh has appeared as the son of Devakī and Vasudeva." So there is no two opinions. No, "Or this Kṛṣṇa, maybe another Kṛṣṇa." No. So that is stated here. Yes. Kṛṣṇa is accepted the Supreme Personality of Godhead by all the followers of Vedas. That is a fact. Yes.
Devotee: "Now in the Fourth Chapter the Lord tells Arjuna that this yoga system of the Bhagavad-gītā was first spoken to the sun-god. The Blessed Lord said, 'I instructed this imperishable science, imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvān, and Vivasvān instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Ikṣvāku. This supreme science was thus received through the chain of disciplic succession and the saintly kings understood it in that way. But in the course of time the succession was broken and therefore the science as it is appears to be lost.' "
Prabhupāda: That is the instruction in the Bhagavad-gītā, that this science of Bhagavad-gītā has to be accepted by disciplic succession. That is the way of accepting any scientific thing. Just like even in material science, suppose if you have to become medical practitioner or a lawyer. So you have to study the law books by the previous lawyers, by the judgments of the courts. One who has studied the previous records of legal implications, he is best lawyer. Similarly a medical practicer, practitioner, who has studied the previous books and knowledge and experience, he is called experienced physician. The same principle is there that the spiritual knowl..., you cannot manufacture any spiritual knowledge. That is atheism. You cannot manufacture any religious principle. It is not possible. That is not accepted in Vedas. Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇī. Dharma means the rules and regulation which is given by God. That is accepted everywhere. In Bible, in Koran also. The laws of God. You cannot manufacture. So Kṛṣṇa said that this principle of Bhagavad-gītā... At the present moment Bhagavad-gītā is being interpreted by anyone and everyone according to his whims. That is not permissible. That is not Bhagavad-gītā. We have to understand this. Simply Bhagavad-gītā is that which is received by the paramparā system. That is being explained. Go on.
Devotee: "Arjuna was neither a great scholar nor a Vedantist, but a great soldier. A soldier is not supposed to be scholarly, and so Arjuna was selected to understand the Bhagavad-gītā because of one qualification only: he was a devotee of the Lord. This indicates that the Bhagavad-gītā is especially meant for the devotee of the Lord."
Prabhupāda: So this point is described that just like this yogi Maharishi, he has also written one Bhagavad-gītā. And what right he has got? He has no right to say anything about Bhagavad-gītā because he is not a devotee. Bhagavad-gītā is taught to Arjuna. He was neither a yogi nor a scholar nor a Vedantist nor a brāhmaṇa even. He was kṣatriya. Nor a sannyāsī even. He was gṛhastha. He had three wives and so many children. And he was fighting for kingdom. What is the qualification that Bhagavad-gītā was taught to him? Because he was devotee. People have to see how Bhagavad-gītā is to be accepted. Specially Kṛṣṇa mentions in the Fourth Chapter that "I am speaking to you. The disciplic succession is now broken. Therefore I am speaking to you the old system of yoga, Bhagavad-gītā, again, unto you." "Why unto me, Kṛṣṇa?" "Because you are My devotee." That was the answer. So only qualification to understand Bhagavad-gītā is to become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa; otherwise it is not possible. Just give this challenge to everyne: "So what do you understand about Bhagavad-gītā? You don't..., you are not devotee of Kṛṣṇa. How you can understand Bhagavad-gītā? So you are speaking of Bhagavad-gītā and cheating people."
So bring all the books which is, which are published in your country and find out a single man who is a Kṛṣṇa's devotee. Nobody of them. Then what authority he has got to write on Bhagavad-gītā? He has no right. It is simply poking your nose in other's business. Nonsense. Just challenge these persons, "What right you have got?" He has no right. These, these, these rascals, they say that everyone is God. And how they can be devotee? Does a devotee say that everyone is God? They say "God is one." So you are realizing by meditation, "I am God, you are God, my brother is God, my father is God, my these are God, everyone is God." This, this is the, going on. You want to stop all this rascaldom. That is our challenge. We may not have many followers. We don't care for that. We don't want these nonsense followers, many thousands. What they will do? But if we can turn one man into Kṛṣṇa consciousness perfectly, he can do tremendous work in the world. That is our principle. We don't want nonsense. So this is the princile of understanding Bhagavad-gītā. Go on.
Devotee: "There are three kinds of transcendentalists: the yogi, the impersonalist and the bhakta, or devotee. Kṛṣṇa says to Arjuna, 'I am making you the first man of disciplic succession. The old succession is broken. I wish to reestablish the line of teaching which was passed down from the sun-god. So you become the authority of the Bhagavad-gītā.' The Bhagavad-gītā is directed to the devotee of the Lord who is directly in touch with the Lord as a friend. To learn the Bhagavad-gītā one should be like Arjuna, a devotee having a direct relationship with the Lord. This is more helpful than yoga or impersonal philosophical speculation. A devotee can be in relationship with the Lord in five different ways. He may have passive..., have a passive relationship..."
Prabhupāda: Now here is explained who is a devotee. That is explained. Yes.
Devotee: "He may have a passive relationship, he may have an active relationship. Three, he may be in friendship. Four, he may have the relationship of a parent. And five, he may have the relationship of conjugal lover of the Lord. Arjuna was a devotee in relationship..."
Prabhupāda: The passive relationship is simply realizing, "Oh, how God is great". God is great. One is thunderstruck with the greatness of God. That is passive relationship: "God, God is great." When that relationship is enhanced a little, more the next stage is that "If God is great why not give Him some service?" just like we are accustomed to give some service to some person who is greater than me. That is the laws of nature. Just like the animals. The animals are giving service to the man, because the man is supposed to be greater than the animal. Similarly, one man is greater than the other, so the smaller man is giving service to the greater man. That is the law of nature. So when this sense comes, "If God is so great," not that "God is great; therefore exact from God the things of my sense gratification." No. The real love is that "God is great, God is supplying us so many things, all of our necessities, why not render some service to God?" This consciousness is part of development. The next developmen is to give service to God as friend, just like Arjuna is giving. And the next development is to render service to God as parents. And the highest platform of service rendering to God is conjugal love. So there are different stages. That is explained. Go on.
Devotee: "Arjuna was a devotee in relationship with the Lord as a friend. This friendship is different from friendship in the mundane world. This kind of friendship is transcendental. Everyone has some relationship with the Lord. Unfortunately, in our present status, we have forgotten that eternal tie. Yet each of the millions upon millions of living beings has his particular relationship. By the process of service one can revive one's original status with the Lord. Now Arjuna..."
Prabhupāda: This relationship is already established, because I am eternal, God is eternal, therefore my relationship with God is also eternal. That relationship is there. Now, due to my covering of this material body or influence of material energy, I have forgotten. This is my position. In the conditioned state, in this material condition of life, our position is that I..., we have forgotten our relationship with God. But therefore you are trying to establish so many relationships with this material world. I am trying to find some relationship with particular type of society, particular type of community, particular type of nation, particular type of family or individuals. So many ways, I am searching where is my relationship, because I have lost my relationship with God. Therefore I have to reestablish, I have to revive my old relationship with Kṛṣṇa. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness process is to... Just like in darkness you are finding your things, your watch, you cannot find it out. Sometimes you are touching this, sometimes touching this, sometimes touching this, but the real thing you are not touching. So you are bewildered, you are harassed. And now you, if you touch Kṛṣṇa consciousness, these harassments will be stopped. It is so nice thing. We are giving you your lost relationship, which you are searching out life after life. And you are confused. Take this! You will be happy. You will find your relationship, eternal relationship with Kṛṣṇa.
Devotee: "Now Arjuna was a devotee, and he was in touch with the Supreme Lord in friendship. Thus the Bhagavad-gītā was explained to him. How he accepted it should be noted. This is mentioned in the Tenth Chapter. After hearing the Bhagavad-gītā from the Lord, Arjuna accepted Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Brahman. Every living being is Brahman, or spirit, but the supreme living being is the Supreme Brahman."
Prabhupāda: Now here is another point, that everyone is reading Bhagavad-gītā. The..., it is clearly stated how Bhagavad-gītā should be accepted. Bhagavad-gītā was spoken to Arjuna, and Arjuna accepted it in his own understanding, whatever he understood. That is also stated. Therefore we have to place ourselves in the position of Arjuna and accept the truth as Arjuna directly received it. That is understanding of Bhagavad-gītā. That is stated in the Tenth Chapter, how Arjuna accepted Bhagavad-gītā and Kṛṣṇa. That is explained. Yes.
Devotee: "Arjuna accepted Kṛṣṇa as pure, free from all material contamination, as the supreme enjoyer, as the foremost person, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, never born, the greatest. Now one may say that..., one may say that since Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna were friends, Arjuna was only saying these things to his friend. But Arjuna mentions that Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead not only by himself but by Nārada, Vyāsa and numerous other great persons."
Prabhupāda: Authorities. He accepted Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead not because Kṛṣṇa happened to be his intimate friend but on the authorities of others. And on the statement of Kṛṣṇa, and by understanding Him fully. He, he did not accept Him blindly. So this is the process of understanding Bhagavad-gītā. And although he understood fully, because in future so many rascals will come and proclaim himself that "I am also incarnation of Godhead," therefore in the Eleventh Chapter Arjuna requested Kṛṣṇa that "If you think, You can show me Your universal form," so that in future others will accept some bogus rascal as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he may test by seeing the, I mean to say, universal form of the person. So who can exhibit this universal form except Kṛṣṇa?
So we have explained this Bhagavad-gītā in the paramparā system as we have heard from authoritative sources. So it may be a new contribution to your country, because in every edition they have concocted some ideas about Bhagavad-gītā, but we are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is. That's all. So, any question?
Devotee (2): You commented that, Swami Prabhupāda, that everyone has a natural desire to have relationship with Kṛṣṇa, but that because...
Prabhupāda: Not desire, but he is already established.
Devotee (2): Established.
Prabhupāda: That is covered. Just like your relationship with somebody as father and son, it is established. You might have forgot, you might have left your home since a very, very long time, and you do not know who is your father, but there is some father. That is a fact. Nobody can say, "No. I, I have, I am born without father." Nobody can say. One has father, but it may be that he has forgotten his father. So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is that we have got some relationship with the Supreme Lord. That we have now forgotten. So it is not the question of desire. It is there. You don't desire to become one's son, you are already one's son. You simply do not know. Similarly, your relationship with Kṛṣṇa is there, every one of us, but I have forgotten; I do not know. This Kṛṣṇa consciousness practice will revive your relationship in what way..., in which way you are related with Kṛṣṇa. It is not that you have to desire. No. It is already there. You have to desire only how to revive it, that's all. That isKṛṣṇa consciousness. It is not an artificial thing. Just like we are establishing some relationship with somebody or you are my father or you are my wife, you are my husband. No. It is already there. Simply we have to find out. That will be revealed when you are perfect in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati, you are freed from all material contamination, and you are perfectly situated in devotional service; it will be at once revealed: "Oh, you are related to Kṛṣṇa." You will have to wait for that.
Child Devotee: Who was Jesus's father?
Prabhupāda: Hm?
Child Devotee: Who was Jesus's father?
Prabhupāda: God.
Child Devotee: Oh, that's right.
Prabhupāda: You do not know that? Oh, he said that "I am son of God." How is that, you are asking for (indistinct). You do not know this? He said himself that "I am son of God." You do not know this?
Child Devotee: Well I didn't really (indistinct). I didn't really..., I didn't, I wasn't thinking about God the father. But don't we all have...?
Prabhupāda: What is that, he said?
Child Devotee: Aren't we all the sons of God?
Prabhupāda: Yes.
Devotee (2): (to child) You're thinking that Lord Jesus Christ had a relationship with Joseph. Joseph was married to his mother Mary. And so he's thinking what is his, what is Jesus's relationship with Joseph since Jesus is son of God, and Joseph raised him from little boy?
Prabhupāda: Yes. Just like every spirit soul is son of God, but materially we think that some..., somebody as father. But real father is God. That is stated in the i:
This mahat-tattva, this material world, just like a child, a child is born, the father gives the seed and mother develops the body. The child's body is developed... Actually all, all of us, we have got this body from mother. Therefore we have got very natural affinity with mother. The child can forget his father, but he cannot forget his mother. Mother's relationship is so intimate. Similarly, this material body we have got from the material energy; therefore we are so much materialist. We are thinking of this country, that community, this family, how materialistic, because this body is material. But so far spirit soul I am concerned, I am the son or the part and parcel of the Supreme. So material nature is the mother and God is the father. And we are exhibited in so many forms, 8,400,000's of forms. So one who has understood this truth, that God is father, he no more looks, "Ah, this is cat," "This is dog," "This is cow," "This is black," "This is white," "This is Chinese," "This is American." No. That is uiversal brotherhood: "Oh, they are my brothers." Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā. No more enmity. "They are all my brothers." Samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu. With everyone he sees on the equal level, for "They are spiritual part, part and parcel of my father." This vision makes one advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This is fact. This is realization. This is universal brotherhood. Everything this is, this Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Devotee (4): What is the proper relationship of the devotee to Rādhā, Rādhikā?
Prabhupāda: Rādhārāṇī is daivī-māyā. Just like we are, in our material conditional life, we are under the material energy. Similarly, in our liberated state we have to become under the spiritual energy. That spiritual energy is Rādhārāṇī. We are acting at the present moment under material energy, because our body is made of material energy. So when you are liberated you will develop your body of spiritual energy. That spiritual energy is Rādhārāṇī. So you have to become under some..., under the control of some energy. You are also energy; you are marginal energy. Marginal energy means you may be under the control of the spiritual energy or you may be under the control of material energy—your marginal position. But when you are under the control of the material energy, that is your precarious condition, struggle for existence. And when you are under spiritual energy, that is your life of freedom. Rādhārāṇī is spiritual energy, and Durgā, or Kālī, is material energy. So those who are materialist, they worship Drgā, Kālī, the material, different forms of material energy. And, so in both the cases... There is a word in Sanskrit, it is called śakta, śakta. Śakta, the word comes from śakti. Śakti means energy.
So there is a division, that those who are worshiper of the Supreme as mother—just like the worshiper of Goddess Kālī—that means those who are accepting the Absolute as mother, they are called śaktas. The śakta... The Vaiṣṇava, they are also śakta, because they are also accepting another pure energy, personal energy, or internal energy of Kṛṣṇa. That is also śakti. And the materialist also, they are also accepting another energy. The one energy, spiritual energy is in our normal condition, and material energy in..., is our abnormal condition. The Kṛṣṇa consciousness practice means you have to transfer yourself from this material energy to the..., under the control..., from the control of material energy, under the control of spiritual energy. That's all. That spiritual energy is Rādhārāṇī. You have to become under the control. That, I'll give you one concrete example. Just like a person is always under the control of government as citizen. When he is outlaw, he is under the criminal law, and who is law-abiding, he is under civil law. He cannot say that "I cannot remain within the law of the government." He has to. That is his position. Artificially he may deny, but he will be forced. Similarly, our position is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. And as part and parcel we have to render service. If we voluntarily render service, out of love, that is spiritual energy. And we are forced to render service under pressure, that is material energy. In the material energy we are forced. Who wants to become... Suppose you are American. If somebody says, "Would you like to become a dog next life?", would you like? Anybody would like? What do you think? (laughter) But according to his work, he will be forced to accept. There is no saying, "No, no. I don't like this sort of life." No. He will be forced. That is material energy. Forced, just like criminal law. "Oh, you have to go to the prison." "I don't want." You will be forced. "I don't want." He will be arrested, immediately. There is sufficient power. There is police, thre is military, there is so many things. You cannot say no.
So this is intelligence, that I have to serve. Now in my material condition I am serving so many things, especially my senses. So neither my senses are satisfied nor I am satisfied. So this intelligence is not coming to us. They are going on, carvita-carvaṇānām, chewing the chewed. The senses, same sense gratification in different way. In theatre, in stage, in, at home, at club—everywhere. Simply changing the platform and trying to be happy. How you can be happy? They already distasted. Does it mean that sense satisfaction in an apartment and sense satisfaction in the club is different? It is simply imagination. "Let me go to the club, let me go to the stage, let me go to this Florida beach, and let me go there, let me see the naked dance, let me see that, let me..." That's all. But the platform is there, sense gratification. But he is not intelligent that "I have satisfied my senses in so many different ways. I have served my senses in so many different ways. Neither I am satisfied, neither my senses are satsfied." Therefore the intelligent man says, "I am no more going to satisfy my senses, I will satisfy Kṛṣṇa." That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Then he gets full satisfaction. This is voluntary. This is called surrender, that "I have tried to satisfy my, the whims of my senses so many lives. I have become frustrated, confused. Let me try this life to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa." That's all. At least let me give a trial one life, and let me see the result.
So our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means that we are requesting everyone that give a trial this life at least. You have satisfied your senses in so many forms of life, huh? The dogs also satisfied their senses, the cat also satisfied his senses, the tiger, and these civilized, uncivilized, these god, everyone. Now you don't try to satisfy your senses, you try to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. That's all. And Kṛṣṇa, being full, complete, if Kṛṣṇa is satisfied, your senses will be satisfied automatically. Therefore His name is Govinda. Govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi. Govinda means who satisfies the senses. Don't think that your senses will remain unsatisfied. It will be completely satisfied. That is the secret of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
So, have some kīrtana. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730707BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.1

London, July 7, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Prabhupāda: (during chanting of śloka) Now, in your leisure hour you will try to repeat and get by heart some of the ślokas. That will be very nice. Go on.
Pradyumna: (after synonyms) "Translation: Dhṛtarāṣṭra said: O Sañjaya, after assembling in the place of pilgrimage at Kurukṣetra, what did my sons and the sons of Pāṇḍu do, being desirous to fight?"
Prabhupāda: So the history is that same family, there was dispute who would occupy the throne. Dhṛtarāṣṭra and, actually he was the eldest son of the king, and next was Pāṇḍu. So every country the law of primogeniture, what is called? The eldest child... In your country even the eldest child is a girl, she also occupies the throne. Just like present Queen Elizabeth. Formerly there was Queen Victoria; before that, another Elizabeth. But in India woman has no such right. Woman is never given any responsible post. That is the opinion of the greatest politician in the history of the world, Cāṇakya Paṇḍita. According to his opinion, viśvāso naiva kartavyaḥ strīṣu rāja-kuleṣu ca. He has given his explicit opinion that "You cannot trust with any responsible post or any responsibility with a woman and politician." Those who are diplomat, politician, you cannot trust them.
So the general regulation is that woman should remain under the protection of husband, er, father, husband and children. Just like these Pāṇḍus, their mother, Kuntī, she was very, very qualified lady. But still, after the death of her husband, she always remained with the sons. The sons are going to the forest; the mother is also going. Also the wife is also going, Draupadī. This was the... So two parties... Dhṛtarāṣṭra was the eldest son, but he was blind, bodily defect. Therefore he was not awarded the throne. His next brother, Pāṇḍu, he was offered the throne, but he died very early age, a young man. When these Pāṇḍus, the five sons, Yudhiṣṭhira Mahārāja, at at that time not Mahārāja, Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula, Sahadeva, they were very small children, so they were taken care of by Dhṛtarāṣṭra and other elderly family... Bhīṣmadeva. He was the grandfather of the Pāṇḍavas. He was the elder uncle of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Bhīṣma was elder brother of Dhṛtarāṣṭra's father. He was so old. But he was... Actually, the kingdom belonged to Bhīṣma, but he remained a brahmacārī, he did not marry. There was no issue of Bhīṣmadeva. Therefore his nephews, Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu, they were inheritor.
Now, after the death of Pāṇḍu, there was conspiracy. Dhṛtarāṣṭra wanted that "Actually, this is my kingdom. Now, somehow or other, I could not get it. Now my brother is dead. So if I do not inherit, why not my sons.?" This was the politics. Politics are always there, and enviousness, jealousy. This is the nature of this material world. You cannot avoid it. Spiritual world means just the opposite. There is no politics. There is no jealousy. There is no enviousness. That is spiritual world. And material world means politics, jealousy, diplomacy, enviousness, so many things. This is material world. So even in the heavenly planets, these things are there, politics. Even in animal kingdom, these politics are there. This is the nature. Matsaratā. Matsaratā means enviousness. One man is envious of another man. It doesn't matter, even they are brothers or family members. Here the family members, Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu, two brothers, their sons, they were family members, but the enviousness...
So the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is not for the persons who are envious. Envious. It is a movement to train people how to become not envious. It is very first-class scientific movement, yes. Not to become envious. Therefore Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in the beginning introduces, dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo atra [SB 1.1.2]. In this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, dharma, religious principles, cheating type of religious principle is completely eradicated, thrown away, projjhita. They are kicked out, projjhita. Just like you collect all the dirty things from the room, sweeping and then kick out, don't keep it within the room. Similarly, cheating type of religious system—kicked out. It is not such religion, "this religion," "that religion." Any religion system, if there is jealousy, that is not religion. Jealousy means... We should understand jealousy, what is jealousy. Jealousy means that you are rightful owner of something; I won't allow you to take it. This is jealousy. This is jealousy. Jealousy, try to understand. Suppose you are rightful owner of something, and I am trying that "You don't own it. I shall own it. Or somebody own it. I shall not allow it." This is jealousy.
So what is the rightful ownership of the living entity? That is to be understood. Birthright, what is called birthright. Just like everyone has got right to live under the protection of the government, everyone. That is good government. Government should give security of life and property. That is government. Not only for the human being, but even for the ant. This is government. Not that I give protection to my brother, and not to others. That is not... Just like Parīkṣit Mahārāja, he was giving protection to the animals also. When he was on his tour, as soon as he saw that a black man was trying to kill one cow, oh, immediately he took his sword, "Who are you? You are trying to kill?"
So this is good government. Unless the government is equal to everyone... Just like God is equal to everyone. The king or the government must be representative of God. Therefore, according to Vedic civilization, king is offered as good respect as to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. King is called nara-deva, nara-deva. That means "God in human form." King is given... Why? Because he acts as the representative of God. He cannot be jealous to any living entity, at least, born in his kingdom. That is called praja. Praja means one who has taken birth, or, in other words, national, national. So that was the duty.
So formerly, when there was fight between two kings, it is on the principle that who is giving good protection to the citizens, not for personal profit. Who is able to give good protection, life, security for life and property, he should become king. So these persons, this Dhṛtarāṣṭra and his sons, they were jealous. How they could give protection to the citizens? They are themselves jealous. Just like nowadays, all these politicians, they are jealous. They cannot give any protection to the citizens. They are simply interested with their party politics. They have no time even to think how to give nice protection to the citizens so that they may feel happy always that "We have got good government. There is no cause of anxiety. We have got sufficient food, sufficient protection, sufficient opulence, everything sufficient." That is good government.
So here, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, he is jealous. He cannot give any good government. Kṛṣṇa knew it. Kṛṣṇa sent a messenger, Akrura. You have read in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Before this Battle of Kurukṣetra from Dvārakā, He sent his uncle Akrūra: "Just go to Hastināpura, New Delhi, and see what is the situation." So Akrūra understood that Dhṛtarāṣṭra was planning something. So he talked with him that "Why you are implicated in such planning? Kṛṣṇa does not want it." Although Dhṛtarāṣṭra knew that Kṛṣṇa was the Supreme Personality of Godhead... So Dhṛtarāṣṭra said that "I know that what I am planning, that is not good. I know Kṛṣṇa—the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And He has requested me. But I tell you frankly, I cannot do without it. So when Kṛṣṇa will be pleased upon me, I may be."
So this is the position of the materialistic person. A materialistic person knows that he is sinful. A materialistic person knows that whatever he is doing is wrong, but he cannot check. Just like the thief. A thief knows that if he commits stealing, he will be arrested, he will be punished. He knows. Because he heard from lawbooks, from other sources, and he has also seen that a thief is arrested and he is taken by the police for being punished. So we have got two kinds of experiences: by hearing and by seeing directly. In Bengali it is called, dekhā-śunā. In India it is called. The two kinds of experience: one by seeing, practically experiencing, hand to hand; another by hearing. So one who is intelligent, he gets his experience simply by hearing from the right source. That is nice.
So our process is that we are getting experience about the perfect knowledge, the destination of life, simply by hearing from Kṛṣṇa. So we are the most intelligent person. It is not possible to experience directly, but if one has got intelligence, then simply by hearing and considering and thinking over it, he gets the experience. So those who are very sinful, they get experience by hearing and by direct, directly seeing also; still, they cannot check from sinful activities. So Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, by his sinful activities he became so much fallen that he did not hear anybody's advice, Vidura's advice, Bhīṣma's advice, that "Don't plan like this. They are rightful owners. The Pāṇḍavas, they are rightful owners. They are minor, but don't try to cheat them." But Dhṛtarāṣṭra was...
So when the planning was complete and the warfield was set up at dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre [Bg. 1.1]. Dharma-kṣetre means, kuru-kṣetre, that place is a pilgrimage. People still go to observe religious ritualistic performances. And in the Vedas there is injunction, kuru-kṣetre dharmam ācaret: "If you want to perform some ritualistic ceremonies, religious, then go to Kurukṣetra." So Kurukṣetra is a dharma-kṣetra. It is a not fictitious thing, just like rascal commentators, so-called, they say, "Kurukṣetra means this body." It is not that. As it is. Try to understand Bhagavad-gītā as it is. Kurukṣetra, dharma-kṣetra. It is a place of religion. And especially when Kṛṣṇa was present there, it is already. Why this house? Before our occupation, why this house was an ordinary house? Now it is temple. It is dharma-kṣetra, it is a religious place. Why? Because Kṛṣṇa is there. Kṛṣṇa is there. So either you take Kurukṣetra, ordinary place. But because in the battlefield Kṛṣṇa was there directing Arjuna. So it is already dharma-kṣetra.
So formerly people were religiously trained up. So they could not speak lies in a dharma-kṣetra. That is still the practice. Just like in the western world, the Christians go to the church, they admit, confession, "Yes, I have done it." But that has become a formality. But actually, one should admit in religious place that "Yes, I have done this." But that does not mean you admit and again do it. No. You admit once, then you are excused. But don't do it again.
So here Dhṛtarāṣṭra says, samavetā yuyutsavaḥ [Bg. 1.1]. "All these people, my sons, māmakāḥ..." Māmakāḥ. That means "my sons," and pāṇḍava, "my brother Pāṇḍu's sons." Samavetā, "they assembled." What is the purpose? The purpose is yuyutsavaḥ. This word yuyutsu is still used in Japan. Perhaps you know, yuyutsa, fighting. So yuyutsu, those who are desirous of fighting. Now, both the parties were desiring to fight, and they assembled. Why he is asking question, kim akurvata: "What did they do"? Because he was little doubtful that "These boys, after being assembled in dharma-kṣetra kuru-kṣe..., they might have changed their ideas. They might have settled up." Actually, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra might have admitted, "Yes, Pāṇḍavas, you are actually the owner. What is the use of unnecessarily fighting?" So he was very much anxious whether they had changed their decision. Therefore he is asking. Otherwise there was no question of asking, kim akurvata. He... Just like if you are given food, if I ask somebody that "Such and such gentleman was served with nice dishes. Then what did he do?" This is foolish question. He would eat. That's all. (laughter) What is the question of "What did he do?" Similarly, when it is already settled up that they were to fight, there was no such question as kim akurvata, "What did they do?" But he asked this question because he was doubtful whether they had changed their opinion.
Kim akurvata sañjaya [Bg. 1.1]. He was asking his secretary. He was blind man. He was always conducted by his secretary Sañjaya, a very faithful secretary. And he is explaining the Bhagavad-gītā by experiencing, by television within the heart. That art is not yet developed. You have got television through machine, but there is another television—you can see within your heart everything, what is going on outside. So that television was known to... That will be explained by Sañjaya, that by the grace of Vyāsadeva, he learned this televisioning, and he was sitting with his master within the room and he was actually seeing how the fighting is going on. And he was explaining. This is the basic principle of Bhagavad-gītā, I mean, the basic platform. So let us discuss gradually, one after an... Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. [break]
...leader to Bhagavad-gītā and became a sādhu, mahātmā, but when they found that a mahātmā is leader and he is a great student of Bhagavad-gītā, and by the way all people gathered round him. Although he was a politician, he has nothing to do with Bhagavad-gītā or mahātmā, no. (laughter) Because the definition of mahātmā is given in the Bhagavad-gītā. The definition of mahātmā is there: mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ, bhajanty ananya manaso [Bg. 9.13]. This is mahātmā. Mahātmā means he has taken shelter of Kṛṣṇa cent percent, and his only business is to worship and glorify Kṛṣṇa. That is mahātmā. So Gandhi never believed that there was Kṛṣṇa, but he became mahātmā by popular vote. That's all. That kind of mahātmā is not accepted by the śāstra. Mahātmā is, first symptom of mahātmā is that he must be a great devotee of Kṛṣṇa. That is mahātmā. That is.... Mahātmānas tu māṁ pārtha daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ [Bg. 9.13]. And he is not under any material world. He is in the spiritual world. Daivīṁ prakṛtim āśritāḥ. And what is the symptom? Bhajanty ananya-manaso. Ananya-manaso, without any diversion, he's simply devoted to Kṛṣṇa. This is mahātmā. Everything is there in the Bhagavad-gītā, therefore I request you to study Bhagavad-gītā thoroughly as it is. Then you become perfectly powerful, spiritual. Now chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730709BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.2-3

London, July 9, 1973
Pradyumna: (leads chanting, etc.)
Translation: "Sañjaya said: O King, after looking over the army gathered by the sons of Pāṇḍu, King Duryodhana went to his teacher and began to speak the following words:"
Prabhupāda: So Dhṛtarāṣṭra inquired from Sañjaya, kim akurvata: "After my sons and my brother's sons assembled together for fighting, what did they do?" This was the inquiry. So to encourage him... Because Sañjaya could understand the feelings of his master that he wanted the fight, no compromise, kṣatriya spirit, "Let my sons and my brother's sons fight..." That is kṣatriya spirit. "My sons are one hundred in number and they are only five, so certainly my sons will come out victorious, and then the kingdom will be assured." That was his plan. So Sañjaya, his secretary, could understand the feeling. Of course, at last he would inform differently. Yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ. At last he described, "My dear sir, you do not expect victory. It is not possible. Because the other side is Kṛṣṇa, yatra yogeśvaraḥ hariḥ, and the fighter Arjuna, so it is beyond your expectation of victory." But in the beginning he says, "Don't be discouraged. There was no compromise. Immediately your son Duryodhana..." And he is addressing himself (his son) as "rāja." because Dhṛtarāṣṭra would be encouraged when at least he thinks of his son becoming the king. Therefore he said "rāja."
So dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkam [Bg. 1.2]. Duryodhana did not expect that the Pāṇḍavas would be able to accomplish military strength so nicely because they were bereft of all sources. Their kingdom was taken away, their money was usurped, they were sent into the forest, so many tribulations. But the foolish Duryodhana did not know that above all, there was Kṛṣṇa on their side. That he could not calculate. Therefore when he saw the Pāṇḍavas are well-equipped with good number of soldiers, pāṇḍavānīkam, he was little surprised, that "How they could gather are so many soldiers?" So immediately, to consult the commander-in-chief Dronācārya....
Dronācārya was everyone's teacher, ācārya. Ācārya means teacher. Ācāryam upasaṅgamya [Bg. 1.2]. The military teacher. So Duryodhana, he was military teacher of the Pāṇḍavas also. When all of them were children, they were given under the instruction of Dronācārya. Dronācārya was brāhmaṇa, but he knew the military art. Therefore he was appointed teacher for all the boys, the Kauravas. So... but Ācārya, Dronācārya joined with Duryodhana. Bhīṣmadeva joined with Duryodhana. None of them joined with Arjuna. Because Arjuna or Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira was not king at that time, the financial control was not in their hands, and these people, sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, they were on the government political power. The financial control was in their hands. So they were giving enough money for maintenance to Dronācārya and Bhīṣmadeva. So they felt obliged. Of course, they knew everything. But externally, they felt obligation: "Arjuna, I am getting money from Duryodhana. So in this point of danger, if I do not join him, it does not look well. I am getting financial maintenance."
Of course, Arjuna did not ask him. Arjuna was satisfied with Kṛṣṇa. That's all. Kṛṣṇa also divided Himself. Because it is family quarrel. So He said, "I cannot take part with anyone and even if I take part, side, of any of you, I shall not fight. Directly I shall not fight. I may be on your side or that side, but I'll not fight." Still, Arjuna was satisfied. So Kṛṣṇa, in order to satisfy Arjuna, that "I shall not fight, but I shall become your charioteer. I shall drive your chariot." So in this way the battle was arranged, and when Dhṛtarāṣṭra inquired, kim akurvata sañjaya [Bg. 1.1], "What did they do?" He said, "Sir, don't be disappointed. There was no compromise. Immediately your son, after seeing the military arrangement of the Pāṇḍavas, he was surprised, and immediately he went to Dronācārya." He is the commander-in-chief appointed first. "What to do?" Rājā vacanam abravīt [Bg. 1.2]. Then he began to speak, to inform Dronācārya. So next verse.
Pradyumna: (leads chanting, etc.)
Translation: "O my teacher, behold the great army of the sons of Pāṇḍu, so expertly arranged by your intelligent disciple, the son of Drupada."
Prabhupāda: So—intelligent. This Drupada, the son of Drupada, he was meant for killing Dronācārya. Drupada Mahārāja was not in good terms with Dronācārya. So he performed a yajña to get a son who could kill Dronācārya. That son is this Draupada. So Dronācārya knew that "Drupada Mahārāja has got his son. In future he would kill me." Still, when he was offered to become his disciple, to learn military art, he accepted, "Yes." That means the brāhmaṇas were so liberal: "When he is coming as my disciple, never mind, he would kill me in future. That doesn't matter. But I must give him teaching." Therefore this word is used, dhīmatā, very intelligent: "He has killed the military science from you just to kill you." Dhīmatā, tava śiṣyeṇa. "Your disciple, he has arranged." This is the pointing out. So that he may be angry: "This rascal has learned from me and he wants to kill me?"
But no. Duty is duty. After all, everyone will die; nobody will exist. So nobody should be afraid of death. This is Vedic civilization. Death is inevitable. "As sure as death." Who can avoid death? So being afraid of death, we should not deviate from our duties, real duty. That is Vedic civilization. So Duryodhana wanted to point out "That this boy, your disciple, he... It is fixed up that he's meant for killing you, and he has arranged nicely military phalanx just to defeat you. And he has learned this art from you."
Therefore he is using this word, dhīmatā. Dhī, dhī means intelligence. Dhīmat-śabda. Dhīmat. Dhī means intelligence, and mat means "one who possesses." Asty arthe matup-pratyaya. When one possesses something, in this sense, this pratyaya... In Sanskrit there are pratyayas. So matup pratyaya. So matup. From matup, it comes to mat. Sanskrit language means it is so reformed that each and every word has significance. Not that like your English language. "Beauty but peauty put.(?)" No, not like that. If you say "beauty but," you must say, "peauty put." But no, you change: beauty but peauty put. Why? This kind of change cannot be allowed in Sanskrit language. If the "u" means "aḥ," just like beauty but, then it must always mean like that, no change. So dhīmatā. Dhī means intelligence. Dhī means intelligence. So one who has got intelligence. Every word is used with full meaning. Sanskrit language is so nice. Therefore it is called Sanskrit, Sanskrit, Saṁskṛta. Saṁskṛta means reform. And the alphabets are called devanāgarī. Devanāgarī means these alphabets... Just like in Europe the Roman letters are used, similarly, in the upper planetary system these alphabets are used, devanāgarī, used in the cities of the demigods. And the language is called Saṁskṛta, "most reformed." And Sanskrit is the mother of all languages.
Even in this planet, the Latin is also derived from Sanskrit. Just like the "maternal," the matṛ-śabda, "paternal," pitṛ-śabda. So dhīmatā. So here the writer is Vyāsadeva. So every word is selected, either in Bhagavad-gītā or in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam or the Purāṇas, all writings of..., Mahābhārata, each and every word is used just like weighing in the balance. So many words should be in the beginning, so many words should be in the end. And not whimsically. That cannot be allowed. That is called saṁskṛta sāhitya, literary... Just like Caitanya Mahāprabhu when he was hearing Keśava Kāśmīrī, as soon as there was little discrepancy, bhavānī-bhartā, immediately he criticized and defeated him. Sanskrit language is so nice.
Paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍu-putrāṇām ācārya: [Bg. 1.3] "My dear teacher, just see how many military soldiers are standing there on behalf of the Pāṇḍavas, and they have been arranged by your disciple, who is meant for killing you. So just remember." That means "You become more strong that this boy and the other party may not kill you." But Duryodhana does not know that the death does not depend on military strength or bodily strength. When death will come, nobody can check. Death is God. When Kṛṣṇa desires that "This man should be killed now," or "He must die now," nobody can check. Rākhe kṛṣṇa mare ke mare kṛṣṇa rākhe ke. If Kṛṣṇa desires to kill somebody, nobody can give him protection, no power. And if He wants to save somebody, nobody can kill him. This is Kṛṣṇa's protection.
Therefore this big, big commander-in-chief Dronācārya and Bhīṣmadeva, Karṇa, they were very, very, big, powerful commanders. Arjuna was nothing before them. Arjuna was just like... Parīkṣit Mahārāja compared that "My grandfather was just like an ordinary fish, and these soldiers, these commanders, (were) just like timiṅgila." Timiṅgila, there is a fish—we get information from Vedic literature—very big fish. They swallow up the whales. Timi. Timi means whale fish. And timiṅgila means... Just like small fish are swallowed up like this. So just imagine how big such fish is. So these commanders, Karṇa, Dronācārya, and Bhīṣma, were compared with the timiṅgila. And Arjuna although very powerful, he was compared with timi. So Parīkṣit Mahārāja admitted "That it was not possible for my grandfather to win over the battle before these big, big commanders. It is only by the grace of Kṛṣṇa he was saved." So the conclusion is if Kṛṣṇa saves, nobody can kill; and if Kṛṣṇa wants to kill, nobody can save. Therefore our conclusion should be that we should always be under the protection of Kṛṣṇa. Avaśya rakṣibe kṛṣṇa. This is śaraṇāgati. Śaraṇāgati, surrender. Surrender means that "I am surrendering to Kṛṣṇa with full faith that He is quite competent and able to give me protection." This is called surrender. Not that hesitation: "Oh, I will surrender to Kṛṣṇa, and in case of danger, He may not be able to give me protection." That is not surrender. With full faith, "Yes, Kṛṣṇa is so powerful, Kṛṣṇa is so great, that I am surrendering to Kṛṣṇa from this day: 'From this day... Kṛṣṇa, I was wandering throughout the universe life after life without knowing my relationship with you. Now, today, I surrender unto you. Kindly accept me and engage me in your service.' " This is called surrender. Thank you very much. (end)
730710BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.4-5

London, July 10, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc):
atra śūrā maheṣvāsā
bhīmārjuna-samā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca
drupadaś ca mahā-rathaḥ
[Bg. 1.4]
Translation: "Here in this army there are many heroic bowmen equal in fighting to Bhīma and Arjuna; there are also great fighters like Yuyudhāna, Virāṭa and Drupada."
Prabhupāda: So all these heroes are mentioned not only in this verse, in several other verses also. So people may ask that "By mentioning these great fighter, what spiritual progress we make? Because we are meant for chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, so by chanting the names of these great fighters, what do we gain?" The question may be raised there. But the thing is that nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe, whenever there is connection with Kṛṣṇa, that also becomes Kṛṣṇa. This is a subtle form of philosophical understanding. Nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe. If there is relationship with Kṛṣṇa... Therefore the sahajiyās, they do not read Bhagavad-gītā. They say, "We have nothing to do with Bhagavad-gītā." They jump over to the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Tenth Canto, Kṛṣṇa's rāsa-līlā, as if Kṛṣṇa is connected with rāsa-līlā and not with this līlā. They make distinction. Kṛṣṇa's this fighting līlā, pastimes, and the rāsa-līlā pastime, they are all the same because Kṛṣṇa is the center. Kṛṣṇa being center, whatever in connection with Kṛṣṇa is there, that becomes also Kṛṣṇa. This is the idea.
This is the instruction of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in his Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu.
So just like we, in propagating Kṛṣṇa consciousness, we have to deal with money or persons who are not Kṛṣṇa conscious, outsider. We have to deal with them. But when we go to outsider or when we deal with money, there is relationship with Kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇa-sambandha. So Rūpa Gosvāmī has distinguished the...
Prāpañcika means material. So prāpañcikatayā buddhyā hari-sambandhi-vastunaḥ. Everything has got connection with Kṛṣṇa because ultimately everything is Kṛṣṇa's energy. The material world is also manifestation of Kṛṣṇa's energy. Bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ [Bg. 7.4]. You'll find. Material world means these five elements, gross and subtle. Earth, water, air, fire, sky, these are gross. And mind, intelligence, and ego, these are subtle. These elements, material elements, Kṛṣṇa says, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā: "These material elements, they are separated, but they are My energy. They are My energy." The same example. Just like cloud. Cloud is created by the sun. It is sun's energy which creates the cloud. You know. By temperature the sea water is evaporated, forms into gas. That is cloud. So cloud is created by the energy of the sun, but when there is cloud you cannot see the sun. Sun is covered. Similarly, material energy is Kṛṣṇa's energy. But when you become covered by this material energy, you do not see Kṛṣṇa. This is the position.
So we have to use our intelligence. That is described by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī: prāpañcikatayā buddhyā hari-sambandhi-vastunaḥ, mumukṣubhiḥ parityāgaḥ. Mumukṣu, especially the Māyāvādīs, who are after liberation, to merge into the existence of the Supreme, mumukṣu, mokṣa, they, Māyāvāda, they say, "Everything is māyā." Brahma satyaṁ jagan mithyā: "This world is false; only Brahman is reality." But we say that why the jagat, the world should be false if it is coming from the reality? We do not agree with them. We do not accept that this world is false. No. We can say, "It is temporary manifestation." But it is not false. Why it is false? We are living in this house. If somebody, some rascal, says, "It is false," why false? We are utilizing this house. We are utilizing this microphone. We are utilizing the dictaphone. Why it is false? There is sambandha. There is relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Anything material, made of earth, water, fire, air, they are Kṛṣṇa's energies. Therefore there is direct relationship with Kṛṣṇa. And if Kṛṣṇa is reality, why His energy should be false? No. We must know how to utilize it.
So similarly, in this battlefield, Kṛṣṇa is there, and all the living entities... Some of them are soldiers, some of them are commander-in-chiefs, some of them this, that. Or the chariot or the ground—everything Kṛṣṇa's energy. So if we remember that everything is manifestation of Kṛṣṇa's energy, there is no question of materialism. It is all spiritual energy. So nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe. So we have to use them for Kṛṣṇa. Here all of of them have gathered. This is another Kṛṣṇa's energy. Kṛṣṇa appears, paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. He wanted to kill all the demons. That is another side of his business. As one side, paritrāṇāya sādhūnām, to give protection to the devotees, the other side is to vanquish all the demons. Just like if you want to grow paddy on the field, so first of all you have to destroy all the unwanted weeds. Then you grow the seeds; it will come out nicely. So these two things are required. Destruction and construction. Both the things are Kṛṣṇa's activities or different energies. So you cannot accept one thing, giving up the other side. We have to understand that both sides, they are working as different manifestation of Kṛṣṇa's energy. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate [Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]. In the Vedas it is said that the Absolute has got multi-energies. So one energy is working in one way, another energy is working in another way. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate, svā-bhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca. Just like here also, when we do something, we require varieties of energies to make that thing perfect. So everything, Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa's, this material world or spiritual world, everything is working in order, under different energies.
So these, I mean to say, warriors' name mentioning, we should not neglect. Kṛṣṇa wanted to gather all the demoniac power in that Battlefield of Kurukṣetra and kill them. That was His plan. So there is a plan of Kṛṣṇa. Nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe. We should not be attached to things as there, but we should try to understand that there is relationship with Kṛṣṇa. And as soon as there is relationship with Kṛṣṇa, we shall properly utilize it. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. As soon as we understand that there is relationship with Kṛṣṇa, nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe... Everything can be utilized for Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is not a stereotyped, stagnant block. Kṛṣṇa is a dynamic force. Therefore everything can be dovetailed in the service of Kṛṣṇa. Simply one should learn the art under proper guidance how to utilize. Then that will be perfect form of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Read next verse.
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ
kāśirājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca
śaibyaś ca nara-puṅgavaḥ
[Bg. 1.5]
Translation: "There are also great, heroic, powerful fighters like Dhṛṣṭaketu, Cekitāna, Kāśirāja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja and Śaibya."
Prabhupāda: Practically in the Battle of Kurukṣetra great personalities, warriors, from all parts of the world they came and joined. Some of them joined with this party and others joined with the other party. So far we have studied... just like Śaibya, he belonged to Śibya. So all these personalities, we did not get their full description, it would enhance the pages. But these big personalities, we have got their information. There is a book, The Personalities of Mahābhārata. Bhagavad-gītā is part of Mahābhārata. Mahābhārata means greater India. Mahā means greater, and bhārata means India. So this whole planet was Bhārata-varṣa. There was only one flag. The whole planet was being ruled by one king. That is the king of this Hastināpura. The fight is that, that who would be the king, Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira or Duryodhana. But a king... It is not a democratic; it is monarchy. So Kṛṣṇa is deciding, "No, Duryodhana is unfit. Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira is fit." This is Kṛṣṇa's desire. Therefore this fight is there. Kurukṣetra. Kṛṣṇa wanted to wipe out all unwanted demons from the face of the world and enthrone Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira because he is the exact representative of Kṛṣṇa.
So monarchy or dictatorship is welcome. Now the Communists, they want dictatorship. That is welcome, provided that particular dictator is trained like Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira. Not that simply by votes of some rascal population one becomes dictatorship, another rascal comes. Another big rascal comes. Just like in the Communist country the Stalin was their dictator. And in the historical record it is said that he is the greatest criminal in the history of the world. Greatest criminal. He would not tolerate anyone going against him. As soon as he finds that "This man is going against me," immediately call him, "Now here is poison and here is resignation." Or kill him. "You take poison or I shall kill you." This was his policy. In this way he killed so many enemies. He not only killed the Czar family. So his business was killing. Not that kind of dictatorship wanted. Dictatorship wanted that by his direction the citizens will be so happy that even they will not have any anxiety. Adhayo vyadhayaḥ (?).
We have read the other day in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. There are three kinds of miserable conditions of life, bhūtātma-hetav aḥ. The cause... They are caused by three principles: adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. Daiva-bhūtātma-hetavaḥ. These are all described in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Daiva means controlled by the higher demigods. Just like famine or earthquake. This is not under your control. At any time the earthquake, there may be. There may be famine. There may be pestilence. There may be natural disturbance, flood. This is called daiva, controlled by higher demigods. Just like Indra wanted to overflood Vṛndāvana being angry upon the residents of the... Kṛṣṇa saved, Giridhārī. He became Giridhārī. So these disturbances are there. Adhyātmika, adhibhautika. But the king or the dictator should be so perfect and he will guide the citizens in such a way that they will not feel all these disturbances. That kind of dictatorship wanted. He will direct in such a way that even this natural adhyātmika, adhibhautika... Adhibhautika means "You are envious of me, I am envious of you." So there is always cold war, struggle. This should be stopped. There should not be unnatural heat or unnatural cold, excessive heat. People will feel in all respects happy.
If that condition can be brought in, like Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira or his forefathers, or even his grandson. After Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, there was no kingdom of Mahārāja Yud..., of the son of Yudhiṣṭhira or Arjuna. All died in the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. Only one grandson was in the womb of his mother, posthumous child. He was saved only. So up to that point, Mahārāja Parīkṣit, the whole planet was very nicely governed by dictatorship. So we can bring in such dictatorship, provided that dictator is perfectly Kṛṣṇa conscious. Under his guidance, everything... Because he knows how to conduct kingdom, how to make everyone happy. Nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe. So here is another list of fighters. But the real purpose of this battlefield is to bring all the fighters, big fighters of the world, together. And under Kṛṣṇa's guidance they would be all killed. Nimitta-mātraṁ bhava savyasācin. When Arjuna was declining to fight, Kṛṣṇa ultimately said, "My dear Arjuna, you fight or not fight, it doesn't matter. These people are not going back home. It is already settled up. You simply become, take the credit that you have fought and killed. It is al... They are already killed. Because that is My plan." Nimitta-mātraṁ bhava savyasācin. They are already killed.
So this battlefield, because Kṛṣṇa wanted to kill them, and the result was—you will find in the Bhagavad-gītā, they all attained svarūpa. Anyone who was killed, who died in the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra, in the presence of Kṛṣṇa, they all attained their original, constitutional position, spiritual form. They all went back to home, back to Godhead, everyone. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is Absolute. Either His killing or His protecting, it is all the same. You don't think that Kṛṣṇa is killing. No. If anyone is killed by Kṛṣṇa, he immediately gets liberation: the liberation for which great great saintly persons, sages, they undergo severe austerities for life after life, simply by being killed, he gets that. So by becoming Kṛṣṇa's enemy, one gets this benefit. Just think over if you become Kṛṣṇa's friend, what is the benefit. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The Māyāvādīs they are after liberation. So this liberation is granted even to the enemies of Kṛṣṇa. They are also enemies. The Māyāvādīs, they are also enemies. Kṛṣṇe aparādhī. They are offender to Kṛṣṇa because they do not accept the form of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore they are offender. So everything studied in relationship with Kṛṣṇa, that is perfect knowledge, and that is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. So it is not that like sahajiyās that we are interested in Kṛṣṇa's rāsa dance, not with this fighting in the Battlefields of Kurukṣetra. This is sahajiyā-bhāva. This is not wanted. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730711BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.6-7

London, July 11, 1973
Pradyumna: "Translation: There are the mighty Yudhāmanyu, the very powerful Uttamaujā, the son of Subhadrā and the sons of Draupadī. All these warriors are great chariot fighters."
"Translation: O best of the brāhmaṇas, for your information, let me tell you about the captains who are especially qualified to lead my military force."
Prabhupāda: So formerly, five thousand years ago, the same system, military—ordinary soldiers, then the captain, then the commander, the commander-in-chief—as there are gradations in the modern age, the same thing was there. But mahā-ratha, they had good qualification. Mahā-ratha means alone he could fight with many other charioteers. They are called ati-ratha, mahā-ratha. There are different grades of fighters.
So, so far Pāṇḍavas are concerned, their son. Saubhadra... Saubhadra means Abhimanyu, Subhadrā's son. Because he was Subhadrā's son, his name was Saubhadra. Draupadī's sons, they are called Draupadeya. In Sanskrit, just like bhaginī, sister, bhaginī, her son is called bhāgineya, nephews. So there is link. As soon as we speak Saubhadra, that means Subhadrā's son. Subhadrā's son, he was only sixteen years old at that time. He was married with Uttarā, the daughter of Mahārāja Virāṭa. So they were all mahā-rathas, ordinary, not ordinary fighters. This Abhimanyu was killed by conspiracy by seven commander-in-chief. Bhīṣma, Karṇa, Droṇācārya, Aśvatthāmā, they all surrounded him, and they did not allow him to come out. They were very experienced commanders. So this is kṣatriya spirit. He was simply a boy, sixteen years old and he had to be killed by the combined efforts of very, very, big commander-in-chiefs. He was so great fighter, Abhimanyu. Abhimanyu-vāda (?). So Saubhadra, Draupadī... Similarly, Draupadī's sons also there. Sarva eva mahā-rathāḥ [Bg. 1.6]. Mahā-ratha means one who could fight with one thousand chariots on the other side. They were called mahā-rathāḥ.
Then Duryodhana, first of all he pointed out the military strength of the opposite side. This is intelligence. One should take calculation of the opposing elements or the enemy's side. In fighting the first thing is to take estimation of the enemy's side, how much they are strong, how they have arranged. Then one should calculate how to counteract, how to fight with them, this is intelligence. Without taking any calculation of the other side, if you are not prepared, then how you can become victorious? This is sane proposal, that is, upayan cintayet prajño apayan ca cintayet.. A prajña, an intelligent man, not only think of the bright side on this business, or this fight, or this any..., so many things we have to deal with. Simply we should not calculate the brighter side. There is darker side also. We should always think, "If there is some thief, if there is some rogue, they cheat us, then what precaution I am going to take?" This is intelligence. If I simply calculate that "In this business I will make so much profit." In the meantime, somebody comes and cheats me and go away, then... Therefore upayan cintayet prajña apayan ca cintayet. Darker side also should be thought of. That is intelligence. Just like they are doing. After calculating the darker side—enemy means darker side—they can defeat me at any moment. That is darker side.
So after calculating their strength, then Duryodhana is speaking about his own strength, asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye. Viśiṣṭā, not to speak of the ordinary soldiers. They're viśiṣṭā. Viśiṣṭā means who are specifically to be mentioned, high officers. Asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama [Bg. 1.7]. He was in commander-in-chief. For eighteen days there was fight, and one after another, a commander-in-chief was killed. And sixty-four crores of men were killed in the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. And the battle was finished within eighteen days, not lingering for some years. No. Fight to the best capacity and finish the business.
So everyone, both the sides, Pāṇḍava's side and Kaurava's side, all were killed. This Saubhadra, Draupadeya, everyone was killed. And the other side also. Only the five brothers they remained, and the one grandchild who was in the womb of the mother, he remained. Otherwise everyone was finished within eighteen days. Such a great fight it was. And people from all parts of the world, they joined the Battle of Kurukṣetra.
Somebody was criticizing me that "Swamiji, you are introducing this Hare Kṛṣṇa movement. People are becoming coward. They simply chant Hare Kṛṣṇa." So I replied that "You will see the power of Hare Kṛṣṇa movement in due course of time." He required... Because there were two battles in India: the battle between Rāvaṇa and Rāma, Rāma-Rāvaṇa, the battle of Rāmāyaṇa; and another battle was Battle of Kurukṣetra. And in these two battles the hero was Vaiṣṇava and Viṣṇu. In the Rāma-Rāvaṇa battle Lord Rāmacandra was there and His devotee Hanumān, Vajrāṅgajī. Similarly, in the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra, Kṛṣṇa was there and His devotee Arjuna was there. So Vaiṣṇavas, they do not simply chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. If there is need, they can fight under the guidance of Viṣṇu and become victorious. A Vaiṣṇava's one qualification is... Out of the twenty-six qualifications, one qualification is dakṣa, expert. If there is need of fighting, they can fight like very expert. That is also needed. Kṛṣṇa consciousness does not mean one-sided. Kṛṣṇa as all-pervading, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement also should be all-pervading. It should touch everything, even politics, sociology, everything, if required. That is the aim. Because Kṛṣṇa's mission is: yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata [Bg. 4.7], paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. There is two mission: not only to give protection to the devotees, but also to kill the demons. To kill the demons, that is one side. So the devotees of Kṛṣṇa should be trained up both ways: not only to give protection to the devotees, to give them encouragement, but if need be, they should be prepared to kill the demons. That is Vaiṣṇavism. It is not cowardism. It is not cowardism. When need be. Generally, a Vaiṣṇava is non-violent. Just like Arjuna. In the beginning he was non-violent, Vaiṣṇava. He said, "Kṛṣṇa, what is the use of this fighting? Let them enjoy." So by nature he was non-violent, but he was induced by Kṛṣṇa to become violent, that "Your non-violence will not help. You become violent. You kill them. I want." So if Kṛṣṇa wants we shall be prepared to become violent also. And Kṛṣṇa, that is open secret, that paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. Two business of Kṛṣṇa, two side. So those who are devotees of Kṛṣṇa, they should be trained up both ways, they should be prepared. But generally, there is no question of becoming violent, unnecessarily. As the modern politicians, unnecessarily they declare war, a Vaiṣṇava does not do so. No, unnecessarily, there is no need of war. When it was completely impossible to settle up the things between the Pāṇḍavas and the Kauravas, then Kṛṣṇa said, "All right, then there must be fight." When Duryodhana declined to spare even a portion of land holding the sūcyagra, the point of a needle... he refused that "I cannot spare even so much land which can hold the point of a needle." Then the war was declared. There is no question of settlement. Otherwise, Kṛṣṇa requested that "These five Pāṇḍavas, they are kṣatriyas. They cannot become merchant or brāhmaṇa. Brāhmaṇa's profession is paṭhana pāṭhana yajana yājana dāna pratigrahaḥ. Brāhmaṇa can take charity from others. A sannyāsī can take charity from others. Not a kṣatriya or a gṛhastha. No. That is not allowed. "So they are kṣatriyas; they cannot take the professions of a brāhmaṇa, neither they can take the profession of a mercantile man, business man. They must have some land so that rule over, take taxation. And that is their living means.
So spare only five villages to these five brothers and settle up." But Duryodhana replied, "No, Sir. What to speak of five villages, we cannot spare even so much land which can hold the point of needle." Then the war was declared. So Vaiṣṇava, they are non-violent. But if need be, they can become violent for Kṛṣṇa's sake. This is the Battle of Kurukṣetra. So any more? Or end here? All right, end here. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. (End)
730712BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.10

London, July 12, 1973
Pradyumna: "Translation: Our strength is immeasurable, and we are perfectly protected by Grandfather Bhīṣma, whereas the strength of the Pāṇḍavas, carefully protected by Bhīma, is limited." [Bg. 1.10]
Prabhupāda: So Duryodhana is very proud of his strength, military strength, because he was empowered, he could gather. And over and above that, Bhīṣma is the commander-in-chief. He is giving protection. And on the other side, the Pāṇḍavas, they are not empowered. Somehow or other, they gathered some soldiers from relatives. Therefore their strength was limited in consideration of the other party. And that is, being protected by Bhīma. Duryodhana always considered Bhīma as a fool. Therefore he is very much confident that "Our side is being protected by Bhīṣma, and the other side, although Bhīma is very strong, but he has no brain very much." So he was very hopeful of victory.
But in the previous verse he said, anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā mad-arthe tyakta-jīvitāḥ [Bg. 1.9]. Tyakta-jīvitāḥ means "They have come to lay down their life for me." This is a foretelling because actually, whoever joined the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra, none of them returned. Tyakta-jīvitāḥ. So it is already concluded that although Duryodhana is very much proud of his military strength protected by Bhīṣma, still, tyakta-jīvitāḥ, they would surely die. This is the conclusion. Nānā-śastra-praharaṇāḥ sarve yuddha-viśāradāḥ. No, not a single person inexperienced was there. Yuddha-viśāradāḥ. Viśārada means very expert, fighting. Still, they would have to lay down their life because it is Kṛṣṇa's plan that all these fighting men, they were not ruling properly according to the tenets of Vedic injunctions. Therefore they were demons. Military strength for self-aggrandizement is demoniac. Military strength is required to rule over the kingdom but not to misuse them for aggression to others' country or others' kingdom. That was not allowed.
So when Kṛṣṇa appeared, there were many kings. Although they were under the ruling of the Pāṇḍavas, still, Hastināpura, still they were fighting. That is natural. If one has no Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then his strength and opulence would be misused. And if one is Kṛṣṇa conscious, then he would use his strength and opulence very properly. So these kings were meant for giving protection to the citizens, to train them to the Vedic conception of life. But they were not doing that. Therefore they were demons.
Although they were kṣatriyas, still... Kṣatriyas are meant for representing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Actually, Kṛṣṇa is the proprietor. Sarva-loka-maheśvaram. Sarva-loka-maheśvaram, suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānāṁ jñātvā māṁ śāntim ṛcchati [Bg. 5.29]. So He is the proprietor. Sarva-loka. Sarva-loka means all the planets, all the universes. Because they are created by Kṛṣṇa, by Kṛṣṇa's bodily effulgence, brahmajyoti. So they are created by Kṛṣṇa's. Just like from the sunshine these planets are created, similarly from brahmajyoti, innumerable universes are created.
So it is all creation of Kṛṣṇa. Ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate [Bg. 10.8]. Everything has come out from Kṛṣṇa's body, external, therefore He is the proprietor. If I have created something, then I am the proprietor. It is very easy to understand. In the Vedas also, it is said eko nārāyaṇa āsīt: "Before the creation only there was Nārāyaṇa." In the Catuḥ-śloki Bhāgavata also it is said, aham evāsam evāgre [SB 2.9.33/34/35/36]. So before creation there was Kṛṣṇa. When we speak of Kṛṣṇa, it does not mean Kṛṣṇa was alone. Kṛṣṇa means with His form, with His pastimes, with His paraphernalia, with His entourage, everything. When we speak of king, it does not mean king is alone. As soon as we speak of king, we must understand the king, king's kingdom, king's secretaries, king's ministers, king's queen, king's palace, so many things. Similarly, when the Vedas says that eko nārāyaṇa āsīt, "Before creation there was only Nārāyaṇa." So Nārāyaṇa with His paraphernalia, with His expansion... Nārāyaṇa has expansion in the spiritual world, vaikuṇṭha jagat, innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets. You have seen the picture. Innumerable. We have given only twenty-four names, but there are innumerable.
So actually, either in this material world or in the spiritual world, all planets, Vaikuṇṭha planets or kuṇṭha planets... Here in this material world, kuṇṭha planets. Kuṇṭha means anxiety. Here, in any planet you go, the anxiety will be there. This is material. Sadā samudvigna-dhiyām asad-grahāt [SB 7.5.5]. Why anxiety? Because we have accepted something asat, which will not stay. But we are eternal, we want to stay. Our natural position is eternity. So we don't want this temporary body. Therefore we try to save the body as much as possible. But it will not be saved. Because we have accepted something nonsense, which is not compatible with our existence. The modern civilization, they do not know it. They think it that death is natural sequence. It cannot be avoided. No. It can be avoided. It can be avoided. But these rascals, they do not know how to avoid it, although it is mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā how you can avoid death. Birth, death, old age and disease, these are the problems, but they do not know how to solve these problems. They are simply engaged in some temporary business. And they are fighting. They are making plans. They are making diplomacy. But in the real problem they do not touch, neither they know how to solve it. But this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement can solve it. These rascals may understand this fact, that this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is not a sentiment, so-called religious movement. It is a scientific movement to solve all the problems of life. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
So in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti [Bg. 4.9]. Punar janma naiti. If you can avoid next birth... Next birth means to accept another material body. Tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ [Bg. 2.13]. After giving up this body, we have to accept another body. These rascals, they do not understand it. So many defects in the modern civilization, full of ignorance, and still, they are passing as great scientists, great philosophers, great politicians. Real knowledge they haven't got. So try to give them real knowledge. Tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ. This is the crucial point, dehāntara-prāptiḥ. One has to accept another body. So if you can find out a means so that you do not accept another body, then you are safe. Because as soon as you accept another body, janma, birth, then where there is janma, there is mṛtyu, death also. And between janma and mṛtyu, birth and death, there is disease and old age. So Kṛṣṇa says that tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti: [Bg. 4.9] "One can avoid accepting another material body." How? Janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ. Simply try to understand Kṛṣṇa, what is Kṛṣṇa, why Kṛṣṇa appears, why Kṛṣṇa takes part in politics, why Kṛṣṇa... so many, Kṛṣṇa's activities.
So this is... Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means: try to understand Kṛṣṇa. Simply if you try to understand... You cannot understand Kṛṣṇa fully. That is not possible. Kṛṣṇa is unlimited. But to our limited knowledge, whatever is possible, that is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. As far as we can understand about Kṛṣṇa, if we simply understand Kṛṣṇa, His transcendental nature, His transcendental activities, divyam... Janma karma me divyam [Bg. 4.9]. Divyam means transcendental. It is not ordinary. Tattvataḥ, in truth, in fact. Then you become free from this janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi [Bg. 13.9]. Very easy thing.
Therefore try to understand Kṛṣṇa. How you will understand Kṛṣṇa? Kṛṣṇa is so great. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuraty adaḥ. Ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.136]. You cannot understand Kṛṣṇa by these blunt material senses. That is not possible. You have to purify it. You have to purify it. Tat-paratvena nirmalam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Simply by Kṛṣṇa consciousness, always thinking of Kṛṣṇa, all your senses will be purified. This is the process. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau. And you can begin service with your tongue.
Now, this is also very surprising. By utilizing our tongue, we can become perfect. This is also unknown to the modern science. By utilizing the tongue, one can become perfect. Yes. This is the process. If by the tongue you chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, and by the tongue you taste prasādam, you will be perfect, simply by executing these two things. Do not accept anything, do not allow the tongue to touch anything which is not offered to Kṛṣṇa. This is one item. And another item—engage the tongue, always chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa. You become perfect. Is it very difficult task? Anyone can do. Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, anyone can chant. And nice prasādam, anyone can take. And actually, it is happening so. How these European, American boys and girls, they are advancing, they are realizing? Simply by that process, tongue: chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, take prasādam. So you can introduce this process all over the world. Give them chance to chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. But it is difficult also. There was a cartoon? That one...?
Haṁsadūta: Hayagrīva...?
Prabhupāda: No, no, that one old lady is requesting her husband, "Chant chant chant," and the husband is replying, "Can't can't can't." (laughter). There was a cartoon. So we are requesting everyone, "Please chant," and they are replying, "Can't." Still, they will not chant. This is the difficulty. Otherwise, we can deliver all the people on this earth back to home, back to Godhead, simply by this process. Chant and take prasādam. This should be...
Just like the other day we held the festival, Ratha-yātrā. Chant and take prasādam. That's all. Organize this all over the world. They will be saved. They will understand Kṛṣṇa. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam... [Brs. 1.2.234]. Kṛṣṇa will appear. Kṛṣṇa... You cannot see Kṛṣṇa. That is not possible. You cannot order Kṛṣṇa, "Please come, I will see You." No. When He is pleased with your service, He will come. "Yes, I am here. See Me." That is the history. Just like Dhruva Mahārāja. Dhruva Mahārāja was meditating, and within six months, he saw Kṛṣṇa, face to face. So everyone can see. Everyone will be able, provided we utilize the tongue. Sevonmukhe hi jihvādau. Jihvādau. Jihvādau means "beginning with the tongue." We have got senses, all senses, eyes, ears, touch, so many senses. But begin with the sense, tongue. Try to control the tongue and engage in Kṛṣṇa's service.
Therefore Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says, śarīra abidyā-jāl, joḍendriya tāhe kāl: "This body is material body and the senses are our greatest enemies," joḍendriya tāhe kāl. "So out of all the senses," tā'ra madhye jihwā ati lobhamoy sudurmati, "of all the senses, the tongue is formidable." It is sudurmati, it has no limit to taste. I have seen in Japan. Twenty miles away they are coming to taste some fried birds in the hotel. You see. They have got bus. The hotel has got their own bus, and they bring customers from the city and they are coming after office hours just to taste some jungle birds, fried. There is a hotel.
Devotee: Wild duck.
Prabhupāda: Maybe, whatever it may be. You have tasted? (laughter) So the tongue is so formidable enemy. Simply for tasting, they will commit so many sinful activities. They will commit so many abominable actions simply for tongue. And that is a straight line. Tongue, then belly, then genital. So if you can control the tongue, the other things will be controlled. Therefore, tā'ra madhye jihwā ati lobhamoy sudurmati. Lobhamoy, it is very greedy. And sudurmati, it very difficult to control.
Just see. Simply for tongue, so many slaughterhouses are being maintained. I have seen. Those who are meat-eaters... I have seen in the airplane. A small piece of meat they are eating, not very much. But for these small pieces, so many population, huge quantity of slaughterhouse is being maintained. They cannot give up that small piece of meat. What is the difficulty? They can make... The same thing can be made by milk, milk product, channa. What do you call curd? Cheese. You prepare cheese and fry it. You'll get the same taste. But let the animal live, take its milk, and prepare so many milk preparations. But these rascals will not do. You kill simply for this tongue. It is so strong, this tongue. They cannot give up this, I mean to say, formidable tongue. He is demanding, "You must give me meat." So they are obliged. And for this obligation, they are committing so much sinful activities, abominable activities. And becoming bound up by the laws of nature to accept a body within the 8,400,000 species of life, and becoming the worm in the stool.
They do not know how the material law is working. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ [Bg. 3.27]. Prakṛti, nature, is so strong. It is acting very nicely. So we have to become very careful. That carefulness you cannot do any other way. Especially in this age. Simply if you surrender to Kṛṣṇa, if you become Kṛṣṇa conscious, Kṛṣṇa will take care of you, and you will be saved. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730713BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.12

London, July 13, 1973
Pradyumna: Translation: "Then Bhīṣma, the great valiant grandsire of the Kuru dynasty, the grandfather of the fighters, blew his conchshell very loudly like the sound of a lion, giving Duryodhana joy." [Bg. 1.12]
Prabhupāda: So Duryodhana was doubting that "My grandfather, Bhīṣma, is more affectionately inclined to the other party. So he may not be lenient in fighting." So in order to encourage Duryodhana, tasya sañjanayan harṣam. "Don't think that I am lenient. I am strong." Immediately, to encourage him, he blew his conchshell. Nowadays they use bugle. Formerly the conchshells were used by the kings.
And not that in modern days the fighting takes place—the poor soldiers, they come to fight, and the leaders, they remain in safety place. It is not like that. All of them came out, kṣatriya. Bhīṣmadeva came, Duryodhana came, Arjuna came. And face to face, they had to fight. Not that the poor soldiers would fight and they would remain in a secure place, no. So tasya sañjanayan harṣaṁ kuru-vṛddhaḥ. Kuru-vṛddha, the oldest man in the dynasty, Kuru dynasty, pitāmaha, he's the grandfather of Arjuna and Duryodhana. The Dhṛtarāṣṭra's elder uncle, his father's elder brother. He was very old man, brahmacārī, and in that old age also, he was taking the risk of fighting. This is kṣatriya spirit. Not that only... Dhṛtarāṣṭra was escaping. Not escaping, because he was physically incapable, blind, therefore he did not come in the battlefield. Otherwise even Bhīṣmadeva, in such old age he also came. This is kṣatriya spirit. When there is fight, there is no rest. And fight means "Either the other party should be killed or I shall be killed." Not that without any decision the fighting will be stopped. No, that cannot be. When there is two parties, must be belligerent, one party. So decision is that "Either you kill me or I kill you." Not that without killing... "Without being killed one of us, the fighting cannot be stopped."
Just like Jarāsandha was fighting with Bhīma. During daytime the fighting was going on, and at night Bhīma was a guest of Jarāsandha. As guest is honored, respected, all the parties... But during daytime the fighting was going on. And this fighting went on for twenty-eight days. Still, there was no decision. Then Kṛṣṇa gave hint, Bhīmasena, that "Jarāsandha has got a defect. He is joined, two bodies joined. So if you bifurcate him, then he will be killed." So later on Bhīmasena took that policy, and Jarāsandha was killed.
So amongst the kṣatriyas when there is fighting, unless one party is killed, the fighting cannot be stopped. This is the Battle of Kurukṣetra, to see the history of the former kings and kṣatriyas, how they were determined. This is one of the qualifications of kṣatriya: not to go away from the fighting. When there is challenge of fighting, immediately a kṣatriya would accept. That is kṣatriya spirit. Īśvara-bhāvaṁ ca, and ruling over others. And charitable. These are the symptoms of kṣatriya.
They are described in the Bhagavad-gītā, brāhmaṇa qualification, kṣatriya qualification, vaiśya qualification, śūdra qualification. So... Very nice arrangement, Vedic civilization. Everyone is guided by the superior. The brāhmaṇa guides the kṣatriyas, the kṣatriya guides the vaiśyas, and the vaiśya employs the śūdras. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. In this way, four divisions of brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, they manage the whole society so nicely. The kṣatriyas, as the kṣatriya's business was to give protection to the citizens, similarly, vaiśya's duty was to give protection to the animals. Kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.44].
Vaiśya, they should engage themselves in agricultural production and giving protection to the cows, especially mentioned, go-rakṣya. Go-rakṣya, cow protection, is one of the items of state affairs. And now there is no cow protection. Poor cows, they deliver milk, and later on they become slaughtered. How much sinful the modern society is, and they still want peace and prosperity. That is not possible. The society must be divided—brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra—and they must execute their proper duty. And the vaiśyas, they should give protection to the cows. And the śūdras, they should work under the direction of the higher three divisions. In this way there will be nice management.
Then, as it is stated during the reign of Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, kāmaṁ vavarṣa parjanyaḥ [SB 1.10.4]. Then nature also will help. If you keep things all right, according to the direction, then nature also will help you. Nature will give you sufficient foodstuff. Vavarṣa parjanyaḥ, kāmam. Whatever the necessities of life, it will be supplied by nature simply by proper pouring of water, vṛṣṭi. Actually, now the whole world is suffering for drought. There is scarcity of rain. And if the rain is stopped for one or two years more, there will be havoc. It is already there, havoc. In India there is famine, because they are more, mostly agriculturists. So there is famine. In other countries they have got industries. But India is not so industrially advanced. So without water, nothing can be produced.
Therefore during Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira's time, kāmaṁ vavarṣa parjanyaḥ [SB 1.10.4]. Yajñād bhavati parjanyaḥ [Bg. 3.14]. If you want sufficient water, then you must perform yajña. These are the indications, direction of the Vedic wisdom. So at the present moment no other yajña is possible. The only yajña, saṅkīrtana-yajña, is possible. Yajñaiḥ saṅkīrtana-prāyair yajanti hi su-medhasaḥ [SB 11.5.32]. So if this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is taken seriously all over the world and they perform saṅkīrtana-yajña, everything will be adjusted immediately. Everything. But these rascals will not take it. They will suffer. Otherwise all directions are there. People have to take the advantage of direction, perfect direction, without any mistake, and they will be happy. So we are trying to introduce this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement so that people may come to their senses, take advantage of it and be happy. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730714BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.13-14

London, July 14, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca
paṇavānaka-gomukhāḥ
sahasaivābhyahanyanta
sa śabdas tumulo 'bhavat
[Bg. 1.13]
Translation: "After that, the conchshells, bugles, trumpets, drums and horns were all of a sudden sounded, and the combined sound was tumultuous."
Prabhupāda: So there are mention of various types of musical instruments. Those instruments are no longer in use. But different types of bugles, drums, kettledrums, as they use in modern days. So the same principle. By musical instruments, the soldiers are kept alive so they can fight nicely. Sa śabdas tumulo 'bhavat: "When simultaneously all the instruments were sounded, it become tumultuous." Next verse. Tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau. Read it.
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "On the other side, both Lord Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, stationed on a great chariot drawn by white horses, sounded their transcendental conchshells."
Prabhupāda: So you have seen the picture. Kṛṣṇa is driving four white horses. (reads from purport:) "In contrast with the conchshell blown by Bhīṣmadeva, the conchshells in the hands of Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna are described as transcendental." Kṛṣṇa is transcendental. Nārāyaṇaḥ paro 'vyaktāt. Kṛṣṇa is not of this material world. Kṛṣṇa's body, Kṛṣṇa's activities, everything of Kṛṣṇa, they are transcendental. They are not of this material world. Divyam. In the catuḥ-śloki Bhāgavatam it is said when Kṛṣṇa was instructing Brahmā, aham evāsam evāgre: [SB 2.9.33/34/35/36] "Before this material creation, I was existing." In the Vedas also, it is said, eko nārāyaṇa āsīt. "Before creation, only Nārāyaṇa was there."
So Kṛṣṇa's position is always transcendental. He is not any creation of this material world. But because he comes just like a human being and acts also just like human being, those who are less intelligent, avajānanti, they think of Kṛṣṇa as ordinary human being. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhāḥ [Bg. 9.11]. Mūḍhāḥ. Mūḍhāḥ means asses. Or less intelligent class of men. They cannot understand Kṛṣṇa's position. Kṛṣṇa's position is always transcendental.
When Arjuna inquired from Him about His instruction to sun-god, Kṛṣṇa said, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam [Bg. 4.1]. This bhakti-yogam of as mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā... Bhagavad-gītā is bhakti-yogam, to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So this literature is also transcendental. Bhakti is also transcendental. Bhakti is not any activities of this material world. Janma karma me divyam [Bg. 4.9]. So bhakti is activity in relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it is not material. Sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahma-bhūyāya kalpate, māṁ ca yo 'vyabhicāreṇa bhakti-yogena sevate [Bg. 14.26]. Bhakti-yoga is transcendental. And because Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, you cannot understand Kṛṣṇa by any material method. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, bhaktyā mām abhijānāti [Bg. 18.55]. The method also is transcendental, not of this material world. So if we can understand simply these facts, that Kṛṣṇa is transcendental, Kṛṣṇa's name is transcendental, Kṛṣṇa's form is transcendental, sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Kṛṣṇa's body is sac-cid-ānanda, not body like this. This body is asat, acit and nirānanda, just the opposite. This material body is asat. Asat means temporary. It will not exist. But Kṛṣṇa's body is not like that. Kṛṣṇa's body is eternal. That is cit. Sat-cit. Full of knowledge.
So less intelligent class of men, they cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Therefore śāstra says, ataḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyaiḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.136]. These indriya, these material senses, cannot speculate to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is not possible. Śrama eva hi kevalam [SB 1.2.8]. That is simply laboring, wasting time. Kṛṣṇa should be understood as Kṛṣṇa says. He can explain Himself. Nobody can explain. Because our senses are imperfect. We are deficient by four kinds of faults. We commit mistake; we are illusioned; with imperfect senses, we try to speak transcendental knowledge; therefore cheating. With imper... They will say, "Probably," "Maybe." This is the so-called scientists' language. That means imperfect knowledge. Still, they want to teach. This is cheating. Knowledge must be perfect. Then you can teach others.
So our process is to receive the perfect knowledge from the perfect source and distribute it. We don't manufacture knowledge. Therefore we are presenting Bhagavad-gītā as it is, as it is. The Bhagavad-gītā is already perfect. Why shall I interpret with my imperfect senses? This is cheating. But people want to be cheated. Vañcita-vañcaka-sampradāya. The whole world is full of cheaters and cheated. Because we want to be cheated, there are so many cheaters. They don't want real thing. Here is the real thing, Bhagavad-gītā, the Supreme Personality of Godhead speaking personally about Himself. Why should we interpret? Does it mean that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the supreme authority, left something unexplained to be interpreted later on by some rascals? No. But the rascals dare; they interpret. That is cheating. That is another fault. There are 640-45 editions of Bhagavad-gītā. Simply cheating. Amongst them, there are big, big scholars. Not scholars. All rascals, but they cheat. They pose themselves as scholars and people want to be cheated, so they take their words. So they cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Cheated. They take the shelter of the cheaters. Therefore they are cheated.
So the māyā is very strong. Māyā always dictates so that we may be cheated: "Why you are taking Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead? Don't take. He is ordinary man. You can be also equal with Kṛṣṇa. You also become God. You become also incarnation." This is going on. And people flock there because they want to be cheated. What Kṛṣṇa says, they will not accept it. Kṛṣṇa says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇam: [Bg. 18.66] "Only take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness." Sarva-dharmān. Because any dharma which is not approved by the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, that is not dharma. Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam [SB 6.3.19]. A human being or a demigod or very exalted person cannot manufacture dharma. That is not possible. Real dharma is given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kṛṣṇa, and that real dharma is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. "Just surrender unto me." This is real dharma. Surrender to Kṛṣṇa and follow His instruction; your life will be perfect. Because you follow the perfect instruction, therefore you are also perfect. Simple process. To become perfect, we have to follow the perfect instruction.
So in the Bhagavad-gītā there is perfect instruction. And if we take it as it is and follow it, then we become perfect. To become perfect is not very difficult job. But because we don't want to become perfect, because we want to be cheated, we do not become perfect. This is the difficulty. So we should know from the very beginning that Kṛṣṇa is transcendental. And all His activities, they are all transcendental. Although Kṛṣṇa appears just like ordinary human being... He does not appear like ordinary human being because Kṛṣṇa, when He was three months old only, He killed the Pūtanā rākṣasī. A three month's old child cannot kill such giant demon. It is not possible. Kṛṣṇa, when He was six or seven years old, He lifted the Govardhana Hill. So what is the difficulty for Kṛṣṇa? If Kṛṣṇa can float big, big gigantic planets in the air just like cotton swab floating, so is it very difficult for Kṛṣṇa to lift a mountain with His hand, with His finger? That is not difficult for Kṛṣṇa. But those who want to be cheated, when Kṛṣṇa shows His transcendental strength, they don't believe it, another cheating. They, they'll admit, "Oh, these are... What is called?
Devotee: Mythology.
Prabhupāda: Mythology. As if Vyāsadeva wrote this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to put before these rascals some mythology, some imaginary things. Just see how they want to be cheated. Such an exalted personality like Vyāsadeva, who has given us the Vedic literature, he presented something which is imaginary. What business He has got? Therefore sometimes these cheated people, they deny to accept that Bhāgavata is written by Śrī Vyāsadeva. But those who are actually ācāryas, those who can guide us, like Śaṅkarācārya, Rāmānujācārya, Madhvācārya, big, big..., Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they do not say like this, that "It is mythology. It is imaginary." They accept as it is. So we have to follow these mahājana. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ dharmasya tattvaṁ nihito guhāyām [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. We have to follow great personalities, ācāryas. ācāryavān puruṣo veda. One who has got, one who has taken shelter of ācārya, bona fide spiritual master, he knows. Ācāryavān puruṣo veda. Because he is receiving the right knowledge from the right source, ācārya... Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ [Bg. 4.2]. Ācārya means by disciplic succession. As Kṛṣṇa says, disciplic succession, all the ācāryas will say the same thing. They will not change, they will not interpret. They can explain. But the original fact is not distorted. That is ācārya. Ācārya will never say that "Kṛṣṇa is material. Kṛṣṇa... There was no such thing as Kṛṣṇa. There was no such battle, Battle of Kurukṣetra. These are all imaginary." So if we don't want to be cheated, then we should take Kṛṣṇa as He is presenting Himself and as it is confirmed by the ācāryas. Then our knowledge is perfect. So here it is said,
Kṛṣṇa and His devotee Arjuna, they are on the same platform. Therefore Mādhava and Pāṇḍava. They blew Their transcendental conchshells. This is not ordinary. (reads from purport:) "The sounding of the transcendental conchshells indicated that there was no hope of victory for the other side." This is the sounding. Divyau. They are also sounding their conchshell, even Bhīṣma, but that cannot be compared with the conchshells of Mādhava and Pāṇḍava. Arjuna, associates, they are also equally powerful. Nobody can be associates of Kṛṣṇa without being very, very much advanced. Just like fire can mix with fire, similarly water can mix with water; similarly, unless one is transcendentally advanced, he cannot be associate of Kṛṣṇa. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura sings,
gaurāṅgera saṅgi-gaṇe, nitya-siddha kori māne,
se jāy brajendra-suta-pāś
[I offer my obeisances to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, Prabhu Nityānanda, Śrī Advaita, Gadādhara, Śrīvāsa and all others in the line of devotion.]
All the devotees. So Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says, "So all these associates of Caitanya Mahāprabhu should be known—they are also of the same category." Gaurāṅgera saṅgi-gaṇe, nitya-siddha kori māne. This word nitya-siddha is significant. Nitya-siddha and nitya-baddha. There are two kinds of living entities. Nitya-baddha means ever-conditioned. Ever-conditioned means those who are in this material world, they do not know when they came in touch with this material world. Neither they do know when they will be liberated. They are called nitya-baddha, ever-conditioned. And similarly, there are nitya-siddhas. Nitya-siddhas means they never come in contact with this material world, and even they come here for some business, they do not forget their position. That is nitya-siddha. Try to understand. There are two kinds of living entities: nitya-siddha, nitya-baddha. Nitya-baddhas are within this material world. Beginning from Brahmā down to a small ant, insignificant ant, they are all nitya-baddhas. Anyone who is in this material world—nitya-baddha. And nitya-siddhas, they belong to the spiritual world. They never come in contact with this material world, and even they come for some business under the order of the Supreme Lord, they do not touch these material qualities They remain always transcendental. As Kṛṣṇa remains always transcendental, even though He is in this material world, similarly, Kṛṣṇa's nitya-siddha associates, they are also transcendental. They never touch this material world.
So try to understand the position of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is nārāyaṇaḥ paro 'vyaktāt, transcendental, paraḥ avyaktāt. That is puruṣottama-yoga in the Bhagavad-gītā. Kṛṣṇa has said, "Anyone who has understood Me, ajam avyayam, ajamI never take birth in this material world, neither I am deteriorated by material contact—he knows me perfectly." That is called puruṣottama. Puruṣa uttama. Uttama. Uttama means "not of this material world." Ut. Ut means above, and tama means this darkness. So ut-tama means "above this darkness." So uttama puruṣa. Puruṣa uttama. Puruṣa. Puruṣa means enjoyer. Prakṛti means enjoyed. So actually, we are not puruṣa; we are prakṛti. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām, jīva-bhūtāṁ mahā-bāho yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat [Bg. 7.5]. Apareyam, these material elements, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ, earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intelligence, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā, these are separated energies, material energies of Kṛṣṇa. They are also prakṛti. As this material world is prakṛti, similarly, there is another prakṛti, Kṛṣṇa gives information. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parām. But that is parā-prakṛti. So we are not puruṣa; we are prakṛtis. Although by materially dressed, we appear to be puruṣa, actually, we are not puruṣa. Just like if you dress one woman like a man, that does mean she has become man. She is woman. Similarly, we are puruṣa in the sense that we are trying to imitate the supreme puruṣa, Puruṣottama. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme enjoyer. We are trying to become imitation Kṛṣṇa. Just like so many rascals, they declare that "God, I am God." That is the last snare, Māyāvāda. First of all we try to become enjoyer like the head of the family man or a minister or this and that, so many. Everyone is trying to become head, enjoyer. And at last, being baffled in every respect, he wants to become God. This is the last snare of māyā. Nobody can become God. He is Puruṣottama and we are prakṛtis. Artificially, how we can become enjoyer? Prakṛti means enjoyed. Enjoyer and... Predominator and the predominated.
So jīva-bhūta, we jīvas, we are all prakṛti. Puruṣa is only Kṛṣṇa. All living entities... Viṣṇu-tattva is puruṣa-tattva, and we are śakti-tattva, śakti, energy, marginal energy of Kṛṣṇa. So energy is prakṛti. The prakṛti is not puruṣa. So Māyāvāda philosophy is wrong. They pose them as so 'ham. So 'ham "I am the same." How you can be same? In the śāstra it is said that "You living entity, you are prakṛti." How you can become same, you puruṣa. This is mistake. How prakṛti, how a woman can become man? Artificially one can become. Here also so-called woman, they are also puruṣa. They are thinking puruṣa. Puruṣa means enjoyer. Here woman is also thinking to enjoy, and the so-called man is also thinking to enjoy. Everyone. Nobody wants to serve. Everyone wants to be served. Puruṣa attitude. Everyone wants to be served. Nobody wants to serve. This is the material conception of life.
So when we agree to serve, not to be served, that is liberated person. When we agree to serve only, not to be served. Not to accept service from others, but to serve others—that is real liberation. But here the material disease is that everyone is making plan "How others will serve me." This is called māyā. This is called māyā. Māyā means that artificially we want to be served. That is not possible. When we agree to serve... As Caitanya Mahāprabhu has given us the path of liberation, jīvera svarūpa hoy nitya-kṛṣṇa-dāsa, this is our position. We are eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa.
So when we engage ourself in the service of Kṛṣṇa... The whole Bhagavad-gītā is spoken on this basis. Arjuna was artificially declining to serve Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa wanted him to fight, and Arjuna was putting so many reasons, "How he could fight and kill the other side who are his kinsmen, who are nephews, who are brothers, grandfather?" This argument were being put. So that means he refused to serve Kṛṣṇa. That is material condition. He was thinking in his own terms. He wanted to enjoy the family members, the so-called nephews, brothers, that "If they are killed, then what is the use of my, this kingdom?" [break] ...but people thinks that I get kingdom I enjoy myself. That is condition. But a liberated soul will take the kingdom, but it will be used for Kṛṣṇa's service. That is liberated, soul.
In this way we should try to understand, Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa's name, Kṛṣṇa's fame, Kṛṣṇa's associates, Kṛṣṇa's activities, all divyam, transcendental. They are not material. Therefore it is mentioned here, divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ [Bg. 1.14]. Divyau śaṅkhau. The śaṅkha used by Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, they are not ordinary śaṅkha. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730715BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.15

London, July 15, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "Then Lord Kṛṣṇa blew His conchshell named Pāñcajanya; Arjuna blew his, the Devadatta; and Bhīma, the voracious eater and performer of Herculean tasks, blew his terrific conchshell named Pauṇḍram."
Prabhupāda: So Vṛkodara, Bhīmasena, is advertised as voracious eater. But he can perform Herculean task also. Just like the elephant, it eats voraciously, but it gives service also. Similarly if we simply eat voraciously and we cannot give any service that is not good. We must eat sumptuously and give service also. In Bengali it is said that peṭe keli piṭhe soya (?). If one is given sufficient food in the belly, he can carry more burden on the back. So Bhīma-karma, his activities were very Herculean, very, very, difficult tasks he performed.
So everyone is named here with his task. The first name is, Kṛṣṇa, Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa. He is the master of the senses. Govinda. Go means senses. "Who gives pleasure to the senses." So Kṛṣṇa has got many names, thousands, out of which, the Kṛṣṇa name is chief, mukhya. That is described in Vedic literature. People say God has no name. That is right. He has no particular fixed name. But His names are there according to His different activities. Just like His name is Devakī-nandana. Because He accepted Devakī as His mother, therefore He is called Devakī-nandana. Similarly, He is called Nanda-nandana, Yaśodā-nandana, Vrajendra-nandana—in relationship with Nanda Mahārāja, Yaśodā, His foster father and mother. Similarly, He is sometimes named Pārtha-sārathi because He acted as the chariot driver of Arjuna. Arjuna's name is Pārtha. His mother's name is Pṛthā, Kuntī's. From Pṛthā, his name is Pārtha. From his father's name, Pāṇḍu, his name is Pāṇḍava. So in this way big personalities or anyone, they should tally, the name should tally with the activities. This is nomenclature.
In the... According to Vedic civilization, after the birth of the child, there was name-giving ceremony, what kind of name. So that was calculated astrologically, that what kind of name he should be given, because the name should carry some meaning of the activities of his life. So Kṛṣṇa is named here Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa, Kṛṣṇa, in the fifteenth chapter is described that He gives direction to everyone. Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ: [Bg. 15.15] "I am sitting in everyone's heart as Paramātmā." Realization of the Absolute Truth are three features, Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān.
Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān. The same object. So the Brahman realization is impersonal realization. Just like the sun, the sun globe, and the sunshine. They are one, but the sunshine, realization of the sunshine, is not realization of the sun globe. Or realization of the sun globe is not realization of the sun god who is within the sun globe. Vivasvān. His name is Vivasvān. The present predominating Deity in the sun planet, his name is Vivasvān. And his son Manu is called Vaivasvata Manu. This is the age of Vaivasvata Manu. So at the... This is very nice example, that the sunshine, the sun globe and the sun god. They are all one, but still, the sun globe is not the person, sun god; neither the sunshine is not the person sun, although they are one. This is called acintya-bhedābheda-tattva, inconceivably one and different simultaneously.
So Brahman realization is also God realization, but it is partial. The Supreme Lord is sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. He is person. But He is not a person like us. He is sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Vigraha means person. So He is person, Bhagavān. Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate [SB 1.2.11]. Three features, realization of the Absolute. The first realization, imperfect realization, is impersonal Brahman. Further advanced realization—Paramātmā realization. And ultimate realization—the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. These are the three stages.
So when He is Hṛṣīkeśa, it is His Paramātmā feature. As it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā,
Īśvara, the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa. Īśvara means the Supreme, īśvara means controller. But the supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Control everyone of us, we are controller. We control our family, our society, our business, our factory. There are different kinds of controller. So in that sense everyone is īśvara, but different types of īśvara. But the supreme īśvara.... Supreme means nobody controls Him, but He controls everyone. That is Supreme. Here we are controller, but we are also controlled, somebody else, superior than me. Therefore we cannot be called supreme controller. Supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa.
When Kṛṣṇa was present on this planet, nobody could control Kṛṣṇa, but He controlled everyone. Nobody could control Kṛṣṇa. So therefore the great saintly persons, even Brahmā, they have decided, that īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ: [Bs. 5.1] "The Supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa." He controls even Brahmā, ādi-kavaye. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is said, tene brahma hṛdā ādi-kavaye [SB 1.1.1]. Tene, He instructed Brahmā śabda-brahma, Vedic knowledge, hṛdā, through heart. That is Hṛṣīkeśa. You can argue that "Brahmā was the first creature within this universe. So how he could be instructed by somebody else?" No. The somebody else is always there within the heart, Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa means controller. Sarvasya cāham... Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, sarvasya, in the fifteenth chapter, sarvasya ca ahaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ: "I am sitting in everyone's heart." Mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca: [Bg. 15.15] "From Me, one remembers and one forgets also." Forgets also. If you want to forget Kṛṣṇa, so Kṛṣṇa will give you such intelligence that you will forget Him forever. Ye yathā māṁ prapadyante tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Bg. 4.11].
So the atheist class, demon class, they want to forget Kṛṣṇa. So Kṛṣṇa gives him such intelligence that he can speak of atheism so many volumes. But he is getting that intelligence from Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa gives everyone the chance that "Whatever you want to do, you can do. I will give you intelligence. So if you want to become atheist, then I will give you intelligence how to become first-class atheist, like Hiraṇyakaśipu, Rāvaṇa, Kaṁsa. And if you want to become devotee, then I will give you intelligence also in that way." Buddhi-yogaṁ dadāmi taṁ yena mām upayānti te. Teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam [Bg. 10.10]. Anyone who is engaged in His service with love and affection, teṣām, not all, not all... Because not all, not everyone wants to serve Him. Everyone wants to become God, imitator. Imitation. Therefore they say, "Why Kṛṣṇa shall be alone God? I am God." You are God. That's all right. But you are not the Supreme God. Why you forget that? You may be a God at home of your wife, but when you go to your office, you are not god; your master is god. He directs you to do something; you have to do it.
So we may claim that "Every one of us, we are God," but nobody can claim that "We are supreme; I am Supreme God." That is not possible. That can, Kṛṣṇa can claim only. Mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya: [Bg. 7.7] "My dear Dhanañjaya, there is no more superior personality than Me." And He proved it. So God cannot be manufactured. God is God. Kṛṣṇa, when He was three months old on the lap of His mother, still, He was God. He could kill the Pūtanā. So God cannot be manufactured by so-called meditation and mystic power. You can get some of the insignificant powers of God, but simply, but you do not know how much powerful is God. That you do not know. Therefore when a person gets little power, he thinks that he has become God. He does not know how much powerful God is.
So therefore śāstra says that "You may be god in your own atmosphere, in your own jurisdiction. You may think that you are God." And everyone thinks like that. "But the Supreme God is Kṛṣṇa." Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. In the Upaniṣads it is said that God is also a person like me, you. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). But His personality is different from your personality, from my personality. What is that difference? Eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān: "He supplies all the necessities of all other personalities." That is the difference. God is supplying us food. This conception is there in the Bible, "God, give us our daily bread." This is nice. Accepting that you are getting all supplies from God, this is sukṛti, this is puṇyavat.
If one, anyone says, "Oh, what God? We are creating our own food." Just like the Communist says. They are duṣkṛtina, rascals. But if anyone even goes to the church and temple for asking something to God, he is pious. At least, he has approached God. So one day when he will be advanced devotee, he will not ask any more. He knows that "Why shall I bother God? He is supplying everyone food, so why shall I ask Him food? My food is also there. Let me serve Him." That is his higher intelligence. That is higher intelligence, that "Why shall I ask food from God? God is supplying food to the cats, dogs, ants, elephants, and I want little food, he will not supply me? And especially when I engage myself in His service? Ordinary man pays to his servant, and I shall starve if I am engaged in the service of God?" This is intelligence. This is intelligence. "Why shall I bother God? If He likes, I will starve. That doesn't matter. But I must engage myself in the service of the Lord." This is intelligence. Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante jñānavān māṁ prapadyate [Bg. 7.19]. This intelligence comes after many, many births of endeavoring for self-realization. It is not easily comes.
So there is no question of scarcity for devotee. Just like this morning I was discussing with a gentleman. So a devotee is not in need of everything. Why he should be? He cannot be. Even one who is not devotee, if he is getting supplies from God, how is it that the devotee will not get? Just like the government. The government, although there is prisonhouse, the government supplies the food. Not that because they have gone to the prisonhouse, they are starving. Rather, those who are unemployed, they prefer prisonhouse, that without any service, they will get free food.
So anyone within this material world, they are prisoners. Bhrāmayan yantrārūḍhāni māyayā. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati [Bg. 18.61]. Īśvara, the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa as Hṛṣīkeśa, He is sitting in everyone's heart as Paramātmā, and He is guiding. This is confirmed in the Vedas that two birds are sitting on one tree. These two birds, one is Kṛṣṇa and another, the living entity, Paramātmā and jīvātmā. The jīvātmā is eating the fruit, and Paramātmā is simply becoming witness. Anumantā upadraṣṭā. Paramātmā is seeing, Hṛṣīkeśa is seeing that you are doing this. So we may forget what nuisance we had done in our last life, but Paramātmā is there, witness; you have to get a body according to your work. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa [SB 3.31.1]. You are working, that is being witnessed by the Paramātmā. And He is also giving advice. Because we have forgotten Kṛṣṇa, we have rebelled against Kṛṣṇa. We want to act according to our whims.
Just like a child wants to do something according to his whims. Father checks him, "My dear child, do not do this." But if he likes, if he persists, father says, "All right, you do it." This is the position. The Hṛṣīkeśa, Paramātmā, He is always guiding us, but we do not accept His guidance. This is our position. Arjuna has accepted Kṛṣṇa, that "I shall be guided by You. Although You'll not fight." Therefore here it is said, Hṛṣīkeśa, He's guiding Arjuna. The hṛṣīka means the senses. Hṛṣīka-īśa. Īśa means Lord, master, īśvara or īśa. So Hṛṣīkeśa. Actually, He is the master of the senses. In the Bhagavad-gītā you will find. In the Eleventh Chapter it is said, sarvataḥ pāṇi-pādaṁ tat, "God has His hands and legs all over the universe." What is that? This, our hand, our legs, this is God's hands, God's leg. He is the master. I am claiming, "This is my hand," but as soon as God withdraws the power of your hand, it is paralyzed, you cannot repair. Therefore the real proprietor is Kṛṣṇa. You are not proprietor. You have been given the facility to use it, for..., use it not for your sense gratification, but for the satisfaction of the Lord. Then your life is perfect. Because the things belongs to Kṛṣṇa. He is Hṛṣīkeśa. He is the master. Just like we are sitting in this house. Somebody has given us. Similarly, everything belongs to God. This is self-realization. My body belongs to God, my mind belongs to God, my intelligence belongs to God, I am spirit soul, I am part and parcel of God. Therefore everything belongs to...Īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1]. Everything belongs to God. So if you don't use it for God, that is called demonism. And if you use it for God, that is devotion. That's all.
One must realize that "Everything belongs to God; nothing belongs to me. Even this body is given to me by God. "Why a different body? The different body is... God gives us different body according to our karma. That is explained. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa jantur dehopapattaye [SB 3.31.1]. How we get a different type of body? We have got different types of body. Because according to our past karma, we have created a certain type of body and now we have entered into that body and working according to past karma.
The Christian theologicians, they do not believe in the karma. I was student in Christian college, Scottish Churches College. So in our younger days, the Professor, Dr. W.S. Urquhart. So I heard his lecture, that he did not believe in the karmas. He said that "If I am suffering or enjoying for my last karma, who is the witness? Because some witness must be there that I have done this." But at that time we were not very expert. But this Hṛṣīkeśa is the witness, anumantā upadraṣṭā. Upadraṣṭā. He is simply seeing. So the Christians, they have no Paramātmā idea. Sometimes they say holy ghost. Means a clear idea. But this Hṛṣīkeśa is clear idea. Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīka-īśa.
So this bhakti, devotional path, is meant for satisfying the master of the senses. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Hṛṣīkeṇa, by your senses, when you serve the Hṛṣīkeśa, the master of the senses, that is called bhakti. This is the definition of bhakti. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate. Nārada-pañcarātra. So that is our business. We should under... That is self-realization. Īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1]. Everything belongs to God; nothing belongs to us. This is Bhāgavata communism. As the communists, they say, "Everything belongs to the state," we say "Everything belongs to God." We never say that anything belongs to anyone. No. This is Bhāgavata communism. So everything belongs to God. So one can utilize God's property as much as he requires, not more than that. Then he will be thief, he will be punishable. Just like father's property. Each and every son has got the right to live at the father's protection. gṛdhaḥ kasya svid dhanam. That is spiritual communism. Whatever wealth is there within this universe, all belong to God, and we are, as sons of God, we have got right to take advantage of this wealth, but not more than what I require. That's all. This is spiritual communism. If you take more, then you become punishable. This is the law of nature.
Therefore our aim of life should be to understand that every..., to know... This is self-realization, that everything belongs to God. Nothing belongs to us. This is self-realization. I also belong to God. My, this body made of five elements, gross body... Bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ [Bg. 7.4], earth, water, fire, air, sky. This is gross body. And subtle body, khaṁ mano buddhir eva, mind, intelligence, ego. These eight. Kṛṣṇa says, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā: "These eight kind of prakṛti, they are My energy. They are My energy." So this whole universe is creation of Kṛṣṇa's material energy.
We are marginal energy of Kṛṣṇa. So we are now put into this material energy because we wanted to enjoy this material world. In the spiritual world the only enjoyer is Kṛṣṇa, either in spiritual or material world, He is the only enjoyer. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram [Bg. 5.29]. "I am the enjoyer." So this is to be understood, that He is the supreme enjoyer. He is also enjoyer of My energy. Because my energy is derived from Kṛṣṇa's energy. Just like master and servant. The master is paying him food, anything for comforts. He is getting energy. So how the energy should be utilized? For the master, not for his sense gratification. This is perfection of life. You produce anything by your energy, but you cannot use it for your sense gratification. Then you become perfect. And if you want to do it, then Hṛṣīkeśa, the master of the senses, will give you intelligence how to do it. Just like He is giving Arjuna intelligence. Therefore He is mentioned as Hṛṣīkeśa. How to win victory? How to utilize his energy for Kṛṣṇa? Kṛṣṇa wanted the battle. Arjuna was a military man. He utilized his military strength for Kṛṣṇa's purposes. That is the perfection of life.
So whatever you have got, if you utilize it for Kṛṣṇa's sake, hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhakti [Cc. Madhya 19.170], that is bhakti. Even by fighting, you can be a great devotee, just like Arjuna. He was not chanting on the beads, but he was fighting. But still, bhakto 'si priyo 'si me [Bg. 4.3]. Kṛṣṇa says, "Oh, you are My great devotee." Now people, may say that "He was not chanting. He was fighting. How he became a great devotee?" But Kṛṣṇa says, bhakto 'si priyo 'si me: "You are My dear friend. You are My devotee. Because you are utilizing your energy for Me." So bhakti means you utilize your energy for Kṛṣṇa. Then your life is perfect. Thank you very much. (end)
730716BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.16-19

London, July 16, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ
śikhaṇḍi ca mahā-rathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca
sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ
drupado draupadeyāś ca
sarvaśaḥ pṛthivī-pate
saubhadraś ca mahā-bāhuḥ
śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak
[Bg. 1.16-18]
"King Yudhiṣṭhira, the son of Kuntī, blew his conchshell, the Anantavijaya, and Nakula and Sahadeva blew the Sughoṣa and Maṇipuṣpaka. That great archer the King of Kāśī, the great fighter Śikhaṇḍi, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, Virāṭa and the unconquerable Sātyaki, Drupada, the sons of Draupadī, and the others, O King, such as the son of Subhadrā, greatly armed, all blew their respective conchshells."
Prabhupāda: So here Dhṛtarāṣṭra is addressed as pṛthivī-pati, the lord of the world. Pṛthivī, pṛthivī means this planet. So five thousand years ago, from the statement it appears that the king of Hastināpura was the emperor of the whole world, pṛthivī-pati. One king, the whole planet was being governed by one emperor or king, and different parts of the world, other kings, subordinate kings, as they are named here, Drupada, then Virāṭa, Kāśya, in different parts of the world they came and joined. And each and every one of them possessed a different kind of bugle, śaṅkha. So they declared that now we are ready to fight.
And another significance of this verse is, Yudhiṣṭhira is also described here as rājā. In the beginning Sañjaya informed Dhṛtarāṣṭra that Duryodhana rājā. So actually the fight is between the two kings. One side Duryodhana, another side Yudhiṣṭhira. One may not misunderstand, therefore particularly mentioned kuntī-putra, this rājā is Kuntī's son, kuntī-putra. So Drupada, Mahārāja Drupada, the father of Draupadī, Draupadī was gained by Arjuna in competition. Draupadī, the daughter of Mahārāja Drupada is Draupadī. She is Draupadī. And her sons they are draupadeya.
So the grandfather, the grandsons, all of them were present, because they were allies. Mahārāja Drupada happened to be the father-in-law of the Pāṇḍavas. Draupadī accepted five husbands. When Draupadī was gained in the competition, they were incognito. The Pāṇḍavas were incognito. They were banished for twelve years, and after twelve years, one year they had to live incognito. Nobody would understand where they are living. So they took shelter at the house of Mahārāja Virāṭa.
So Virāṭa, at that time this Mahārāja Virāṭa's daughter Uttarā, was trained by Arjuna for dancing. Arjuna was appointed as a dancing teacher for the daughter of Mahārāja Virāṭa, Uttarā. So when it was discovered that Arjuna was not a dancing teacher, he was the great hero, Mahārāja Virāṭa wanted to offer his daughter, that you marry my daughter, because he was disclosed. So Arjuna said, "How can I marry this girl. I am her teacher. Therefore a teacher is to be considered as father, so it is not possible. So if you like I can get this girl married with my son Saubhadra, Subhadrā's son."
Arjuna had another wife Subhadrā. That Subhadrā, you know, sister of Kṛṣṇa. Sister of Kṛṣṇa. So Subhadrā, Balarāma, elder brother, Kṛṣṇa, younger brother. Kṛṣṇa wanted to hand over Subhadrā to Arjuna, and Balarāma wanted to hand over Subhadrā to Duryodhana. So Kṛṣṇa could not say anything. The elder brother has decided. Therefore Kṛṣṇa advised Arjuna to kidnap Subhadrā. Just see how much Kṛṣṇa was affectionate to Arjuna that Arjuna liked also to marry Subhadrā, and Subhadrā also liked, but the elder brother did not agree. So they made a plan that Arjuna kidnap Subhadrā.
This kidnapping was allowed among the kṣatriyas, and fight. That is kṣatriya marriage. Unless there is fight, that marriage is not complete. The red vermillion which we apply, that is kṣatriya principle. After killing the opposite party, the blood will be smeared over the hair of the bride. That is conquer, victory. So in every marriage, Kṛṣṇa had 16,108 wives, and each wife was married by fighting, beginning from Rukmiṇī. Rukmiṇī also, the first wife of Kṛṣṇa, the first queen, when Kṛṣṇa became king of Dvārakā, she was the first queen. So Subhadra was kidnapped by Arjuna. Rukmiṇī was settled up to be married with Śiśupāla. Śiśupāla also happened to be Kṛṣṇa's cousin-brother, and Rukmiṇī did not like that she would be handed over to Śiśupāla. She wanted to marry Kṛṣṇa. So she sent one letter to Kṛṣṇa that this is the position. "My brother Rukma, he has decided to hand over to me to Śiśupāla, but I don't like. So please arrange for kidnapping." A brāhmaṇa was sent to Kṛṣṇa.
That is also another responsibility of kṣatriya. If a girl proposes, "I want to marry you," a kṣatriya cannot refuse, he cannot refuse. He must marry that girl, even at the risk of life. This is kṣatriya spirit. One rākṣasī, she wanted to marry Bhīma. So Bhīma refused, she was a rākṣasī. So she complained to Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira that I wanted to marry Bhīma but he has refused. And Yudhiṣṭhira Mahārāja compelled Bhīma, "You must marry. Even though she is rākṣasī, you are kṣatriya you cannot refuse." This was the system, very nice system, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. Don't work now, you should hear. You cannot divert your attention.
So all these kings on the side of the Pāṇḍavas, they were relatives, so they joined. So when they blew their different types of conchshell, then the other side were trembled, "Oh, they have gathered so much strength." Because Duryodhana thought that for, continually for thirteen years Pāṇḍavas were banished, so they could not gather any good amount of soldiers. But when they saw that so many kings from different parts of the world have joined them, so they became frightened. That is described in the next verse, sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat. They are just like heart-broken: "What is this? They have gathered so much great, great fighters." Nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ caiva tumulo 'bhyanunādayan. You read this verse.
sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ
hṛdayāni vyadārayat.
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ caiva
tumulo 'bhyanunādayan
[Bg. 1.19]
Translation: "The blowing of these different conchshells became uproarious, and thus, vibrating both in the sky and on the earth, it shattered the hearts of the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra."
Prabhupāda: So enemy, when one enemy fights, the other party, well-equipped, strong, so it breaks the heart of the enemy. That happened. So there is nothing to especially... The breaking of the heart by vibrating different types of conchshell from the side of the Pāṇḍavas, it broke the heart of the dhārtarāṣṭrāṇām. Dhṛtarāṣṭra, his sons, one hundred sons. So from Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Dhārtarāṣṭra, dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat. And it resounded both in the sky or on the surface. So I think that's all. (end)
730717BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.20

London, July 17, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "O King, at that time Arjuna, the son of Pāṇḍu, who was seated in his chariot, his flag marked with Hanumān, took up his bow and prepared to shoot his arrows, looking at the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. O King, Arjuna then spoke to Hṛṣīkeśa, Kṛṣṇa, these words:"
Prabhupāda: So again the word hṛṣīkeśa is used here. In the beginning also, hṛṣīkeśaḥ pāñcajanyam. Kṛṣṇa is again designated as Hṛṣīkeśa. As we have explained several times, bhakti means hṛṣīkena hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Bhakti, the whole devotional service program, means hṛṣīkena hṛṣīkeśa-sevanam. So Arjuna was meant for serving Kṛṣṇa, because he is bhakta. Kṛṣṇa has already addressed him, bhakto 'si, priyo 'si, rahasyaṁ hy etad uttamam: [Bg. 4.3] "My dear Arjuna, I am speaking to you the mystery of Bhagavad-gītā." It is a mystery. Mystery means very complicated; no ordinary man can understand. Therefore it is called mystery, rahasyam. But not ordinary rahasyam, uttamam. Uttamam means transcendental, not covered with darkness of material science. But it is brilliant, daivam, divyam. Rahasyam.
So ordinary man cannot understand. Therefore they interpret foolishly, speculate, and demonstrate their rascaldom. That's all. Even big, big scholars. So they cannot understand because they are not devotee. It is meant for the devotee. This whole Bhagavad-gītā is a transaction between God and His devotee. There is nothing more. Just like if you go to the market and two mercantile men talking. So it should be understood that he is also businessman, he is also businessman, so they must be talking something about business. It is natural conclusion. Two businessmen are talking seriously, not that they are discussing Bhagavad-gītā. You cannot say that. They must be talking about business, something about profit.
Just like all the businessmen, they assemble in exchange, like stock exchange. So there is howling, great sound, talking with each other, tumultuous sound. That tumultuous sound means one businessman is talking, "What is your rate? This is my rate. What is your rate?" That's all. You cannot expect that a stock exchange, the people gathered there, they are talking something about Bhāgavata and Bhagavad-gītā. No.
Similarly, when there is talk between the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa and His devotee, so this whole talk is bhakti. It is nothing else. They derive some meaning, jñāna, jñānātmaka-vyākhyā. They describe on the understanding of the jñānīs, philosophical speculators. They are also candidate. Those who are jñānis actually, they are also interested to know what is Kṛṣṇa. Jñānī ca bharatarṣabha, jijñāsur. Ārto arthārthī jijñāsur jñānī ca bharatarṣabha [Bg. 7.16]. These four classes of men, provided their background is pious life....
Impious life cannot inquire about God or can understand about God. We have several times repeated the verse,
Pāpīs, sinful men, they cannot understand. They understand, only think that "Kṛṣṇa is Bhagavān; so I am also Bhagavān. He's an ordinary man, maybe little powerful, historically very famous man. So He is, after all, a man. So I am also man. So why not I am God?" This is the conclusion of the abhaktas, non-devotees and sinful men.
So anyone who is declaring himself God, immediately you should know he is the greatest sinful man. And if you study his private life, you will see that he is number one sinful man. This is the test. Otherwise nobody will say that I am God, this false representation. Nobody. Any pious man will not do it. He knows, "What I am? I am ordinary human being. How can I claim to take the position of God?" And they become famous among rascals.
As it is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, śva-viḍ-varāhoṣṭra kharaiḥ [SB 2.3.19]. What is that verse? Uṣṭra-kharaiḥ, saṁstutaḥ puruṣaḥ paśuḥ. They.... in this world we see there are many great men, so-called great men, and they are very much praised by the general people. So Bhāgavata says, that anyone who is not a devotee, who never chants the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, he may be very great man in the estimation of rascals, but he is nothing but an animal. Śva-viḍ-varāha-uṣṭra-kharaiḥ. "So how you can say such a great man. You are saying that animal." Our business is very thankless task. We say any man who is not a devotee, he is rascal. We say generally. It is very harsh word, but we have to use it. As soon as we see that he is not a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, then he's a rascal. How do we say? He is not my enemy, but we have to say because it is stated by Kṛṣṇa.
If we are really Kṛṣṇa conscious, then our business is to repeat the words of Kṛṣṇa. That's all. What is the difference between a Kṛṣṇa's representative and non-representative? The representative of Kṛṣṇa will simply repeat what Kṛṣṇa says. That's all. He becomes representative. It doesn't require much qualification. You simply repeat with firm conviction. As Kṛṣṇa says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. So one who has accepted this fact, that, "If I surrender to Kṛṣṇa, my all business is successful," he is Kṛṣṇa's representative. That's all.
You don't require to be very highly educated or advanced. Simply if you simply accept that what Kṛṣṇa says... Just like Arjuna said, sarvam etaṁ ṛtam manye yad vadasi keśava: [Bg. 10.14] "My dear Kṛṣṇa, Keśava, whatever You are saying, I accept it, without any change." That is bhakta. Therefore Arjuna is addressed, bhakto 'si. This is the bhakta's business. Why shall I think of Kṛṣṇa as like me, ordinary man? This is the difference between a bhakta and not bhakta. A bhakta knows that "I am insignificant, a small spark of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is individual person. I am also individual person. But when we consider about His power and my power, I am most insignificant." This is understanding of Kṛṣṇa.
There is no difficulty. Simply one must be sincere, not sinful. But a sinful man cannot understand Him. The sinful man, he will say, "Oh, Kṛṣṇa is also man. I am also man. Why I am not God? He is simply God? No, I am also. I am God. You are God, you are God, every God." Just like Vivekananda said, "Why you are searching after God? Don't you see so many gods are loitering in the street?" You see. This is his God realization. This is his God realization. And he became a big man: "Oh, he is seeing everyone God."
This foolishness, this rascaldom, is going on all over the world. One does not know what is God, what is power of God, what is meant by God. They are accepting some rascal as God. As nowadays, that is going on. Another rascal has come. He is also declaring himself God. So it has become very cheap thing. But they have no brain to think that "I am claiming God; what power I have got?"
So this is the mystery. This is the mystery. Without becoming devotee, the mystery of understanding God is not possible. And Kṛṣṇa has said in the Bhagavad-gītā how one can know Him. Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [Bg. 18.55]. Only by devotion, simply. He could have said, "By high, topmost knowledge" or "By yogic process" or "By acting, becoming a very great karmī, worker, one can understand Me." No, he has never said, never said. So the karmīs, jñānīs, yogis, they are all rascals. They cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. All rascals. Karmīs are third-class rascals, the jñānīs are second-class rascal, and the yogis are first-class rascal. That's all.
You should understand, the so-called yogis, they are first-class rascal because they do not understand Kṛṣṇa. The jñānīs they are also second-class rascal. Even a big scholar like Dr. Radhakrishnan, he is how, I mean to say, deforming the meaning of Bhagavad-gītā. Kṛṣṇa says man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru: [Bg. 18.65] "You always think..." This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness, man-manā: "Always think of Kṛṣṇa, Me, about Me," Kṛṣṇa says. And they will make meaning that you can say also. "Kṛṣṇa says that you always think of Him; you can say also, Think of me." This meaning, they are distorting. So Kṛṣṇa says man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru [Bg. 18.65], and this Dr. Radhakrishnan says, "It is not to the Kṛṣṇa person." Just see. Just a big scholar, doctor of philosophy, he cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says directly, man-manā bhava mad-bhaktaḥ [Bg. 9.34]. He is interpreting in a different way.
Therefore this word is used here, hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśam idaṁ vākyam, hṛṣīkeśam tadā vākyam idam āha mahī-pate [Bg. 1.20]. Mahī-pate, "O King..." Sañjaya was addressing Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He's a king. So mahī-pate. Hṛṣīkeśaṁ kapi-dhvajaḥ. Kapi-dhvajaḥ is nominative. So "He said..." Kapi-dhvajaḥ. Kapi-dhvajaḥ is also significant. Kapi-dhvajaḥ, Arjuna, on his... Just like nowadays also, every nation has different types of flags, so Arjuna also had his flag on the... Dhvajaḥ. Dhvajaḥ means the flag. The flag was on the top of his chariot. And it was marked with Hanumān, Vajrāṅgajī, Vajrāṅgajī, Hanumān, who fought for Lord Rāmacandra. He is fighting for Kṛṣṇa. So he is also following the footsteps of Vajrāṅgajī.
Vaiṣṇavism is like that. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ. Vaiṣṇava should follow his previous mahājana, authority. That is Vaiṣṇavism. We don't manufacture ideas. We don't commit such rascaldom. We simply accept the behavior or the activities of previous ācāryas. There is no difficulty. There is no difficulty.
So in the fighting principle, Arjuna is fighting for Kṛṣṇa. He is following the previous fighting ācārya, Hanumānji. Therefore he has depicted his flag with Hanumān, that "Hanumānji, Vajrāṅgajī, kindly help me." This is Vaiṣṇavism. "I have come here to fight for Lord Kṛṣṇa. You fought also for the Lord. Kindly help me." This is the idea. Kapi-dhvajaḥ. So any activities of the Vaiṣṇava, they should always pray to the previous ācārya, "Kindly help me. Kindly..." This is, Vaiṣṇava is always thinking himself helpless, helpless. And begging help from the previous ācārya.
Just like in Caitanya-caritāmṛta you will find, the author, at the end of every chapter:
His every line, he is thinking of Rūpa-Raghunātha, previous ācāryas. "So let me surrender to the gosvāmīs and they will help me how to write." You cannot write. That is not possible.
So this is Vaiṣṇava's policy. Vaiṣṇava ṭhākura, tomāra kukkura, baliyā janaha more. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung, "My dear vaiṣṇava ṭhākura, you just accept me as your dog, as the dog works by the indication of the master." He will give his life. Dog has a good qualification. However a strong dog may be, when the master orders, he will give his life. This is dog, faithful, so faithful to the master. So vaiṣṇava ṭhākura... So Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura is praying, vaiṣṇava ṭhākura, tomāra kukkura, baliyā janaha more: "My dear vaiṣṇava ṭhākura..." Vaiṣṇava ṭhākura means guru. "Kindly accept me as your dog." And he describes, I forget the exact language, that "I will always try to protect you. As dog keeps watch, so I will watch so nobody will come to disturb you. And whatever little prasādam you'll give me, I'll be satisfied." That dog's qualification. The master is eating, but the dog will never come, unless the master gives little morsel. He is satisfied. He is satisfied.
So this is Vaiṣṇavism, to follow the previous ācārya. This is Vaiṣṇavism. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.186], dharmasya tattvaṁ nihitaṁ guhāyāṁ mahājano yena gataḥ.... Tarko 'pratiṣṭhaḥ śrutayo vibhinnā. Tarko, if you are very great logician, you can argue, "Oh why Kṛṣṇa can be God? I can be God," by logic you may defeat an ignorant devotee, but śāstra says by becoming a big logician, you cannot understand transcendental knowledge. Transcendental knowledge you have to understand by submitting, praṇipātena, tad viddhi praṇipātena [Bg. 4.34]. First of all surrender. Tad viddhi. If you want to know this transcendental science, then you must fully surrender. This is first qualification. Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā. Three things. First surrender; then if you cannot understand, then you question. Otherwise you have no right to question from a Vaiṣṇava.
Not that "Can you show me God?" What qualification you have got? You want to see God. Another rascal will say "Yes, I will show you God. Come to me. I shall show you God." This is going on. One rascal inquires, "Can you show me God?" and the big rascal says, "Yes, come to me alone. I shall show you God." This business is going on. God's seeing is so cheap thing that any rascal comes, "Can you show me God," and another rascal says, "Yes, come to me. In the evening I shall show you." That means if he is a foolish rascal, then he will show him something magic, and he will understand, "Oh I have seen God." That's all, finished. God-seeing business is finished. And he comes... After God-seeing, he is the same, the same rascal. What improvement you have... You have seen God. What improvement you have made? God seeing is so cheap thing. No.
So we should be very careful. If we actually are interested in understanding... Manuṣyāṇāṁ. It is not so easy. In the Bhagavad-gītā you will find. Manuṣyāṇāṁ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye [Bg. 7.3]. Out of many millions of persons, kaścid yatati siddhaye, one person becomes interested how to make his life successful. Because they do not know what is successful life. They simply know how to work like hogs and dogs, day and night working. And what is the goal of life? Now, sense gratification. Just like the hogs. Hogs, you will find, day and night finding out where is stool. And he will eat. And as soon as the hogs become very fatty, because they eat actually very substantial... Stool is chemically very substantial food. It contains hydro-phosphytes. The doctors said. I do not know whether they have tasted. (laughter). But they taste it actually. When they test in laboratory, they taste. I know that. They taste it. They have to taste it. Because their laboratory, chemical examination means the symptoms has to be written, the characteristics. Just like potassium cyanide, they have not tasted. Because as soon as you taste, you will die. (laughter)
So chemical analysis means one has to test to find out the characteristic. So this I have seen, one doctor friend, he was keeping one dysentery stool in a plate, on his table, I saw. "What is this doctor?" He said, "Oh, it is to be tasted... It is dysentery stool". So they taste it. They have to. They take fish... Everyone, medical men know. So this hog's business is to eat stool, and as soon as he gets fatty, then sex. And that sex has no discrimination. You will see, a hogs, he does not care whether mother, sister or anyone, daughter. It doesn't matter. So this is hog civilization. Simply eating and getting strength of the senses and enjoy it.
This human life is not meant for that purpose. Therefore it is said that a person without God consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he is no better than these dogs and hogs. That's all. This is our conclusion. We don't give any formal respect. Of course, we have to give because we are in this world. But at heart we cannot give respect to a person who has not any sense of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. We cannot give. Because who is going to give any respect to the dogs and hogs? Śva-viḍ-varāhoṣṭra-kharaiḥ saṁstutaḥ puruṣaḥ paśuḥ [SB 2.3.19]. Therefore Jīva Gosvāmī has commented on this verse... If somebody says that "This Mr. such and such, this Dr. such and such, he is respected by so many people, and you are saying that he's a rascal? What is this?" So Jīva Gosvāmī says that "This man, who is respected, but he is respected by whom? He is respected by this class of men: dogs, hogs, camel and asses. So he is a big paśuḥ."
Just like the lion. Lion is respected in the forest by dogs, hogs, camel and asses and other animals. Because lion is the king of the animals. But does it mean, because he is designated as the king of animals, it has got any use? Has it got any use for any purpose? Similarly, these political leaders, they may be lion, but who respects them? These dogs, hogs, camels and asses, that's all. He may be a big animal, but he is animal, no better than a big animal. That's all. And other animals praises, dogs, hogs, camels.
Every word in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata we have to... We have described why especially these animals have been selected, dogs, hogs, camels and asses. A dog is very faithful to his master. He will commit so many offenses for the sake of the master. Because he knows, "The master gives me food." So in your country, if you pass through one's house, from within the house they will bark, "Bark! Bark! Bark! Ba! Ba! Why you are going in front of my house?" This is committing offense, committing offense unnecessarily. So the dog's business: one side, he is very faithful, and one side, he is simply committing offense, unnecessarily frightening other people, you see unnecessarily, without any offense. And dog's another business is that he is seeking always master. Unless he finds out a good master, it is a street dog and it has no place. It has no place. It will not get sufficient food, become lean and thin, and loiter in the street. Because dog must find out... Śūdra-like. Śūdra, unless he finds out a master to provide him, his all education is useless.
Nowadays they are educated, but they must have a good service. That means he's a śūdra. Without finding a master, his education has no value. So therefore in the śāstra it is said, kalau śūdrā sambhavāḥ. Kalau, "In this age, Kali-yuga, everyone is śūdra." Because he cannot even live without having a master. He must have a master to provide him. But the Vedic culture is that brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, they will not accept any service. No. They will die of starvation. Especially brāhmaṇa. That is enjoined in the śāstras, that a brāhmaṇa, if he is in bad position some way or other, economically, he may accept the position of a kṣatriya or a vaiśya, but he should not accept the position of a śūdra. That is doggish. This is so injunction.
Therefore formerly a brāhmaṇa, when he accepts a service from anywhere, he was rejected from the brāhmaṇa society. You know, Sanātana Gosvāmī. Sanātana Gosvāmī, Rūpa Gosvāmī, they belonged to a very high-class brāhmaṇa, Sarasvata Brāhmaṇa, very rich men. But both the brothers accepted service in Mohammedan government as ministers, and they were immediately rejected from the brāhmaṇa society. It is not very long ago, say, about five hundred years ago. The brāhmaṇa society was so strong. As soon as they will accept service. You know, the Tagore family of Calcutta, Rabindranatha Tagore, they are also brāhmaṇas. But we know, in our childhood, they were also excommunicated from the brāhmaṇa family because they also accepted service.
So these are Vedic principles. If we follow... The brāhmaṇa will not accept anyone's service. That is against. Similarly, kṣatriya. Kṣatriya... Why this fight between Arjuna? They made them bereft of the kingdom. So they appealed to Duryodhana, that "My dear Duryodhana, you are my brother, you have taken all our properties. So we are kṣatriya. We are not going to become vaiśya or brāhmaṇa. We must live. Give us at least five villages, five brothers. We shall be satisfied. There is no question of war." "No, sir, not even the land which can hold the point of needle. I cannot spare." There is no way. Therefore there was fight. There was fight.
So these are the some of the glorious points of this fight. But he depended on Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna. Therefore he was successful, victorious. You do, act as kṣatriya. Not that as kṣatriya he should become a brāhmaṇa beggar, no. A kṣatriya cannot be beggar, neither a brāhmaṇa cannot be vaiśya. This is real caste system. But you work as a cobbler, and at the same time you claim to become a brāhmaṇa, this is not allowed. Formerly the king used to see whether a brāhmaṇa is acting like a brāhmaṇa. Otherwise he will be stopped. Then he will be designated as he is working. This was the duty of the king to see that everyone is employed according to his profession. It was the duty of the king to see. Everyone must be employed. A brāhmaṇa must be working like a brāhmaṇa. A kṣatriya must be working like a kṣatriya. A vaiśya must be working as a... Otherwise he cannot say.
Not like at the present moment, a brāhmaṇa is working, a servant, a śūdra, and he is brāhmaṇa. No. This is called asuric varṇāśrama. Varṇāśrama. Varṇāśrama is very good institution. But still varṇāśrama, perfect varṇāśrama, cannot be possible in this age. Therefore when there was talk between Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Rāmānanda Rāya that how perfection of life can be attained, so Rāmaṇanada Raya first of all quoted a verse from Viṣṇu Purāṇa,
varṇāśramācāravatā
puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān
viṣṇur ārādhyate puṁsāṁ
nānyat tat-toṣa-kāraṇam
[Cc. Madhya 8.58]
That "When human society accepts this varṇāśrama institution, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vana... This is Vedic civilization. Without this division, there is no civilization. They are animals." So therefore he quoted this verse, varṇāśramācāravatā puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān: "If anyone is following the principles of varṇāśrama, then he is worshiping Lord Viṣṇu." Because the whole life is meant for worshiping Viṣṇu. The present civilization, they do not know that. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum [SB 7.5.31]. They do not know, rascals, that what is the aim of life. Aim of life is to become Vaiṣṇava, servant of Viṣṇu. Therefore the very word is used, hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa, He is the guide. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe 'rjuna tiṣṭhati [Bg. 18.61].
So Arjuna was strictly following the Vaiṣṇava principles, and therefore he inquired from Hṛṣīkeśa because he knows, "The Hṛṣīkeśa will guide me." Sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭo [Bg. 15.15]. Hṛdi sanniviṣṭo. Mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṁ ca. So Arjuna knew it. Therefore this very word is used. The other day, also hṛṣīkeśa word was there. And bhakti means to satisfy Hṛṣīkeśa. This is bhakti. Hṛṣikena hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Bhakti, this is the simple definition of bhakti. Hṛṣīkena. Hṛṣīka means the senses. As you have got hands, legs, eyes, ears.... These are different senses. When you engage your senses only for the service of Kṛṣṇa, then you become devotee. That's all. Your life is perfect.
You simply see Kṛṣṇa nicely decorated in the temple. That is bhakti. You simply prepare foodstuff for Kṛṣṇa. That is bhakti. You simply chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. That is bhakti. In this way we can utilize all the senses. We can utilize our hands in collecting flowers, in cleansing the temple. If we haven't got education, ignorant, it doesn't require. Simply engage your senses, hṛṣīkena hṛṣīkeśa-sevanam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Then you become perfect. You have got your senses. Engage the senses for the service of Kṛṣṇa. Then you become perfect. Very nice thing. You don't require to become a very big philosopher, very rich man, very nicely educated, nothing of the sort. Simply you have got your senses. Engage the senses in the service of Kṛṣṇa, your life is perfect. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730718BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.21-22

London, July 18, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "Arjuna said: O infallible one, please draw my chariot between the two armies so that I may see who is present here, who is desirous of fighting, and with whom I must contend in this great battle attempt."
Prabhupāda: Senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me acyuta [Bg. 1.21]. Before this, Kṛṣṇa was addressed as Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa we have explained. Now Kṛṣṇa is addressed here Acyuta. Cyuta means fallen, and acyuta means not fallen. Just like we are fallen. We are fallen conditioned souls. In this material world we have come with an enjoying spirit. Therefore we are fallen. If one keeps his position rightly, he does not fall. Otherwise he is degraded. That is fallen condition. So all the living entities within this material world, beginning from Brahmā down to the small insignificant ant, they are all fallen, fallen conditioned souls. Why they are fallen?
kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vañcha kare
pāśate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare
Fallen means when the living entities are under the clutches of this material energy. That is called fallen. Just like a man, when he is under police custody, it is to be understood that he is a criminal, he is fallen. He has fallen down from good citizenship. Similarly, we are all parts and parcels of Kṛṣṇa. Mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhuta [Bg. 15.7]. So as part and parcel, our position is to live with Kṛṣṇa. Just like this is my finger, part and parcel of my body. The finger must remain attached with this body. When this finger is cut off and fallen, although it is finger, it is no longer as important as it was formerly when it was attached with this body. So anyone who is not attached with the service of the Supreme Lord, he is fallen. This is the conclusion.
But Kṛṣṇa is not fallen. If Kṛṣṇa... Because He comes to reclaim us.
yadā yadā hi dharmasya
glānir bhavati bhārata
abhyutthānam adharmasya
tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham
[Bg. 4.7]
Kṛṣṇa says that "I appear when there is discrepancies in the, I mean to say, occupational duties of the living entities." Dharmasya glānir bhavati. We don't translate dharma as "religion." Religion in the English dictionary, it is "a kind of faith." Faith can be changed. But dharma is a word which cannot be changed. If it is changed, it is to be understood artificial. Just like the water. Water is liquid, everyone knows. But sometimes water becomes hard, very hard, ice. So that is not the natural position of water. Artificially, on account of excessive cold or by artificial means the water becomes solid. But the real position of water is liquidity.
So when we are detached from the service of the Lord, this is also unnatural, unnatural. Natural position is that we must be engaged in the service of the Lord. That is our natural position. Therefore the Vaiṣṇava kavi says that kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vañcha kare. When a living entity forgets Kṛṣṇa, forgets Kṛṣṇa's position... Kṛṣṇa's position... Kṛṣṇa says, bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram: [Bg. 5.29] "I am the proprietor, I am the enjoyer." This is the Kṛṣṇa's position. He never falls down that position. Kṛṣṇa is enjoyer. He keeps always that position. He never falls down. He never comes to the position of being enjoyed. That is not possible. If you want to bring Kṛṣṇa on the position of being enjoyed, then you are defeated. Being enjoyed means keeping Kṛṣṇa in front, I want to get some profit of sense gratification. That is our unnatural position. Kṛṣṇa will never agree. Kṛṣṇa will never agree. Kṛṣṇa cannot be enjoyed. He is always enjoyer. He is always the proprietor. So kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva means when we forget this position of Kṛṣṇa, that He is the Supreme Enjoyer, He is the supreme proprietor... This is called forgetfulness. As soon as I think that "I am enjoyer, I am proprietor," this is my fallen stage. Kṛṣṇa bhuliya jīva bhoga vañcha kare. Then jāpaṭiyā dhare, māyā, immediately māyā captures.
Therefore a conditioned soul, fallen conditioned soul, is struggling for existence. He is trying to be enjoyer, he is trying to be proprietor. That is his artificial way of life. Just like if a woman wants to become a man, that is her artificial position. She may dress herself as a man, just like in the western countries sometimes we see woman is artificially dressing like man, with hat, coat, man, riding on horse. That is artificial. So similarly, our position here in this material world is artificial. We are trying to imitate a man.
Actually the living entities are described in the Bhagavad-gītā, prakṛti. Prakṛti means woman. And puruṣa means man. So the living entities are never described as puruṣa. Puruṣa is Kṛṣṇa. Puruṣa śāśvata. When Arjuna said, paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān, puruṣaṁ śāśvatam adyam... [Bg. 10.12]. Puruṣaṁ śāśvatam. Kṛṣṇa is always puruṣa. God cannot be female. God is always male, puruṣa. And we are prakṛti. That is described in the Bhagavad-gītā. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtim parā [Bg. 7.5].
After describing the material energy, bhūmir āpo analo vāyuḥ [Bg. 7.4], earth, water, air, fire, this material.... This is also female, prakṛti. Female means.... In India we have got little experience. The female is always controlled. Female is never given the position of controller. Nowadays it is going on. Just like Indira Gandhi, she has given the position of controller. This is artificial. In the history of India, greater India, Mahābhārata, you will never find that a woman has been given a position of controller. No. It is not possible.
We have to take things from the śāstra. In the Bhagavad-gītā also woman's position has been equated with śūdra. Striyaḥ śūdrās tathā vaiśyas te 'pi yānti parāṁ gatim. So position must be ascertained. But this position is artificial. Here either woman or man, they are in artificial position. Because a woman may be in women's dress, but her mind is like man. She also wants to enjoy. And the others, the so-called man.... The so-called man is also not man; he is woman. Prakṛti. Apareyam itas tu viddhi me prakṛtiṁ parā [Bg. 7.5]. Prakṛti. As the earth, water, air, fire, sky, they are also controlled, the supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa, similarly, the so-called man or woman in this material world, they are also controlled. Nobody can say that "I am not controlled." Who is here? You must be controlled.
Therefore we see two prakṛtis: para prakṛti and apara prakṛti. But all of them are controlled; none of them are the controller. And that is the difference between puruṣa and prakṛti. Puruṣa means controller. And prakṛti means controlled. Puruṣa means predominator, and prakṛti means predominated. This is the difference. So Kṛṣṇa does not fall from his position of predominator. Therefore He is addressed as Acyuta, Acyuta. Senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me acyuta [Bg. 1.21]. Another meaning of Acyuta... Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Arjuna knows that "I am not controller; I am controlled." He is devotee, he knows his position. Therefore he is now trying to control Kṛṣṇa. He is ordering Kṛṣṇa. Senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya: "My dear Kṛṣṇa," he is not addressing as Kṛṣṇa-Acyuta, "now you place my chariot between the two parties." This is ordering. That means Arjuna becoming controller. And Kṛṣṇa becoming controlled. Just the opposite. Therefore Arjuna knows his subordinate position and he is ordering to Kṛṣṇa. So indirectly he is begging to be excused: "My dear Kṛṣṇa, I cannot order You. Order must come from You. But because You promised to carry out my order, You wanted to become my chariot driver, therefore I am ordering. Therefore I am ordering. I am not in position of ordering to You and You promised to carry out my order, and I think You are fixed up in Your that promise. Therefore I am asking you, Acyuta. You don't fall from Your promise." This is the... senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me acyuta [Bg. 1.21]. What is the number of verse?
Devotee: Page forty-eight.
Prabhupāda: Forty-eight? The next point is that Arjuna wanted to see with whom he had to fight. He had no desire to fight. That will be explained. He was fighting unwillingly. Unwillingly. Because he is a Vaiṣṇava, unnecessarily he does not want to kill, although he is kṣatriya. It is his duty. Whenever there is discrepancy, killing, as representative of Kṛṣṇa... Kṛṣṇa has got two business. Paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtam [Bg. 4.8]. He has got two businesses. One business is to give protection to the devotees, sādhu, sādhu. Sādhu means devotee. Sādhu does not mean simply by changing dress, saffron color, and smoking beedies. That is not sādhu. Sādhu means devotee.
One who is devotee... That is explained in many śāstras. Sadhavaḥ sādhu-bhūṣaṇām. Sādhu-bhūṣaṇām.
This is the qualification of sādhu. Sādhu is titikṣava, tolerates all kinds of miserable conditions. He is sādhu. Because this is a place of miserable condition. A sādhu learns how to tolerate. Sādhu is never disturbed. Yasmin sthito guruṇāpi duḥkhena na vicālyate [Bg. 6.20-23]. A sādhu, who has got the shelter of Kṛṣṇa, if he is placed in the severest type of dangerous condition, he is never disturbed. Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja, his father was putting him in so many dangerous conditions, even he was supplying with poison. He knew that "My father has given me poison to drink. All right, let me drink. If Kṛṣṇa likes, He will save me. I am now put into such dangerous position. I have to drink. Father is giving poison. Who can check?" And such a big powerful Hiraṇyakaśipu. The mother cried, requested... He forced the mother, Prahlāda's mother, "Give your son this poison." So she begged so much, but he was a rascal demon. "No, you must give." So the mother knew, the son knew that the rascal father is giving this poison. What can he do, a small child? "All right, let me drink." Guruṇāpi duḥkhena na vicālyate. He is not agitating. "All right, if Kṛṣṇa likes, I will live." This is the position of sādhu. He is not disturbed. Titikṣavaḥ. In all circumstances, he is tolerant. That is sādhu. Sādhu does not become disturbed. Titikṣavaḥ. At the same time, kāruṇikāḥ. He is himself disturbed, but he is merciful to others.
Just like Jesus Christ. He is being crucified, and still he is merciful: "God, these people do not know what they are doing. Please excuse them." This is sādhu. He is personally being disturbed by the demons, but still, he is merciful to the general people. They are suffering for want of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So even up to the point of death, he is trying to preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness. "Let the people be benefited. Eh, what is this material body? Even if I am killed, I am not killed. This body is killed, that's all." This is sādhu. Titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ. In one side he is tolerant, and other side, merciful.
In the material world, when one man is disturbed, he cannot do any beneficial work to any others. He is disturbed. "No, I am very much disturbed. Don't talk with me." No. But sādhu still goes on benefiting the people in general. Titikṣavaḥ kāruṇikāḥ [SB 3.25.21]. And what kind of benefit? The so-called rascals humanitarian work? No. Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām [Bg. 5.29]. He is beneficial to all kinds of living entities.
Not this rascaldom, daridra-nārāyaṇa. Just like one rascal has manufactured this daridra-nārāyaṇa. The poor man has become Nārāyaṇa, and the goat Nārāyaṇa is killed for their feeding. Not this kind of sādhu. Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām. A sādhu will not allow any kind of killing. See in the Christian religion, it is first injunction is "Thou shalt not kill." If you want to become religious... They are simply killing, and still, they are claiming "Christian." What kind of Christian? Simply their business is killing. So it is very difficult to find out a Christian, although they are claiming, I am "Christian." It is very difficult. Because their business is killing. And Lord Jesus Christ ordered, first order is, "Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not covet." Who is following?
So sādhu is suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām. Why he should allow animal killing? They are also living entities, but for their benefit, the so-called sādhu says, "The animal has no soul." What is this nonsense? Animal has no soul? Why? What is the difference between animal and man? What are the symptoms of possessing the soul? They are all equal. The man also eats, the animal also eats. The man also sleeps, the animal also sleeps, the man also have sex life, the animals also have sex life. The man also defends, the animals also defends. So where is the deficiency that you say that the animal has no soul?
Imperfect knowledge. Or making adjustment for their own benefit. Now they are making correction: "Thou shalt not kill," "Thou shalt not murder." That means it will come to human being. But the actual commandment is "Thou shalt not kill." But these Christian people, they are making some amendment, "Thou shalt not murder." Because murder will apply to the killing of human beings. But Lord Jesus Christ never said like that. "Thou shalt not kill." It is applicable both for human being and for animal or even for trees. Unnecessarily you cannot kill. That is sādhu. Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām [Bg. 5.29]. "Don't kill my brother, but you can kill my neighbors." Not like that. He is not sādhu. Sādhu is kind to all living entities.
Kṛṣṇa consciousness means to become kind to everyone. Therefore we say, "No meat-eating." Meat-eating means killing the animals. Killing the animals. Why you shall kill animals? You have to take Kṛṣṇa prasādam. Patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati, tad aham aṣnāmi [Bg. 9.26]. Kṛṣṇa says... Kṛṣṇa is God. He can eat everything, everything. Kṛṣṇa ate fire, you know. There was forest fire in Vṛndāvana. All the cowherds boys they became very much frightened, "Kṛṣṇa." "Yes, I'm ready." He ate up all the fire. So for Kṛṣṇa He could eat anything He likes. He is God. But still, He recommends, patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati. Why? Because we have to take Kṛṣṇa's prasādam, so therefore He is recommending, "These things you can give Me." Patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ. So that is our food. We are devotees of Kṛṣṇa. We are meant for eating the remnants of foodstuff offered to Kṛṣṇa.
That is our... Jihvā, tāra madhye... If you want to conquer the tongue, then you fix up your mind that you shall not take anything which is not offered to Kṛṣṇa. Then your tongue will be controlled. Tāra madhye jihvā ati lobhamaya sudurmati. Tongue is the bitterest enemy of the living being. The tongue is dragging. Jihvā. "Kindly give me this immediately. Kindly give me this wine immediately. Kindly give me this tea immediately. Kindly give me this cigarette immediately. Kindly give me this meat." Why? Control. Kṛṣṇa says, patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ [Bg. 9.26]. So we have to take prasādam, eat Kṛṣṇa prasādam. Then naturally the other things will be negativated. This is the position. Suhṛdaṁ sarva-bhūtānām [Bg. 5.29].
So if all human beings become vegetarian, not vegetarian, but eater of the Kṛṣṇa's prasādam, all these liquor house and slaughterhouse and brothels will be closed. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We want to close these nonsense places of sinful life: brothels, illegitimate sense gratification, sex relationship, prostitution. If we are embarrassed with this sinful life, there is no possibility of becoming again acyuta. We remain cyuta, fallen. We remain fallen.
It is not so easy thing that "I do everything, whatever I like." Some rascals preach that "Oh, religion has nothing to do with your eating. You can eat anything you like, and still you become a religious man." This is all nonsense. Nobody can become religious man if he is attracted by sinful activities. It is not possible. You must stop sinful activities. That is first condition. Otherwise you cannot understand what there... People... Perhaps, in this Kṛṣṇa conscious, except this Kṛṣṇa conscious movement, all rascals, they do not know what is God. They have no clear conception of God. Because they are sinful. We can give the name, address and everything of God, clear conception, not vague idea, "God may be like this, God may be like that." Why maybe? He is God.
veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda-dalāyatākṣaṁ
barhāvataṁsam asitāmbuda-sundarāṅgam
kandarpa-koṭi-kamanīya-viśeṣa-śobhaṁ
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
[Bs. 5.30]
Clear conception. The śāstra, Brahma-saṁhitā, clear description of God, veṇuṁ kvaṇantam. He is playing on flute. It is not that the Muralīdhara, Śyāmasundara, Kṛṣṇa, has been imagined by some poet. No, it is described in the śāstra, the form of the Lord. He is busy in playing flute, veṇuṁ kvaṇantam. Aravinda dalāyatākṣaṁ [Bs. 5.30], His eyes are just like petals of the lotus flower. Veṇuṁ kvaṇantam aravinda, barhāvataṁsa, there is a peacock feather on His head. Kandarpa-koṭi-kamanīya-viśeṣa-śobhaṁ, and He is so beautiful that His beauty can cut down thousands of Cupids. Cupid is supposed to be the most beautiful in this material world. Kandarpa-koti-kamanīya-viśeṣa-śobhaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi [Bs. 5.30]. Clear conception.
This is the description of God in the śāstra. And when God came, Kṛṣṇa came on this planet, the same description. He is playing on flute, He has got the feather, peacock feather. So this painting of Kṛṣṇa is not an artist's imagination. It is exactly the form. So here is the form of the Lord. Here is the name of the Lord. Here is the activities of the Lord. This is clear conception. A sādhu knows what is God. Or sādhu cannot know. They are thinking, "God must be like this, God may be like this, He must be a very old man," because adi-puruṣa. He is the first living... In this way... So you cannot create God by imagination. That is not possible. God is God, always. You have to know simply what is God. He is never cyuta.
God never becomes fallen down from His original position. The original position is, God describes Himself, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat: [Bg. 7.7] "There is no more superior authority than Me." That is God. One, if he is controlled, how he can be God? The supreme controller is God, the supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. Īśvaraḥ means controller, and paramaḥ means supreme. And who is that? Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says also, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7]. So He is acyuta. He keeps His position. He never falls down. We are all fallen souls. Because our position, our Acyuta position is to serve Kṛṣṇa. Because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa.
The same example: Just like this finger is part and parcel of my body. Its business is to serve the body. That is the business. There is no other business. A finger can pick up a rasagullā and keep it here. The finger cannot eat. Similarly, we cannot eat directly. That is our diseased condition. We have to offer Kṛṣṇa. When Kṛṣṇa eats, if we eat that, then we become energized. Just like you rasagullā put into the mouth. When it goes to the stomach, the finger immediately becomes reddish. The finger enjoys. Not only the finger, the eyes enjoy, the legs enjoy, because the energy is distributed. Directly we cannot be energized by eating. We must eat Kṛṣṇa's prasādam. This is principle. Jīvera svarūpa haya nitya kṛṣṇa dāsa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109].
So if we serve Kṛṣṇa, that is our Acyuta position. If we deny to serve Kṛṣṇa, that is vicyuta, fallen condition. Acyuta and vicyuta. So to become Kṛṣṇa conscious means acyuta-gotra. Acyuta-gotra. Gotra, perhaps you do not know. Gotra is the family tradition. According to Vedic civilization, everybody has got gotra. Gotra means of the same family, of ṛṣis, gotra, from the ṛṣis. So we have to become acyuta-gotra, again belonging to the family of Kṛṣṇa. Now we are fallen. Therefore we have forgotten that we belong to the family of Kṛṣṇa. When we revive our consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that "I belong to the Kṛṣṇa's family..." Kṛṣṇa is not alone, eko bahu śyāma. He wants to enjoy.
So we are family members of Kṛṣṇa, not void. That is another rascaldom. Why Kṛṣṇa should be alone? He is so powerful, He is so opulent, have you got any experience that a powerful person, opulent person is alone? Where is that example? Any rich man, any powerful man, any king, any lord, oh, he has got so many associates. So how Kṛṣṇa can be alone? Kṛṣṇa is never alone. Therefore you will find always Kṛṣṇa with the gopīs, Kṛṣṇa with the cowherds boys, Kṛṣṇa with Arjuna. Kṛṣṇa is never alone. So these are the conditions of becoming acyuta. So Arjuna knows all these things because he is a devotee. Therefore particularly he is addressing Kṛṣṇa, senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me acyuta [Bg. 1.21]. That's all right. Thank you very much. (end)
730719BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.23

London, July 19, 1973
Prabhupāda: Dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher [Bg. 1.23]. Durbuddhi, to usurp others' property is durbuddhi, mischievous. Why one should encroach upon others' property? That is not good. Tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā gṛdhaḥ kasya svid dhanam [Īśo mantra 1]. This is the Vedic instruction, that "You accept only what is given to you. Don't encroach upon others' property." This is peaceful. Everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa. So whatever Kṛṣṇa gives you as prasādam, as His favor, you accept it and be satisfied. This is the basic principle of peace in the world. But because people are not educated in that way, everyone is wanting more and more and more and more. There is no satisfaction. So that is durbuddhi. The Vedic culture is that "You be satisfied with your position." There is no question of starving in any position of life. People are trying to make economic development, but according to śāstra, it is not possible to develop your economic position simply by endeavor. You are destined to have some portion mixed up with happiness and distress. That is the nature. Dharmārtha-kāma-mokṣa [SB 4.8.41]. These are four principles of human activities. First beginning is dharma. Dharma means to abide by the orders of the Supreme. That is dharma. So people do not know who is the Supreme and what is His order. So what kind of religion? They accept dharma as religion, faith, a superfluous faith only. But that is not dharma, religion. Dharma means to abide by the orders of the Supreme. Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam [SB 6.3.19]. That is the meaning of dharma: obedience to God. There is no conception of God, and what to speak of obedience. But this is the simple meaning of religion: obedience to God. That's all, three words. God is the supreme proprietor, God is the maintainer... Bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram [Bg. 5.29]. Therefore we are maintained, we are predominated, we are servant, we should remain obedient to God. This is religion. Where is the difficulty? Unfortunately, they do not know what is God, what is His command, what is religion. They do not know. They manufacture. And because they do not know the simple process, they are called durbuddhi, not very nicely intelligent. A rascal, in other words.
In the Bhagavad-gītā it is plainly said, mūḍha. Mūḍha means asses, rascal. He does not know his own interest. He is called mūḍha, ass. Just like ass. Ass is whole day working with tons of cloth on his back, but he does not... Not a piece of cloth belongs to him. This is ass. And he is working so hard only for a morsel of grass, which is available everywhere. But he is thinking that "This gentleman, washerman, is giving me food." This is ass. Such food can be available anywhere and everywhere, but he is thinking like that and working so hard. So karmīs are like that. He will eat two capātis or four capātis, but he is working day and night. If you want to see him, he will say, "Oh, I have no time." He does not think at any time that "I am interested to eat four capātis, which can be very easily available. So why I am working so hard?" But that sense does not come. He is working, working, working, "More money, more money, more money, more money, more money." The Bhāgavata says, "No, no. This is not your business." The four capātis is already destined to you; you will get, any circumstances. You don't waste your time simply under some false impression of economic development. Don't waste your time. You cannot get more, you cannot get less. That is already there. So you utilize your time for understanding Kṛṣṇa. That is your business. People will not accept it. "Oh, this is a waste of time. Attending the class of Bhagavad-gītā, this is waste of time. By this time I could have earned hundreds of dollars." That is their business. That is called durbuddhi, durbuddhi, not very intelligent. All mūḍha, asses.
Real intelligent person is he who is satisfied what Kṛṣṇa has given him: "If Kṛṣṇa wants, He will give me more. Let me become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Let me study about Kṛṣṇa. Let me chant about Kṛṣṇa. Let me hear about Kṛṣṇa. Let me see with my eyes Kṛṣṇa, the Deity Kṛṣṇa. Let me engage my hands in worshiping Kṛṣṇa, in cleansing the temple, my hands. Let my legs be engaged in going to the temple." In this way all our senses should be engaged in the service of Kṛṣṇa. That is our real business. Tasyaiva hetoḥ prayateta kovido na labhyate yad bhramatām upary adhaḥ [SB 1.5.18]. Tasyaiva hetoḥ: "For that purpose only." Which purpose? Which we could not achieve after wandering the whole universe, up and down. The living entity is wandering by transmigration from one body to another up and down. Sometimes he is becoming Brahmā even. Brahmā, Indra, Candra. He can become. One can become. By pious activities, you can be raised to the position of Brahmā, Indra, Candra, demigods, big, big demigods. And by impious activities, you can go down to become the worm of a stool. This is going on. This is called bhramatām upary adhaḥ. Upari adhaḥ. Adhaḥ means down, and upari means up. So ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ [Bg. 14.18]. Who are going to upper planetary system? Sattva-sthāḥ, those who are qualified brāhmaṇas, strictly following the principles.
If you follow these principles, controlling the senses, truthful, clean, full of knowledge, believing in the śāstra and God, and vijñānam, practical application of knowledge in life. Vijñānam... Simply to know is useless. You must practically apply in life. That is called vijñānam. Practical examination. Those who are science students, in BAC, they have to give, pass theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge also. Simply theoretical knowledge, "So much hydrogen, oxygen, makes water," that is theoretical. But when you mix up hydrogen, oxygen gas, and actually prepare water, that is called practical. So that is science. Science means simply theoretical knowledge is not sufficient. Observation and experiment. Experimental knowledge. That is called vijñānam.
So by practical knowledge you should be well-acquainted with God. That is brāhmaṇa's business. So sattva-sthāḥ, those who are strictly following the brahminical principles, they will be situated in upper planetary system. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ [Bg. 14.18]. But a Vaiṣṇava is above these. Mad-yājino 'pi yānti mām [Bg. 9.25]. Those who are following these principles with an aim for higher planetary system, they can go, elevated. Similarly, those who are trying to go back to home, back to Kṛṣṇa, they can also go. It is not very... This process, our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, is to help people to go back to home, back to Kṛṣṇa. It is not very difficult. Why it is difficult? Kṛṣṇa says, janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ [Bg. 4.9]. Try to understand Kṛṣṇa in truth, not vaguely. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. We think of God. So why don't you accept Kṛṣṇa? He says and śāstra says, the ācārya says, Vyāsadeva says, Nārada says, your Guru Mahārāja says. Why not accept? Why rascaldom? Why you are searching after any other God? Here is God. Name, address, activities, everything is there, authorized statement of the Vedas. So is there any difficulty to understand Kṛṣṇa? But this rascal will not take it. Persistent. "Oh, why Kṛṣṇa can be accepted? I have got a God, manufactured." This is misfortune. Durbhaga, durbuddhi, miscreant rascal. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ [Bg. 7.15]. These are the qualifications of persons who do not surrender to Kṛṣṇa: miscreants, mischievous, sinful, mūḍha, rascal, asses, narādhama, lowest of the mankind. These are the qualifications. So they are all durbuddhi. Human life is meant... This is an opportunity to understand Kṛṣṇa. Hari hari biphale janama goṅāinu, manuṣya-janama pāiyā, rādhā-kṛṣṇa bhajiyā, jāniyā śuniyā biṣa khāinu. This is Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura's song. Anyone who is not trying to understand Kṛṣṇa... Not even trying, what to speak of worshiping Him, giving Him service... And Kṛṣṇa says simply by trying to know Him, one becomes liberated. Simply by trying, not perfectly. Even imperfectly. Because he is endeavoring to understand Kṛṣṇa, that very activity will make him liberated. That very activity. It is not possible to understand Kṛṣṇa. He is so great, unlimited. How we can understand Kṛṣṇa? Kṛṣṇa cannot understand Himself. Or Ananta cannot understand. So... Actually, that is the fact. We cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. But still, whatever Kṛṣṇa says about Himself in the Bhagavad-gītā, if we accept so much, then we immediately become fit for going back to Godhead, back to home. Simply. Janma karma me divyaṁ yo jānāti tattvataḥ [Bg. 4.9]. Tattvataḥ. Tattvataḥ means in truth. The tattvataḥ cannot understand. Even siddhas, those who are perfect...
Nobody can understand, even if he is siddha, perfect. Perfect means not spiritually perfect, means materially perfect. Or even spiritually, partially perfect. Brahma-jñānī, they are partially perfect. Paramātmā-jñānī, yogis, they are also partially perfect. Not completely perfect. Completely perfect is the devotees. Only devotees, they are completely perfect. Others, the jñānīs and yogis and karmīs... Karmīs are, they are rascals. Jñānīs, they are partially perfect because they can understand the eternity portion of the Supreme Lord, brahma-jñāna. That is eternity portion. And Paramātmā-jñāna is the cid-aṁśa, knowledge or personally seeing God as the four-handed Viṣṇu. So that is also imperfect knowledge. That when He comes to know Bhagavān, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1], then there is perfect knowledge. Ānanda. Because when one comes to the understanding of personal God, there is ānanda. In other features, there is no ānanda. There is eternity, there is knowledge, but there is no ānanda. Ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). That is the Vedānta-sūtra. One is by nature ānandamaya. We are searching after ānanda, bliss, but we do not know where to get bliss. We are trying to get bliss in this material world by eating meat, eating wine, drinking wine, by sex. They are trying to get ānanda. That is not ānanda. Ānanda is what is satyānanda. These ānandas, these pleasures—flickering, for few minutes, for few hours. That is not ānanda. Ānanda means satyānanda, real ānanda, real ānanda. What is that real ānanda? Brahma-sukha. That ānanda is in exchange with the Supreme Brahman. Brahma-saukhyam anantam [SB 5.5.1]. That is anantam, unlimited ānanda. Therefore ramante yoginaḥ anante [Cc. Madhya 9.29]. Therefore those who are actually yogis, bhakti-yogīs... There are different types of yoga. So they ramante, they enjoy, ramante yoginaḥ anante, along with the ananta, unlimited. Kṛṣṇa is unlimited. When you join with Kṛṣṇa in His rāsa dance as gopīs, or as cowherds boy, play with Him, or become His father and mother, Yaśodā, Nanda Mahārāja, Yaśodā-rāṇī, or become servant, or even become like water Yamunā, or land in Vṛndāvana and trees or fruits or flowers, any way, or cows and calves... Join with Kṛṣṇa. Then you get ānanda, real ānanda. Ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt (Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12). Sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1]. That is the description in all Bhāgavatam, how the Kṛṣṇa's associates are enjoying life. Kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ [SB 10.12.11]. Śukadeva Gosvāmī said, "These boys who are playing with Kṛṣṇa, oh, they are not ordinary boys." Kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ: "They have amassed the effects of pious activities for millions and trillions of births. Now they have come to play with Kṛṣṇa."
So that opportunity is there in bhakti-yoga. Kṛṣṇa is anxious to take you back. Why you are wasting time? Economic development. What economic development you'll do? You cannot get more than what is destined to you. That is not possible. Then everyone would have been big man, big, educated, very beautiful. Even... Pious activities, the effects of pious activity, is to get nice opulence. Janmaiśvarya-śruta-śrī [SB 1.8.26]. Birth in very high family, janma; aiśvarya, opulence, riches; education; śrī... Śruta, śruta means education, highly learned. These things are effects of pious activities. You get nice family, you take your birth in nice family, rich family, aiśvarya, you get good education, you become very beautiful. These are the effects of pious activities. Similarly, the effects of impious activities, the opposite. But they are all material. They are destined. Whatever you have got by pious or impious activities, that you cannot change. It is not possible. But you can change your position, this material position, by Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That you can change. Other things you cannot change. If you are white, you cannot become black, or if you are black, you cannot become white. That is not possible. But you can become first-class Kṛṣṇa conscious person. Either you are black or white, it doesn't matter. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore our endeavor should be how to become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Other things we cannot change. This is not possible. Sarvatra.
Kālena, by time, whatever you are destined you will get. Don't bother about so-called economic development. So far food is concerned, Kṛṣṇa is supplying. Eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān. Even cats and dogs and ants. Why not you? There is no need of bothering Kṛṣṇa, "God give us our daily bread." He will give you. Don't bother. Try to become very faithful servant of God. "Oh, God has given me so many things. So let me give my energy to serve Kṛṣṇa." This is required. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. "I have taken so much, life after life, from Kṛṣṇa. Now this life let me dedicate to Kṛṣṇa." This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. "This life I will not let it go uselessly like cats and dogs. Let me utilize it for Kṛṣṇa consciousness." This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730720BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.24-25

London, July 20, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "Sañjaya said: O descendant of Bharata, being thus addressed by Arjuna, Lord Kṛṣṇa drew up the fine chariot in the midst of the armies of both parties."
Translation: "In the presence of Bhīṣma, Droṇa and all other chieftains of the world, Hṛṣīkeśa, the Lord, said, Just behold, Pārtha, all the Kurus who are assembled here."
Prabhupāda: So sañjaya uvāca. Actually Sañjaya, the secretary of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, he is relating the activities in the battlefield. Dhṛtarāṣṭra is blind. How in the battlefield the fighting was going on, Sañjaya was observing, either by television or a similar method. Otherwise, how he could explain things are going on in the battlefield in the room? This Bhagavad-gītā, Sañjaya explained, all activities in the battlefield, to Dhṛtarāṣṭra, within the room. So there must have been something like television or higher than the television, he was seeing within himself everything.
So scientific improvement is coming, but still on the material platform. Material means gross material and subtle material. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā:
bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ
khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca
ahaṅkāra itīyaṁ me
bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā
[Bg. 7.4]
Earth, water, fire, air, sky, these five elements are gross material, everyone can see, gross. We can see earth, we can see water. We can see fire, air, or we can perceive the sky also. But there is subtle matter also. Mind, intelligence, ego. We cannot see the mind. We cannot see intelligence. I understand that you have got intelligence, or everyone knows we have got mind, but we cannot see. This is subtle. They are also matter, subtle matter. So the television is a machine made of gross matter, but there is possibility of making another machine of subtle matter. There is possibility. Because matter, they are also matter. That subtle matter machine is not yet discovered. But here we can see the subtle matter discovery was there. Otherwise, how Sañjaya could see the activities in the battlefield? This is to be understood. They are very much proud of material advancement of science, but still, they have to make advancement, subtle matter. And above that subtle matter, within that subtle matter, there is spiritual identity. Indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ, manasas tu parā buddhiḥ [Bg. 3.42].
First of all we can see a person. A person we see, what do we see? The senses. But we cannot see the director of the senses. The director of the senses is the mind. And the director of the mind is intelligence. And the owner of the intelligence is the soul. This is understanding. The soul is there. Whose intelligence? As soon as we shall say intelligence, whose intelligence? That is the soul's intelligence. Wherefrom the intelligence is coming? From Paramātmā, Hṛṣīkeśa. Therefore this word is used here, hṛṣ īkeśa. The intelligence will come from Paramātmā. Otherwise we cannot act, just like a child has got intelligence, but it is guided by the parent's intelligence: "My dear son, do like this." And he does it. Similarly, we have got all this mind, intelligence, everything, but that is being guided by the super-intelligence, Kṛṣṇa. Therefore He is called Hṛṣīkeśa. Once we have explained Hṛṣīkeśa. So we have to reach that platform where we can talk with Hṛṣīkeśa. That is spiritual platform. That is possible. The more you become purified, you can talk with Hṛṣīkeśa, who is within yourself. He is not outside. Although He in Goloka Vṛndāvana, Kṛṣṇa is always in Vṛndāvana, in the spiritual world, but because He is Kṛṣṇa, He can remain with you also at the same time, simultaneously. This is Kṛṣṇa. Goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ [Bs. 5.37].
It is proposed, our Māyāpura temple will be on this plan. Goloka-nāmni nija-dhāmni tale ca tasya [Bs. 5.43]. The highest planetary system, spiritual, that is spiritual planet, that is named goloka-nāmni, Goloka Vṛndāvana. We have given that picture in the Bhāgavata cover. Perhaps you know. The topmost original planet is the Goloka. Goloka-nāmni nija-dhāmni. That is the abode of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa-dhāma. Kṛṣṇa-dhāma. People are searching after God. But actually there is the planet where God lives, Kṛṣṇa lives. But you have got your machine, aeroplane, sputnik. You can reach there, but you cannot reach even the highest planet, even on this material planet, material universe. Everyone sees. We see the stars or planets. Now you have got the machine; you go there. No. You cannot go. You are so limited. Even you cannot go to the moon planet, which is so nearest. You cannot go. But still, we are proud of our these airplanes, sputniks. We are thinking, "Now we have become God." These rascals they do not know what is God. They are all rascals. They have no idea what is God. Therefore they have accepted another rascal as God. This is going on. You cannot reach. Panthās tu koṭi-śata-vatsara-sampragamyo vāyor athāpi manaso muni-puṅgavānām, so 'pyasti yat prapada-sīmny avicintya-tattve [Bs. 5.34]. Śāstra gives you. Just like your material science also gives you information that there is one planet, highest planet, and one can go there by sputnik in forty thousands of years. So who is going to live forty thousand years to reach there? But they have got theoretically all these things. The highest planet. Material. That is not spiritual.
So after finishing this material world, there is covering of the universe, stock matter, mahat-tattva, wherefrom all these material comings. There is stock. So you have to penetrate through that stock material. And each layer of stock is ten times more than the other. So you have to pierce through the stock, material stock; then you reach the spiritual world. And the spiritual world, there are many... "Many" means three times more than these universes. This universe, this material universe, is only one-fourth manifestation of Kṛṣṇa's creation. Ekāṁśena sthito jagat. When Arjuna inquired from Kṛṣṇa, "So would you kindly explain little of your opulence." "Yes." So He said, "I am this. Out of this, I am this." He summarized,
athavā bahunaitena
kiṁ jñātena tavārjuna
viṣṭabhyāham idaṁ kṛtsnam
ekāṁśena sthito jagat
[Bg. 10.42]
Ekāṁśena. You are seeing this universe. This universe—only a fragment of the material creation, a fragment. Caitanya Mahāprabhu informed us... One of His devotees requested Caitanya Mahāprabhu, "My dear Lord, You have come personally. You kindly take all the living entities to the spiritual world. Be kind enough upon them. And if you think that they are so sinful they cannot be taken, then transfer all their sins unto me. You take them. You take them." So Caitanya Mahāprabhu began to smile that "Even if I take the all the living entities of the universe, but do you know, this universe is only one fragmental part of other, all other universes. There are many other universes." And He compared that "In a bag where, bag full of mustard seeds..." Just imagine, a big bag of mustard seeds. "And this universe is just like one mustard seed." There are so many universes, so many universes. And it is confirmed in the Brahma-saṁhitā: yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-aṇḍa. Jagad-aṇḍa means this universe. Brahmāṇḍa, jagad-aṇḍa. Koṭi, innumerable. Jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭi-koṭiṣv aśeṣa-vasudhādi-vibhūti-bhinnam [Bs. 5.40]. And each universe there are innumerable planets. And each planet is different from others. This is God's creation. And these rascals are manufacturing God. And there is other description also. Yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ [Bs. 5.48]. This jagad-aṇḍa, the universe. And there, in each universe, there is a controller of the universe, Brahmā. He is called jagad-aṇḍa-nātha, master of this universe. Because it is controlled by Brahmā, therefore each universe is called brahmāṇḍa. It is controlled by Brahmā. So in the Brahma-saṁhitā we get information: jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ, plural number. There are many, many thousands jagad-aṇḍa... Not only one Brahmā. Many millions of Brahmās, many millions of Śiva, many millions of Viṣṇu, many millions of sun. Because there are many millions of universes. Now, just imagine. This is material creation. And that material creation, Kṛṣṇa says, ekāṁśena sthito jagat [Bg. 10.42]. Taking all the material universes, it is only one-fourth creation of the Lord. And the three fourths creation is the spiritual world. Just imagine what is spiritual world. And in that spiritual, the topmost planet is Goloka.
So you cannot go even in the moon planet. How you can go to that spiritual planet penetrating the material coverings coming to the spiritual effulgence, Brahman, and after all these universes, then...? Therefore it is said, panthās tu koṭi-śata-vatsara-sampragamyaḥ [Bs. 5.34]. Koṭi-śata-vatsara, millions of years, if you go with your sputnik with full force... Panthās tu koṭi-śata-vatsara. Not this sputnik, but make your planes of mind speed. This is material speed. What is this speed? A few thousands, twenty thousand, fifty thousand. But do you know mind speed? You are sitting here, and immediately, within a second, you can go to India. This is mind speed. Immediately. So panthās tu koṭi-śata-vatsara sampragamyo vāyor athāpi [Bs. 5.34]. By the air speed or mind speed. Vāyor athāpi manaso muni-puṅgavānām. And driven by great scientists, muni-puṅgava. Puṅgava means very expert, nara-puṅgava. So big, big scientists, expert scientists, if they can discover airplane which is running on mind speed or air speed... They are not, they cannot go by the air speed. They fly on the air, but not with the air speed. So in this way, still, avicintya-tattve, after going many, many millions of years in that speed, still you will find, "Oh, Goloka Vṛndāvana is far, far away." This is the position.
So that Krsna... And we are explaining what is Kṛṣṇa. Don't consider Kṛṣṇa is ordinary human being. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam [Bg. 9.11]. Because He kindly appears before us just like ordinary human being, don't think that He is like us. It is the conclusion. Just like these rascals, they think that "Because Kṛṣṇa appeared as a human being, I am also God. I am also God. Why Kṛṣṇa shall be alone God?" So we are trying to explain what is Kṛṣṇa, Hṛṣīkeśa. Hṛṣīkeśa. Then goloka-nāmni. Goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ. Goloka eva nivasati.
ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhis
tābhir ya eva nija-rūpatayā kalābhiḥ
goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūto
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
[Bs. 5.37]
So our worship is very simple. Tam ahaṁ bhajāmi. We worship that Govinda, ādi-puruṣam. Govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi **. We don't worship ordinary so-called rascals. We worship Govinda. How Govinda is? The Govinda's description is Brahma-saṁhitā. That Govinda, ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhāvitābhiḥ: "He is always in the spiritual world, which is ānanda-cinmaya-rasa." Not this kind of ānanda-cinmayānanda, spiritual bliss. Spiritual bliss means it is continually going on; still, nobody is fed up. Here you can accept any ānanda in this material world, so many things. It cannot go on very long time. Suppose if I give you rasagullā, one rasagullā, you can take: "Oh, very nice." Another, "Very nice." Another, "Nice." Then next four or five, "No, I do not want." Finished. Similarly, any ānanda you can take. Sex life. It cannot be continued. Finished. So try to understand what is cinmayānanda. Ānanda-cinmaya-rasa-pratibhā... It, they'll never ends. It goes, nava-nava-yauvana, one after another, new, new, new, new. Just try to understand what is spiritual bliss. You do not... The sahajiyās, they accept this material bliss as spiritual bliss. That is called sahajiyā. Don't be sahajiyās. Try to understand according to śāstra.
So Kṛṣṇa is described, this how He becomes Hṛṣīkeśa, that goloka eva nivasati. He is enjoying with His associates, the cowherds boys, the gopīs, in goloka-nāmni nija-dhāmni. He is enjoying there. At the same time, He is within your heart. This is Kṛṣṇa, Hṛṣīkeśa. He's come simultaneously, not only within your heart, within the atom. Aṇḍāntara-stha-paramāṇu-cayāntara-sthaṁ govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam aham... [Bs. 5.35]. Not only within your heart, but within the atom. Just imagine. How many atoms there are. So Kṛṣṇa is everywhere. These are..., we have to take information of Kṛṣṇa from the śāstra. Śāstram eva cakṣusā (?). Vedānta-sūtra. Your eyes should be śāstra, not your so-called imagination. śāstra-cakṣusā. Yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya vartate kāma... [Bg. 16.23]. If you give up the direction of the śāstra and manufacture your own way, yaḥ śāstra-vidhim utsṛjya vartate kāma-kārataḥ, as you like, then na sa siddhim avāpnoti: you will never get siddhi, perfection, never get. Na sa siddhim avāp..., na sukham, neither happiness. And what to speak of parāṁ gatim, going back to home, back to Godhead. So śāstra-cakṣusā. Everything we have to take from the śāstra. Because we are blind now. śāstra-cakṣusā. Our, the śāstra-jñāna, because the spiritual master enlightens the disciple with śāstra-jñāna, therefore he is spiritual master. If the spiritual master bluffs the disciple, then he is not spiritual master. Bluffing. No.
om ajñāna-timirāndhasya
jñānāñjana-śalākayā
cakṣur unmīlitaṁ yena
tasmai śrī-guruve namaḥ
[I offer my respectful obeisances unto my spiritual master, who with the torchlight of knowledge has opened my eyes, which were blinded by the darkness of ignorance.]
This is guru. Guru means he'll always enlighten the disciple with the light of śāstra. Not that he will say, "There is no need of śāstra. I am incarnation. I, whatever speak, you take it." No. This is rascal. You should immediately, who has no reference to the śāstra, immediately take him as a rascal number one. This is the conclusion.
So here is śāstra, Bhagavad-gītā. Hṛṣīkeśa. We have already explained one day. Here also, again we are explaining. Hṛṣīkeśa. Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is there. He never leaves from Vṛndāvana. He is there. Why? Here also. Just like we see, a very rich man, a very influential man, the president, he lives in his... The Queen, she is in the Buckingham Palace. But she cannot go at the same time anywhere and everywhere. No. She is in, packed up in Buckingham Palace. Kṛṣṇa is not like that. Therefore He is Hṛṣīkeśa. Try to understand the distinction between Kṛṣṇa and others. Kṛṣṇa is goloka eva nivasaty akhilātma-bhūtaḥ [Bs. 5.37]. Ātma-bhūta. This ātma-bhūta is Hṛṣīkeśa. He is giving intelligence. The more you become purified, the more you get direct instruction from Hṛṣīkeśa. This is the point. So how you can become purified? Purified means no more influenced by the modes of material nature. That is explained: guḍākeśa. Guḍāka īśa. Guḍāka means darkness, and īśa. When you become master of this material world, or material senses. This material world means material senses. That's all. So if you become master of the material senses, then you become guḍākeśa. Therefore Arjuna is described here as guḍākeśa. Arjuna... Don't take Arjuna that he was mistaken. No, he cannot be. How he can be? He is constantly with Kṛṣṇa. How he can be misdirected? No. That is not possible. In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta it is said that kṛṣṇa sūrya-sama māyā andhakāra [Cc. Madhya 22.31]. So guḍāka means darkness, māyā. So kṛṣṇa sūrya-sama māyā andhakāra. The darkness and light is there always, side by side. We have got experience. Here is sunlight, here is darkness. So these two things are there. So kṛṣṇa sūrya-sama māyā andhakāra, yāhāṅ kṛṣṇa tāhāṅ nāhi māyāra adhikāra. Wherever there is Kṛṣṇa, there is no jurisdiction of darkness or māyā.
You can become immediately out of the scope of māyā if you always remain surrendered to Kṛṣṇa. Māyā will not touch you. Just like if you remain always in the sunshine, there is no question of night. Nowadays it is very easy. If you simply drive your plane on the western side, you'll never get night. You just round about. Yes. Just like it is materially possible. You drive your plane simply on the western side. Start your plane in the morning and go to the western side and don't stop it. You go on for three, four, as many days as you like. You'll never get night. This is practical. Similarly, if you keep always with Kṛṣṇa, you are guḍākeśa, you will never get darkness. Or māyā will not touch you. This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So try to become Guḍākeśa.
The next verse. Kṛṣṇa Hṛṣīkeśa. So He knew the sarvasya cāhaṁ hṛdi sanniviṣṭaḥ [Bg. 15.15]. Kṛṣṇa is there. Kṛṣṇa knows what is your purpose, what you want to do, what is your past, future. Everything Kṛṣṇa knows. Everything Kṛṣṇa knows. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Vedāhaṁ samatītāni; [Bg. 7.26] "I know everything." So Kṛṣṇa, sthāpayitvā, rathottamaṁ sthāpayitvā. As soon as Arjuna asked Him, senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me 'cyuta [Bg. 1.21], immediately He carried out the order and He knew why he wants. He wanted to see, "With whom I have to fight, my friends and relatives." He's hesitating. So why this ignorance of Arjuna, the question may be. Arjuna is guḍākeśa. He is above this material world. How he is being affected by his so-called relatives and kinsmen? He was hesitating to fight on this principle, that "They are my relatives. They are my kinsmen. They are my family members." He was always thinking. Therefore Kṛṣṇa knew it. So he has become so family-wise infected. But he is guḍākeśa. How it is possible? He is above all these things. Yes, he is above all these things. By Kṛṣṇa's desire, he is playing like that, ordinary man. Otherwise, how Bhagavad-gītā will come? Kṛṣṇa cannot talk with ordinary person. Kṛṣṇa cannot fight with ordinary person. Even the demons, when they come, just like Hiraṇyākṣa, Hiraṇyakaśipu. They were Jaya-Vijaya in the Vaikuṇṭha world. So they came here, and Kṛṣṇa asked them, that "If you become My enemy, then within three births you will come back. And if you remain friend, then seven births." So they preferred, "Oh, I shall become Your enemy, Sir, so that I can come back again after three births." So why? That Kṛṣṇa has all the propensities. Just like we sometimes want to fight, mock fight. So in the Vaikuṇṭha world there cannot be any fight. So because Kṛṣṇa wanted to exercise His fighting spirit, He sent His devotee. He became enemy and He fought. So you have to understand Kṛṣṇa in that way, as Hṛṣīkeśa. He knows that unless Arjuna becomes affected family-wise, how Bhagavad-gītā will be there? Therefore although Guḍākeśa, Arjuna, is above darkness, still, by the will of Kṛṣṇa, Hṛṣīkeśa, he played just like ordinary man, affected with his family affection. Therefore Kṛṣṇa in the next verse says... Uvāca. Kṛṣṇa said, "My dear Pārtha, now you wanted to see with whom you have to fight. Now, here is Bhīṣma, Droṇa, and many other kings. All the descendants of Kuru dynasty, your Dhṛtarāṣṭra's sons. Now you see very nicely and be prepared to fight with them." So this is the explanation of Hṛṣīkeśa and Guḍākeśa.
Thank you very much. (end)
730721BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.26-27

London, July 21, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ
pitṝn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṝn
putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva
senayor ubhayor api
[Bg. 1.26]
Translation: "There Arjuna could see, within the midst of the armies of both parties, his fathers, grandfathers, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, sons, grandsons, friends, and also his father-in-law and well-wishers—all present there. When the son of Kuntī, Arjuna, saw all these different grades of friends and relatives, he became overwhelmed with compassion and spoke thus."
Prabhupāda: This is the problem. Now Arjuna is facing the problem. What is this problem? Suppose you bring all my friends, my relatives, my sons, grandsons, my father-in-law, brother-in-law, friends, my animals... Because there were soldiers, senayor ubhayor api, there were animals also. Horses, elephants. They are also within the membership. According to Vedic conception, the animals, they are also members of your family. Because they are giving service. Not that one section of the members of my family I give protection, and the other section, I take everything from them and then cut throat. This is not civilization. You keep your sons, wife, daughters, cows, dogs, they are animals, asses, domestic animals, horses, elephants. If you are rich, you can keep elephants also. It does not mean... Either family-wise or state-wise, it does not mean that you give protection to some members and cut throat of the others. Oh, how horrible it is. So all of them were present now. And the problem is that he has to kill them, Arjuna. It is fight, it is a family fight.
So some of the family members on the other side, and some of the family members this side. So other side also, what are they? Tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṝn atha pitāmahān [Bg. 1.26]. Pitṝn, teachers, and pitṝn also. Pitṝn means those who are on the status of father. And Bhīṣmadeva was a grandfather, a real grandfather, pitāmahā. He is on the other side. Droṇācārya, he is on the other side, teacher. They had to be respected. Actually Arjuna did so. Before fighting with Droṇācārya, he first of all throw one arrow on his lotus feet, obeisances. This is the etiquette. "My dear sir, you have taught me this fighting science, now it is being used against you, duty. So I offer my obeisances." And Droṇācārya also, threw another arrow, touching his head: "My dear boy, become blessed." This is duty. How blessed? "By killing me. I know you will kill me, so I give you blessings that you kill me." This is duty. The disciple is fighting, touching the feet of Droṇācārya: "My dear sir, it is duty. Now we are face to face to fight. So give me your blessing." This is one side. The other side, blessing, "Yes, you have my all blessings."
So this is the problem. This material world is problematic, especially when we have got these family relationships. "Society, friendship, and love, divinely bestowed upon man." They say. (laughs) It is not divinely bestowed. It is not. It is entanglement. It is entanglement. Dehāpatya. There is verse in the Second Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Dehāpatya. What is that verse? Dehāpatya-kalatrādi [SB 2.1.4]. Deha, first affection is with our body. "I am this Mr. Such and such. This is I am, this body." I have got attraction for this body. Then the offsprings, the by-products of this body. Apatya. Apatya means children. And how this by-product is made? Kalatra, through wife. Strī. Strī means which expands. Vistara, expands. I am alone. I accept wife, strī, and with her cooperation I expand. So one who helps me to expand, that is called strī. Every Sanskrit word has got meaning. Why woman is called strī? Because she helps, expanding myself. How expanding? Dehāpatya-kalatrādiṣu [SB 2.1.4]. I get my children. First of all I was affectionate to my body. Then, as soon as I get a wife, I become affectionate to her. Then, as soon as I get children, I become affectionate to children. In this way I expand my affection for this material world. This material world, attachment. It is not required. It is a foreign thing. This material body is foreign. I am spiritual. I am spiritual, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. But because I wanted to lord it over the material nature, Kṛṣṇa has given me this body. Daiva-netreṇa [SB 3.31.1]. He is giving you body. He is giving the body of Brahmā, He is giving you the body of ant. As you desire. As you desire. If you want the body of a tiger, Kṛṣṇa will give you. If you want the body of a hog, He will give you. If you want the body of Brahmā, He will give you. If you want the body of a demigod, He will give you. If you want the body of American, He will give you. Englishman, He will give you. Indian, He will give you. That is Kṛṣṇa. He is so kind. Ye yathā māṁ prapadyante tāṁs tathaiva bhajāmy aham [Bg. 4.11]. Kṛṣṇa is very kind. Just like a son disobedient to the father, but he wants to enjoy something. Still, father giving him, "All right, you take money, and enjoy." Father is so kind. "You become free. Whatever you like, you can do. You take some money." This is our concession.
This material life is a concession to us, given by God, for gratifying our senses. This is material life. Kṛṣṇa does not want that you become entangled in this material world. That He doesn't want. Why He should want? Kṛṣṇa... Just like you produce your sons, children. Why? To remain in household life, enjoy in the company of wife, children, friends. This is... One can understand. Why I take so much responsibility of family? I was alone. Why I get married? Why I beget children? Why I make friends? Because I want to enjoy. So Kṛṣṇa is also a person. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām (Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13). He has produced so many children, these living entities. Why? To enjoy along with them. Just try to understand the psychology. Yato imāni bhūtāni jayante, janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]. Where this idea came from, that "I shall be happy within society, friendship and love, children?" Wherefrom this idea came? Where is the origin? The origin is there in Kṛṣṇa. Janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]. Janmādy asya yataḥ. The origin of love. Just like Kṛṣṇa is loving Rādhārāṇī. So the loving idea came from Kṛṣṇa. Anything that is within our experience, that is in Kṛṣṇa. So Kṛṣṇa cannot be impersonal. That is nonsense. Kṛṣṇa is exactly a person like me, you. But the difference is that He's very, very, unlimitedly powerful. I am limited. This is the difference. So Kṛṣṇa also wants that to live with His family. Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is just to train ourselves again to enter into the family of Kṛṣṇa. This is our movement. With these families, the so-called families, we are suffering. We are suffering. But this family idea is there this. That is perfect in Kṛṣṇa, with Kṛṣṇa. The family idea, wherefrom family idea comes without it is being situated in Kṛṣṇa? Because nothing can be visible without being in Kṛṣṇa. He is the origin. Janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]. Ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ: [Bg. 10.8] "I am the origin of everything."
So whatever we are seeing in this material world, the origin is in Kṛṣṇa. But here it is perverted. That is the only difference. Just like a tree. The original tree is standing erect. But when you see the perverted reflection of the tree, everything is topsy-turvied. The upside has gone downside. You have seen the reflection of the tree. So the upside, downside. When the upside of the tree becomes downside, that is called perverted reflection. So this material world is perverted reflection of the spiritual world. It is false in this sense because it is reflection. Otherwise, exactly the same things are there in the spiritual world. Ūrdhva-mūlam adhah-śākham aśvatthaṁ prāhur avyayam [Bg. 15.1]. There is. In the Bhagavad-gītā you will find in the Fifteenth Chapter. Ūrdhva-mūlam. Here, this material world, the origin—mūlam means root—is upside, upside. Because it is reflection. This tree is erect, and this is reflection. So the root has gone upside. So here is the problem. Because we are attached to our this so-called family, society, friendship and love... When Arjuna was faced, then he became kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idam abravīt [Bg. 1.27]. "How it is possible, Kṛṣṇa, that I have to kill the other side, my fathers, my father-in-law, my grandfather, my sons, my grandsons, my brother, my so many friends?" So it is natural. Kṛpayā parayā āviṣṭaḥ. He becomes overwhelmed with compassion. Kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdan. Very morosely. "Oh, Kṛṣṇa, I will have to fight with them. I will have to kill them." Why this consciousness came? The other side also, Duryodhana, why he did not think in that way? Why Arjuna is thinking? Because he is devotee. That is the difference. A devotee thinks like that. A devotee does not like to kill anyone, even an ant. Why he should be encouraged to kill his friends? A devotee is like that. Yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiñcanā sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ [SB 5.18.12]. This is the result of devotional life. Arjuna was insulted. Arjuna was taken away all his belongings. Arjuna was banished for thirteen years. His wife was insulted. So many atrocities was done to him. Still, when the question of killing came, he was not very happy: "No." This is Vaiṣṇava. This is Vaiṣṇava. He is ready to excuse even the greatest enemy. But Kṛṣṇa does not want. If you insult His devotee, the devotee may excuse, but Kṛṣṇa will not excuse. This is Kṛṣṇa's position. Therefore be careful to insult a devotee. A devotee may excuse you. But Kṛṣṇa will not excuse you. Kṛṣṇa is so strict. He cannot tolerate any insult to His devotee. Therefore this arrangement of fighting. Arjuna wanted, "No, let them be excused." Kṛṣṇa wanted, "No, you must fight. You must kill them." This is the position. So he is within the dilemma. Kṛṣṇa is insisting that "You must fight and kill them," but he is thinking, "How shall I kill my kinsmen?" This is the problem. Therefore, tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān [Bg. 1.27]. All friends are there. Kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idam abravīt. So this is one side, that if you want to please Kṛṣṇa, then you have to be prepared for killing your so-called relatives. If you want Kṛṣṇa. If you want to please Kṛṣṇa.
So this whole Vedic civilization is made just to train how you can be detached from this so-called family affection. This is Vedic training. First of all brahmacārī. Brahmacārī means to lead the life of austerity. A brahmacārī is supposed to live to serve the spiritual master at his home, and he has to work just like a menial. He may be a king's son or a very great brāhmaṇa's son, but as soon as he agrees to live with the spiritual master, he has to live just like a menial servant. Whatever the spiritual master will order, he has to do it. This is brahmacārī. And they will gladly do, because they are children. Brahmacārī life begins from five years. So you ask any child do anything, he will do. They are learned. They are given education, "Go from door to door, house to house, and bring some alms." So brahmacārī means the neighborhood, their sons. So when the brahmacārī goes for begging, "Mother, give me something, alms," so immediately, some rice, some dāhl, some atta, is given, or some vegetables, sometimes some money. So they bring everything to the spiritual master and it becomes the property of the spiritual master. Because he has begged, it is not his property. Sarvasvaṁ guru-veditam(?). Everything is guru's property. So much so that after cooking everything, the spiritual master will call, "My dear boys, come on. Take prasādam." But if he forgets to call somebody, he will not touch. He will not touch. This is brahmacārī. "Oh, spiritual master has not called me; so I will fast." (laughter) He begged the rice and vegetables and atta and dāhl. It is cooked. But when it is cooked, that is also spiritual master's property. If the spiritual master does not ask him to take, he cannot take. He cannot touch. This is brahmacārī life. So therefore the first training is given, to become austere, tolerate, how to tolerate, how to call other women as "mother." He is learning from the beginning, a small child. He is trained up to call any woman, even of his own age, not "sister,"—"mother." This is the training. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. This is education. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. Cāṇakya Paṇḍita, the great politician, has given the definition of a learned scholar. Who is learned scholar? He has given the definition. What is this? Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. To see every woman except his wife as mother. This is education. This is education, perfection of education, when you can see all women except your wife as mother. This is education. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat. And others' property? Just like garbage in the street. Nobody is interested in the garbage. You throw. That is education. And ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. And thinking all living entities as your own self. If you feel pains and pleasure by something, you could not afflict the pains to others. If your throat is cut, if your head is cut, you feel so much pain, how you can cut the head of another animal? This is education. Samaḥ sarveṣu-bhūteṣu. This is education, three things. This is the test of education.
Where is? Where is that paṇḍita? There is no such thing now.
So this problem, attachment for this material world, gradually we have to cut it. That is the Vedic civilization. If you want to go back to home, back to Godhead, then at the same time, if you remain attached to this material world, so-called society, friendship and love, then it is not possible. So long you will have a pinch of attraction with this material world, there is no possibility of being transferred to the spiritual world. This is the position. Therefore by training, by education, we have to become detached. Detached, this society, friendship and love. We have to understand the falsity of this so-called society, friendship and love. It is just like... because we are being carried away by the waves of māyā. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung, māyār bośe, jāccho bhese, Khāccho hābuḍubu bhāi. Just like we see sometimes in rainy season, so many plants and creepers and vegetables and so many other things are floating in the river, going. Similarly, we also, all floating in the waves of māyā. Māyār bośe, jāccho bhese, khāccho hābuḍubu. Sometimes drowned, sometimes on the surface, sometimes on the other shore, sometimes on this shore. This is going on. So long we are in this material world, we are being tossed by different currents, and sometimes I am here as the master of some kingdom, and sometimes I am dog of somebody else. This is my position. The same thing. Very good example, that we are being carried away by the waves of māyā. Sometimes we are gathering together. So many straws and vegetables, they gather together. And sometimes the same vegetables and straws are thrown asunder. One is there, one is here. So here also, we assemble here as society, friendship and love exactly like that. In the waves of māyā. Then nobody is your father, nobody is your mother, nobody is your sister, nobody. It is simply māyic, illusory combination. Illusory combination, temporary combination. And we are so much attached to this combination that we are refusing to go back to home, back to Godhead. This is our position.
Therefore we have to meet them in the battlefield of Kurukṣetra, and if required, we have to kill them and execute the order of Kṛṣṇa. This is our position. If we are thinking that "In this material existence I shall be safe, assisted by my society, friendship, love, country, and politics and sociology," "No, no, sir, it is not possible." It is not possible. You have to take care of yourself. Your so-called society, friendship, love, country, nation, and this, never will be able to help you. Because you are under the clutches of māyā. Daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā [Bg. 7.14].
You are under the clutches of māyā. you have no independence. Neither anyone has got any independence to save you. That is not possible. The same example as I gave sometimes, that you learn how to drive aeroplane. So you go high in the sky. But if you are in danger, no other aeroplane can help you. You are finished. Therefore you must be a very careful pilot to take care of yourself. Similarly, in this material world everyone individually has to take care of himself. How he can be saved from the clutches of māyā. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. A teacher can give you hints. The ācārya can give you hints that "You can be saved in this way." But the execution of the duties, that is in your hand. If you perform the spiritual duties rightly, then you are saved. Otherwise, even ācārya gives you instruction, if you don't follow, so how he can save you? He can save you by instruction, by his mercy, as much as possible. But you have to take it in your hands seriously.
So this problem is... Arjuna is facing now this problem. That is general problem. Dehāpatya-kalatrādiṣu. Dehāpatya. Deha means this body. Apatya means children. Kalatra means wife. Dehāpatya-kalatrādiṣv ātma-sainyeṣv asatsv api [SB 2.1.4]. We are thinking that "We shall be protected by my these soldiers. I have got my sons, grandsons, my grandfather, my father-in-law, my brother-in-law, my so many society, friendship and love." Everyone is thinking like that. "My nation, my community, my philosophy, my politics. No. Nothing can save you. Dehāpatya-kalatrādiṣu asatsu api. They are all temporary. They come and go. Asatsu api. Pramatto tasya nidhanaṁ paśyann api na paśyati. One who is too much attached to this society, friendship and love, he is pramatta. Pramatta means crazy, madman. Paśyann api na, tasya nidhanam. He does not see. Although he is seeing that "My father has died. When I was a child, my father was giving me protection. Now my father has gone away. Who is giving me protection? Is my father alive to give me protection? Who is giving me protection? My mother was giving me protection. Now who is giving me protection? I was in family, my sons, my daughters, my wife, but I left them. Now who is giving me protection?" And actually Kṛṣṇa gives you protection always. Not your society, friendship and love. They will be finished. As your father is finished, as your grandfather is finished, similarly, your sons, grandsons, will be finished. None of them will be able to give you protection. Only Kṛṣṇa will be giving you protection. Therefore you surrender to Kṛṣṇa. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja, ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣa... [Bg. 18.66]. "I shall give you protection." Kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati: [Bg. 9.31] "My devotee is never vanquished." So the best thing is to take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, fully surrender unto Him, and you will be protected. Otherwise, there is no other way of being protected. We'll be carried away by the waves of māyā. This is the position.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730722BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.28-29

London, July 22, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "Arjuna said: My dear Kṛṣṇa, seeing my friends and relatives present before me in such a fighting spirit, I feel the limbs of my body quivering and my mouth drying up. My whole body is trembling, and my hair is standing on end. My bow Gāṇḍīva is slipping from my hand, and my skin is burning."
Prabhupāda: So dṛṣṭvā imaṁ svajanam. Arjuna is a great warrior, fighter, and for a kṣatriya to kill one is not very difficult task. The kṣatriyas are trained up. Hunting. Hunting is allowed for the kṣatriyas. Just like medical practitioners, they are trained up how to practice surgical operation on dead body. It is not possible to, of course, for a gentleman, to push knife in someone's body. It is naturally very difficult thing. Rogues and thieves, they can stab. So as the doctors, medical men, surgeons are trained up to operate their knife on the dead body to see where are the nerves, similarly, kṣatriyas are also allowed for being trained how to kill. Kṣatriya means... Kṣat. Kṣat means injury. And tra means trāyate, saves. A kṣatriya has to save the citizens from being injured by others. He is called kṣatriya. Brāhmaṇa means one who knows brahma, the supreme. So brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. These divisions are there according to quality. Guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. By guṇa. Guṇa means quality. And karma means actual operation of the guṇa.
So Arjuna was a kṣatriya, trained up by Droṇācārya how to kill. This is the... Nonviolence is not the business of the kṣatriya. That is cowardice. They are taught how to become violent. Otherwise, they cannot rule over. Formerly the judgement was given by the king, immediately finished. Not go to the court and wait for the judgement for ten years. In the meantime everything is finished. Not like that. Anything, there was regularly, the king used to sit in his assembly, and all the criminals, culprits, they were judged by the king himself. Sometimes the king had to kill personally with the sword. Even in European countries, the royal orders were trained up. Nowadays it is constitutional, democratic government. The king has no power. But this is not good for the people. The democracy is a farce. At least, I do not like it. Because so many rascals, simply by getting votes, go to the government, and what do they know how to rule over? Therefore, at the present moment, all over the world there is no good government. There is no good government. The America was considered to have very good government. Now we can see the behavior of Mr. Nixon. It is not possible. Formerly the kṣatriyas, they were trained up how to govern. They were trained up by military men, just like Droṇācārya trained Arjuna, Duryodhana. All the royal princes were trained up how to kill. Not only killing, also, according to śāstra, how to rule over. The king's business is to see that everyone in the country, they are properly employed and engaged in his own business. That is king's business. There was no question of unemployment. This is government's first business. Because if a person is unemployed, then the devil's workshop. Devil's, work... If he hasn't got to do anything... That is being done now. Rich man's son, he hasn't got to do anything, so his brain is devil's workshop. They are manufacturing so many "isms." But everyone should be engaged. This is government's first business to see. A brāhmaṇa is engaged as a brāhmaṇa, a kṣatriya is engaged as kṣatriya.
So Arjuna was not a coward. He was a competent warrior. But still, dehātma-buddhi, the bodily concept of life is so strong... That Arjuna admits, dṛṣṭvā tu svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa: [Bg. 1.28] "My dear Kṛṣṇa, I have to kill my own men." What is that "own men"? "Own men" means this bodily relationship. Why others are not own men? Everyone is own men. Because everyone is Kṛṣṇa's son. So when one becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious, he can see everyone own men. And when he is not Kṛṣṇa conscious, he simply sees own men where there is bodily relationship. This is the defect. They are advertising, humanitarian work, philanthropic work, communism, this "ism," but when there is question of bodily relationship, immediately everything is changed. You know, the Communist country, the Khruschev was driven out because he was patronizing his own men. That was the defect. So you can advertise that "I am for everyone," but there is affection for own men. Nepotism. Nepotism. It's called nepotism. So many big, big leaders. Our Jawaharhal Nehru, he was sending his own men as ambassador. Vijaya Lakshmi, a woman, she was being sent as ambassador. She was high commissioner here. So this "own men" question is very prominent everywhere.
So Arjuna is a great warrior. He could fight all the soldiers, all the fighting men, yuyutsu. The other party, they were also, they were assembled, yuyutsu, with fighting spirit. Other men, even they are not fighting spirit, we can kill very easily. But own men, although they are fighting spirit, still he hesitates. Because own men. So this "own-menship," in relationship with the body, is the barrier for spiritual understanding. So long this conception of life will exist, that "I am this body, and anyone who is related with this body, they are my own men, kinsmen, relatives..." This conception of life is the greatest barrier for advancing in spiritual consciousness. Therefore the Vedic civilization is so planned that one has to give up this rascal "own men" conception. That is the vairāgya. It is called vairāgya. Jñāna-vairāgya. Two things required in human life: knowledge and vairāgya, detachment. The attachment increases. First of all, it increases. Puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etam [SB 5.5.8]. This whole world is based on sex life. A man has got attraction for woman; a woman has got attraction for man. This is nature's bondage. Shackle. And when they are actually united, either by the father, mother, or by their own way, that shackle, that attraction, increases. Puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etaṁ tayor mitho hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ. Hṛdaya-granthim. Knot in the heart. "She is my wife." "He is my husband." Of course, now that knot is very slack. Formerly it was very strong because the woman was not allowed to mix with any other man, and the man was also not allowed with any other woman. This intermingling has slackened even that knot, hṛdaya-granthim. Therefore, even trifle cases, quarrel between husband and wife, there is divorce. Because that unity is not very strong now. That is good. Some way or other, it is slackened. So this "own-menship" comes from bodily concept of life.
So Arjuna is preparing the ground, how to receive the instruction of Bhagavad-gītā. Because spiritual instruction will begin to separate the soul from the body. Unless one understands that there is a soul different from this body, there is no spiritual education. This is the basic principle. If you do not understand what is soul, what is spirit soul, then where is spiritual education? So Arjuna was affected. He says frankly, dṛṣṭvā tu svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam: [Bg. 1.28] "What is this? I have to kill my own men." Svajanam. Svajanam means own men. "No, no." Sīdanti mama gātrāṇi: "Oh, I am shivering." Mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati: "My mouth is being dried up." We have got this experience. When there is danger, these things happen, so many symptoms.
As these things, these symptoms, different transformations of bodily constitution, appear in times of danger, similarly such symptoms appear in times of spiritual bliss. That is called aṣṭa-sāttvika-vikāra [Cc. Antya 14.99], eight kinds of transformation of the body. So there is so many reserve energies within our body. They become manifest in due course of time when the mind and intelligence work in different ways. This is the study, how things appear. It is appearing from intelligence, mind. The soul is there and the intelligence and mind creating the situation of the bodily symptoms. Therefore body or the senses are not all. The modern education, they think this body is everything. No. Real study is body means the senses. Indriyāṇi parāṇy āhuḥ. On gross vision we see this body. Indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur indriyebhyaḥ paraṁ manaḥ [Bg. 3.42]. But the bodily symptoms are acting because the mind is there. And mind is working because the intelligence is there. And the intelligence is working because the soul is there. (aside:) You can stand.
So this is the process. The basic principle is the soul. The soul is acting through intelligence, and the intelligence is acting through mind, and the mind is expressed through the senses. This is the position. So as my mind is absorbed in something, some subject matter, my bodily symptoms also will work, or the senses will work according to that mind. Therefore for spiritual advancement also, you have to train your mind. Sa vai manaḥ kṛṣṇa-padāravindayor vacāṁsi vaikuṇṭha-guṇānuvarṇane [SB 9.4.18]. If you use... First of all fix up your mind. Yoga means indriya-saṁyama. Yoga practice means that controlling the mind and the senses. That is yoga practice. Because our mind is very flickering and changing, something accepting immediately, something rejecting immediately, very flickering. Therefore we have to train up the mind, and when the mind is trained up, then automatically your senses will be controlled. If you are strong-minded, that "I will not accept any foodstuff which is not offered to Kṛṣṇa," naturally your tongue is controlled. Naturally. Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has sung, śarīra avidyā-jāl jaḍendriya tāhe kāl jīve phele viṣaya-sāgare. Our this body is a network of nescience, or ignorance. This body, why we have got this body, material body? Because we have forgotten Kṛṣṇa and we wanted to lord it over the material nature. This is our position. Therefore, according to our different desires, we have got different bodies. Here we are sitting, say fifty or hundred men. Nobody's body will tally with other's body. Face and everything, different. Because every one of us has got different desires. Therefore their facial expression, bodily construction, everything is made according to the mind. So at the time of death also, the constitution of mind will transfer me to another, different type of body. The mind will carry the soul. These are all explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ tyajaty ante kalevaram [Bg. 8.6]. So if you train up your mind, that is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Always remembering Kṛṣṇa. Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare. Then it may be possible that at the time of death you remember Kṛṣṇa and your life is successful. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya [Bg. 4.9]. Immediately you are transferred to Kṛṣṇaloka. This is training.
So we have to think of Kṛṣṇa always, twenty-four hours. Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ. Caitanya Mahāprabhu has recommended. Taror api sahiṣṇunā.
Because our aim is... If we are serious of being transferred to the loka, to the place, where Kṛṣṇa is, then we have to train up the mind so nicely that at the time of death I can remember Kṛṣṇa. Therefore one great king, Kulaśekhara, he is praying to Kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇa tvadīya pada-paṅkaja... What is that verse? Tvadīya, kṛṣṇa tvadīya pada-paṅkaja [MM 33]. I am just forgetting. The idea is, Kulaśekhara, King Kulaśekhara is praying to Kṛṣṇa, adyaiva viśatu me mānasa-rāja-haṁsaḥ. Adyaiva. Prāṇa-prayāṇa-samaye kapha-vāta-pittaiḥ smaraṇaṁ kutas te. He is praying, "Kṛṣṇa, I am now in good health. So kindly award me death immediately." Adyaiva. "Immediately, so that my mind, who is just like a swan, he can take pleasure by entering into stem of Your lotus flower feet." Kṛṣṇa's feet is always compared with lotus flower, and the lotus flower has got a stem. And the swans, they take pleasure being entangled with that stem. They go and dive into the water. This is their very good sporting. So he is taking that sporting, he is comparing his mind as the rāja-haṁsa. "So as the rāja-haṁsa takes pleasure by entangling him in the stem of the lotus flower, similarly Your lotus feet, there is a stem. So my mind, which may be compared with rāja-haṁsa, let it be entangled now, immediately. Otherwise I do not know." Prāṇa-prayāṇa-samaye kapha-vāta-pittaiḥ. "When everything bodily function will be mixed up, kapha-vāta-pittaiḥ, 'ghan ghan,' there will be some sound, how I will be able to remembering your lotus feet? So let me die immediately, immediately. Now I am quite fit. Otherwise I may not be able." This is the point. The mind should be kept in healthy condition. Saṁjña. Therefore one who dies with full sense remembering Kṛṣṇa, oh, he is successful. In Bengali it is said, bhajana kara sādhana kara mūrti yāṅre haya. (?) You may be very great devotee. That's all right. But it will be tested at the time of your death, how you remember Kṛṣṇa. That will be the test examination. At the time of death, if we forget, if we become parrotlike... Just like parrot, he chants also, "Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa." But when the cat catches the neck, "Kanh! Kanh! Kanh!" No more Kṛṣṇa. No more Kṛṣṇa. So artificial practice will not help us. Then "Khan, khan." That kapha-pitta-vātaiḥ, kaṇṭhāvarodhana-vidhau smaraṇaṁ kutas te [MM 33].
So from the beginning we have to practice Kṛṣṇa consciousness if we are actually serious to go back to home, back to Godhead. Not that let it be left for two or three years before death. Oh, it is not so easy. It is not so easy. Prahlāda Mahārāja recommends therefore,
He was five years old, Kṛṣṇa conscious, from the womb of his mother. He heard instruction of Nārada. Nārada was instructing his mother. He was in the womb. Fortunately, by God's grace, he heard all the instruction of Nārada when he was in the womb of his mother. And the result was, from the beginning of his life, he is Kṛṣṇa conscious. From the beginning. As soon as he took birth, he was Kṛṣṇa conscious. So he was advising his class friends, preaching. Just see. He was five-years-old boy, but he was taking the opportunity of preaching. Because the teacher... He is born of demon family. So all those class friends, they were also sons of demons. So there is no question of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. But he learned Kṛṣṇa consciousness from the womb of his mother.
So he was trying to preach. Because he was king's son, there was no other opportunity for preaching, and he was a five-years-old boy. He took the opportunity in the classroom, as soon as the teacher is away, he would preach. He would preach. This is preaching spirit. As soon as you get some opportunity, preach. What is that preach? Preaching, Caitanya Mahāprabhu has advised us, yāre dekha tāre kaha kṛṣṇa-upadeśa [Cc. Madhya 7.128]. This is preaching. "Whoever you meet, simply speak of the instruction of Kṛṣṇa." So if you are advanced, if you know what is the instruction of Kṛṣṇa by reading Bhagavad-gītā, you can preach to others. And if you have not read anything, suppose you do not know anything, then you can also preach. What is that? "Just become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, my dear sir." That's all. This is also preaching. "Just surrender to Kṛṣṇa." You go door to door. If you cannot do anything, simply say, "My dear sir, you are very good man. Oh, you are very intelligent man. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa." Sakalam eva vihāya dūrāt. This preaching was taught by Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī. Dante nidhāya tṛṇakaṁ padayor nipatya kāku-śataṁ kṛtvā ca ahaṁ bravīmi. This is the preaching process. Dante nidhāya tṛṇakam. According to Vedic civilization, if one wants to become very humble and approach another person, then he has to take one straw in the mouth. Tṛṇa. So the preaching process is to take a straw in the mouth, dante nidhāya tṛṇakaṁ padayor nipatya, and falling down on your feet, dante nidhāya tṛṇakaṁ padayor, kāku-śataṁ kṛtvā ca ahaṁ bravīmi. And flattering you: "Sir, you are so great man, you are so intelligent man." This is flattering. Although he is fool number one, we have to flatter like that. "Oh, there is no greater man like you. You are so intelligent, you are so rich, you are so beautiful." So all these things. Just like the beggars. Sometimes: "You become king." And one thinks, "Oh, he is blessing me. All right, you take one paisa." So this flattering is also required. So kāku-śataṁ kṛtvā cāhaṁ bravīmi. So the man may ask that "Why you are so humble and flattering? What is your intention? Tell me." So he is now telling. He sādhavaḥ, "Oh, you are great sādhu." He sādhavaḥ, sakalam eva vihāya dūrāt: "You have learned so many nice things. I know that. But kick them out, please." Sakalam eva. "Whatever you have nonsense learned, rascaldom you have learned, please kick them out. This is my request." Sakalam eva vihāya dūrāt caitanya-candra-caraṇe kurutānurāgam. "Just hear what Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu says. This is my request." This is preaching. This is preaching. Flatter, fall down on his feet, and eulogize him as great sādhu, as great intelligent, great rich. Do so that he may little hear. And when he says, "What do you want?" "Now, (laughter) I want this, sir. Whatever rascaldom you have learned, please forget. Because I know you are rascal number one. (laughter) You have got so many hodge-podge thing in your brain. So you kick them out please." Sakalam eva vihāya dūrāt. "Kick them, throw away, long distance. Don't look upon them." "Then what to do?" Caitanya-candra-caraṇe kurutānurāgam. "Please hear what Caitanya-candra says." śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-dayā karaha vicāra, vicāra karile citte pābe camatkāra: [Cc. Ādi 8.15] "Just try to understand the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and you will feel so sublime." Śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-dayā karaha vicāra [Cc. Ādi 8.15]. "Don't take it blindly. If you are intelligent, just make a judgment, what Caitanya-candra is." Tell him.
So this is preaching. This is preaching. So Arjuna has to be a preacher. Practical preacher. What is that preaching? That he has to sacrifice everything for Kṛṣṇa's sake. That's all. This is preaching. Sakalam eva vihāya dūrāt. Arjuna will be the greatest example, how he became Kṛṣṇa conscious, in the last Tenth Chapter. He will say, sarvam etad ṛtaṁ manye yad vadasi keśava: [Bg. 10.14] "My dear Kṛṣṇa, Keśava, whatever you say, I accept in total." Without any interpretation, or "This is like this, this is like that, this is not very good." Ardha-kukkuṭī-nyāya [Cc. Ādi-līlā 5.176]. All rascals, they accept this Bhagavad-gītā on the principle of ardha-kukkuṭī-nyāya. In the nyāya, in the logic. There is a logic, ardha-kukkuṭī-nyāya. What is that ardha-kukkuṭī-nyāya? Kukkuṭī means the hen. So hen gives one egg every day. So the man, proprietor of the hen, he is considering that "This hen is very good, giving every day one egg. But the, its mouth is expensive. It eats. So let me cut the mouth, simply take the egg." So there are rascals, they study Bhagavad-gītā on this principle of ardha-kukkuṭī-nyāya. "Cut this, take this, cut this, take this." So if you cut the head, there will be no more egg. The rascal does not know. If you cut the head there will be no more production of egg. So similarly, if you try to study Bhagavad-gītā according to your whims, cut this and take this, that is not study of Bhagavad-gītā. That is something else. That is something else. That is something else.
Therefore we have to take from Arjuna how he accepted Bhagavad-gītā. He said, sarvam etad ṛtaṁ manye: [Bg. 10.14] "Kṛṣṇa, You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Whatever You are speaking, whatever You have spoken, I take them as it is." This is study of Bhagavad-gītā. So the hindrance is this svajanam. Now he is presenting. He is presenting himself as fool number one, although he is not so. But he is creating the ground for Kṛṣṇa's speaking on Bhagavad-gītā. This is the principle. Therefore he is not at all affected by the svajanam, but he is presenting, "This is my problem, that I have to kill..." Dṛṣṭvā imaṁ svajanaṁ kṛṣṇa. "By seeing my own kinsmen, because I am fool number one..." Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tridhātuke [SB 10.84.13]." I am calling them svajana. In śāstra it is called svajanākhya-dasyu. Svajanākhya-dasyu. They are all thieves and rogues, but they are claiming as my kinsmen. Suppose in your pocket there is one hundred dollars. If some pickpocket takes it and if you capture him, then you give him immediately to the police. And when you come home after hard-earned money, and when your wife takes away, oh, you laugh, "Oh you have taken all my money! Ahhhhh!" But the same pickpocket, but the same pickpocket, but because he's svajanākhya-dasyu, "pickpocket in the name of svajana," he is very much pleased: "Oh, my wife has taken, my son has taken. Never mind." That's all. And others? As soon as takes, he, "Give him to the police." The same business is being done. He is working hard day and night, and they are plundering. Still, they are thinking, "They are my svajanam, they are my kinsmen." This is called illusion.
Thank you very much. (end)
730723BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.30

London, July 23, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "I am now unable to stand here any longer. I am forgetting myself, my mind is reeling. I foresee only evil, O killer of the Keśi demon."
Prabhupāda: So viparītāni. Nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava. Viparītāni means "just the opposite." "I have come here to fight to regain my kingdom. That is the cause for which I have come here to fight, but actually I am seeing it is just the opposite. My fighting will be useless. I came here to fight for some useful purpose, but now I see that viparītāni, just opposite. It will be useless." Why useless? Because one tries to become rich man, opulent—this is material nature—just to show to his relatives, to his friends, to his family members, "Just see how I have become rich, opulent." This is the psychology. A man works very hard day and night to become rich just to make a show that "My dear friends, my dear relatives, you see that how I have become now rich." This is the only purpose. Nobody is working hard for serving Kṛṣṇa. This is māyā. And Kṛṣṇa consciousness means, the same hardship we shall take, but take for Kṛṣṇa. Just like our Mrs. Sharma. She was working in the family, but now she has come to work for Kṛṣṇa. And this is salvation. This is mukti. Not that we have to stop our working capacity. Simply we have to change the position. In the family life we work uselessly for so-called relatives, but the same labor, when we employ for the service of Kṛṣṇa, every inch of it is utilized.
There is song by Govinda dāsa, śīta ātapa bāta bariṣaṇa e dina jāminī jāgi re, biphale sevinu kṛpaṇa durajana, capala sukha-laba lāgi re. He says that śīta ātapa bāta bariṣaṇa: "I have worked without caring for scorching heat and severe cold." Actually people work so hard. He has to go to office. Suppose there is snowfall. So he cannot stop. He has to go. Or there is scorching heat. You have no experience in your country, scorching heat. But India, 122 degrees. Just imagine, this year. Still they have to go to work. So somewhere it is severe cold and somewhere it is severe scorching heat. This is nature's law. You have to suffer. While you are in cold country, you think that "India is very warm. They are very happy." (laughs) And in India they are thinking, "In England they are very happy." This is the way. This is illusion. Nobody thinks that there is no happiness within these three worlds, beginning from Brahmaloka down to the Pātālaloka. Ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna [Bg. 8.16]. There is no happiness, even if you go to the Brahmaloka and get the opportunity of living like Brahmā, millions of years, and thousand times better standard of life. Still it is not happiness. They do not know it. Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi-duḥkha-doṣānudarśanam [Bg. 13.9]. Therefore mad-dhāma gatvā punar janma na vidyate. Therefore our aim should be only how to go back to home back to Godhead. That should be.
So nimittāni viparītāni. This viparītāni, when we are materially conscious, we see that "Without happiness of myself, my family, my society, my country, my community..." They think happiness in terms of expanded selfishness. "First of all, my happiness, personal." Just like a child. It does not think of anyone's happiness. Whatever he takes, he wants to eat. So you, as we grow, we expand our happiness little more: "My happiness, my brother's happiness, my family's happiness, my community's happiness, or my nation's happiness." So you can go on expanding the scope of happiness, but there is no happiness. There is no happiness. These foolish persons, they do not know. So Arjuna also is playing like an ordinary foolish person. Nimittāni viparītāni. "Where is my happiness? I came here to fight, to get happiness, and I have to kill my own kinsmen. Then where is my happiness? I cannot enjoy the property or the kingdom alone. There must be relatives, brothers. I will be very proud: 'Just see how I have become king.' So if they are dying, then who, whom I shall show my opulence?" This is the psychology. Nimittāni ca viparītāni paśyāmi. Just the opposite. This is illusion. This is illusion.
There is no happiness actually, expanding selfishness. Just like a national leader like Mahatma Gandhi in our country. He planned that "Let the Britishers go away. My countrymen will be happy. My countrymen will be happy." But when the Britishers went away, giving the responsibility of Indian empire to the Indian people, Gandhi was thinking in the morning, "Oh, I am so unhappy. Now only death will please me." And the next, the same evening, he was killed. He was so unhappy. Because everything was topsy-turvied. He wanted Hindu-Muslim unity. Now the country was divided. The Muslims became separated. The whole program was changed. There were so many things. He wanted that the government should be very simplified. But he saw that his disciples, his followers, were after office, simply for office. So nimittāni. He saw that "I shall be happy, my countrymen will be happy," but at the end he saw viparītāni, all opposite. Everyone will experience that. So long he will be materially attached, he will find viparītāni. "I wanted to be..." Sukhera lāgiyā, e ghara bandhinu, aguṇe puriyā gelā (?): "I constructed this nice house for living happily, but there was fire and everything finished." This is the way. You construct everything for happiness, but there will be something which will put you into the most miserable condition. This is called material world. They do not know. Therefore one who is intelligent, he thinks that "If I have to work so hard for so-called happiness, and here is Kṛṣṇa is canvassing, asking me, that 'You work for Me,' so why not work for Kṛṣṇa? Here I see viparītāni, everything is opposite. There is no happiness." So that is intelligence. "I have to work hard. Kṛṣṇa says, 'Just surrender unto Me.' " Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66]. So Kṛṣṇa is asking to work for Him, giving up everything. That is clear, everyone knows. "Here also I am working very hard, but here I am working hard to be happy, but the viparītāni, I am becoming unhappy. So why not work for Kṛṣṇa?" This is intelligence. I have to work after all. Jīvera svarūpa haya nitya-kṛṣṇera dāsa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109]. Constitutionally, every living entity is a servant. He's serving eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. If he does not serve Kṛṣṇa, then he will have to become servant of māyā. That's all. His servitude, servantship, will not go. Ḍheṅki svarga gele sva-dharmān. (?) Ḍheṅki. Just like a ḍheṅki, you do not understand. The husking machine. Say, a typewriter. So if you send the typewriter to the heaven, what does it mean? It is to be worked as typewriter. Does it mean because it has gone to heaven, the work has changed? No. The work will continue. Either in this hell or heaven, typewriter will kat, kat, kat, kat. That's all. Similarly, our position is servant. If you don't become servant of Kṛṣṇa, then you serve, you become servant of your wife, your children, your relative, your country, your nation, your dog. At last, if you have no family, then you become servant of your dog. You know in your country it is very usual. If he has nobody, then he keeps a dog, and takes it on the street. His dog passes stool, and he is standing, waiting: "Yes, sir. You pass your stool, I am waiting." Just see. It is practical. If you don't become servant of Kṛṣṇa, then you have to become servant of the dog. This is nature's way. Therefore intelligent person will take lesson from it, that "I have to become servant. Why not become Kṛṣṇa's servant? Then I will be happy. There are so many Kṛṣṇa's servants. They are so happy. Why shall I remain the servant of the māyā?" Kāmādīnāṁ katidhā.
So we remain servant of māyā on account of my sense gratification. That's all. I remain servant of my wife because I want to satisfy my senses. I want to remain servant of my husband because I want sense gratification. Here is the disease. Everyone. Even the servant of the servant or servant of the dog [Cc. Madhya 13.80]. Because I like it, a pet dog. So actually, instead of becoming master, we become servant. This is the fact. And servant of whom? Kāmādīnāṁ kati na katidhā pālitā durnideśāḥ. Servant of lust, servants of greediness. Kāma, krodha, moha, mātsarya. Servant of all these senses. Therefore one who is intelligent... There was a brāhmaṇa. He said like this: "My dear Lord Kṛṣṇa, I am now servant. I have served so much." Kāmādīnāṁ kati na katidhā durnideśāḥ. "I have served them so nicely that I had to execute something which is abominable." If you become servant of somebody, if he says that "You have to do it," your conscience does not allow you to do it. Still, you have to do it. Still, you have to do it. A man is stealing for family. He does not like to steal. Still, he is in need of money; he has to steal. Kāmādīnāṁ kati na katidhā pālitā durnideśāḥ. This is study, study the psychological condition. When I become servant of māyā, even I do not wish to do something which is not very good, still I am obliged to do it. But the result is that nobody is satisfied. The same example. Just like Gandhi served his country so much, so nicely, so voluntarily. Still, the result was he was killed by his countryman. Just see. Result was, the reward was that he served his country so much. It is undoubtedly, nobody can serve so sincerely. Everybody knows. But the result was even a person like Mahatma Gandhi was killed by his countrymen. Just this morning Mrs. Sharma was telling that she has worked so much for the family, but still, the sons and daughters, they want, "No, no, you cannot go. You serve us, serve us. We are not satisfied yet." They will never be satisfied. You serve māyā. The māyā will never be satisfied. Teṣāṁ na karuṇā jāta na trapā nopaśānti. (?)
The intelligent man is speaking, "My dear Lord, I have served my senses, lust, anger, greediness, so much so. Still, they are not kind upon me. They are still dictating, still dictating, 'Do this, do this, do this.' Therefore," samprataṁ labdha buddhi (?), " now I have got intelligence by Your grace." Guru-kṛṣṇa-kṛpayā [Cc. Madhya 19.151]. "By the grace of my spiritual master, by the grace of yourself, I have got this intelligence. Now I have come to You, to serve. Kindly engage me." This is surrender. "I have served my senses, lust, greediness, and other things so faithfully. They are not satisfied. They still want me to serve. They are not going to give me pension. They want still, 'Oh what you have done? You have to do so many things.' So now I am disgusted." This is called vairāgya. Vairāgya. Jñāna-vairāgya-yuktayā [SB 1.2.12]. This is required. In human life, this is, this intelligence required, vairāgya, not to serve this material world, but to serve Kṛṣṇa. The Māyāvādī philosophers, they simply stop these material activities. Just like Buddha philosophy, nirvāṇa. He simply advises to stop this. But after stopping, what is, sir? "No, zero. Zero." That cannot be. That is not possible. This is their mistake. But the people to whom Buddha philosophy was preached, they are not so intelligent that there can be better service after giving up this service. Therefore Lord Buddha said, "You stop this service. You become happy because ultimately everything is zero." Śūnyavādī. Nirviśeṣavādī.
The Māyāvādīs, there are two kinds of Māyāvādīs: the impersonalists and the voidists. They are all Māyāvādī. So their philosophy is good so far, because a foolish man cannot understand more than this. A foolish man, if he is informed that there is better life in the spiritual world, to become servant of God, Kṛṣṇa, they think, "I became servant of this material world. I have suffered so much. Again servant of Kṛṣṇa? Oh..." They shudder, "Oh, no, no. This is not good. This is not good." As soon as they hear of service, they think of this service, this nonsense service. They cannot think of that there is service, but there is simply ānanda. One is still more eager to serve Him, Kṛṣṇa. That is spiritual world. That they cannot understand. So these nirviśeṣavādī, impersonalists, they think like that. Just like a diseased man lying on the bed, and if he is informed that "When you will be cured, you will be able to eat nicely, you will be able to walk," he thinks that "Again walking? Again eating?" Because he is accustomed to eat bitter medicine and sāgudānā, not very palatable, and so many things, passing stool and urine, activities on the bed. So as soon as they inform that "After being cured there is also passing of stool and urine and eating, but that is very palatable," he cannot understand. He says, "It is something like this."
So the Māyāvādī impersonalists, they cannot understand that serving Kṛṣṇa is simply pleasure and blissful. They cannot understand. Therefore they become impersonalists: "No. The Absolute Truth cannot be person." That is another side of the Buddha philosophy. Impersonal means zero. That is also zero. So Buddhist philosophy, they also make the ultimate goal zero, and these Māyāvādīs, they also make the ultimate goal... Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum [SB 7.5.31]. They do not understand that there is life, blissful life, by serving Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, here Arjuna is playing just like ordinary man. So he says to Kṛṣṇa, "You wanted me to fight, to become happy, to get the kingdom, but by killing my own men? Oh, nimittāni viparītāni. You are misleading me." Nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni. "I'll not be happy by killing my own men. That is not possible. How You are inducing me?" So he said, nimittāni ca viparītāni paśyāmi. "No, no." Na ca śaknomy avasthātum: "I cannot stand here. Let me go back. Take my chariot back. I'll not stay here." Na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ [Bg. 1.30]. "I am becoming bewildered. I am puzzled now."
So this is the position, material world. We are always in problem, puzzle, and when something better is proposed to the materialistic person, that "You take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, you'll be happy," he sees nimittāni viparītāni, just opposite. "What this Kṛṣṇa consciousness I shall happy? My family is in trouble or I have got so many problems. What this Kṛṣṇa consciousness will help me?" Nimittāni ca viparītāni. This is material condition of life. Therefore it requires time, little time to understand. That is Bhagavad-gītā. The same Arjuna, he is now finding, nimittāni ca viparītāni. When he will understand Bhagavad-gītā, he will say, "Yes, Kṛṣṇa, what You are saying, it is right. It is right." Because after instructing Arjuna, Kṛṣṇa will ask him, "Now what you want to do?" Because Kṛṣṇa does not force. Kṛṣṇa says that "You surrender unto Me." He does not force, that "You must surrender. I am God. You are My part and parcel." No, He'll never say that. Because He has given you little independence, He will not touch it. Otherwise what is the difference between a stone and a living entity? A living entity must have independence, although it is very little, minute. That Kṛṣṇa does not touch. He'll never touch. You'll have to agree, "Yes, Kṛṣṇa, I shall surrender unto You. Yes. That is for my benefit." This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. You must voluntarily agree, not hackneyed, mechanical. "Spiritual master says like this right. All right let me do it." No. You have to understand very nicely. Teṣāṁ satata-yuktānāṁ bhajatāṁ prīti-pūrvakam [Bg. 10.10]. Prīti, with love. When you work, when you work for Kṛṣṇa with love and enthusiasm, that is your Kṛṣṇa conscious life. If you think that "It is hackneyed, it is troublesome, but what can I do? These people ask me to do it. I have to do it," that is not Kṛṣṇa consciousness. You have to do it voluntarily and with great pleasure. Then you know. Utsāhān niścayād dhairyāt tat-tat-karma-pravartanāt, sato vṛtteḥ sādhu-saṅge ṣaḍbhir bhaktiḥ prasidhyati. You will find in our Upadeśāmṛta (3). Always you should be enthusiastic, utsāhāt. Dhairyāt, with patience. Tat-tat-karma-pravartanāt, niścayāt. Niścayāt means with confidence. "When I am engaged in Kṛṣṇa's business, Kṛṣṇa's activities, Kṛṣṇa will surely take me back to home, back to..." Niścayāt. And Kṛṣṇa says, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. "I will take you back." It is stated. Kṛṣṇa is not a liar so we have to work with enthusiasm. Just... Not viparītāni. That will be accepted by Arjuna at the end. Kṛṣṇa will ask him, "My dear Arjuna, what is your now decision?" Arjuna will say, "Yes." Tvat prasādāt keśava naṣṭa-mohaḥ: "My all illusion is now gone by Your mercy." Kariṣye vacanaṁ tava: [Bg. 18.73] "Now I shall fight. Yes, I shall kill all my kinsmen."
That's all. Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa.
British man: ...made of a very inferior metal, in fact, in lead. But we couldn't think anything better than having this badge made for you in solid gold, twenty-four carat, and hereby we present it on behalf of the members of the guild to you, our most beloved leader.
Prabhupāda: Thank you very much. (devotees all shouting Haribol!) So, how it is to be used?
British man: Just like this, m'Lord. Has a pin on it.
Prabhupāda: Oh, I see. Thank you. Hm. Betiye, saheb. Idara chair ne. (Hindi) This is Part One? Betiye. (end)
730724BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.31

London, July 24, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "I do not see how any good can come from killing my own kinsmen in this battle, nor can I, my dear Kṛṣṇa, desire any subsequent victory, kingdom, or happiness."
Prabhupāda: So there are two things, śreyas and preyas. Here Arjuna is speaking of śreyas. Śreyas means ultimate good, and preyas means immediately palatable. That is called preyas. So everyone should be interested for śreyas, not for preyas. Just like a child, he likes to play all day and night. Naturally. Playful child. So that is called preyas. He likes immediate pleasure. But his father says, "My dear child, just go to school or read book." So father is asking for śreyas, ultimate good. If he is not educated at the, at childhood, then how he will prosper in his future life? So considering the future prospect, ultimate good, that is called śreyas. And preyas means immediate. Just like we eat something which I may not digest, or it may have some bad effect later on. But people are interested—the immediate benefit, without calculation of future benefit.
So Arjuna is considering with reference to his future, that "If I kill my kinsmen, what benefit there will be? I want victory, I want kingdom, to become happy, but if my all kinsmen are killed, then what is the value of my victory? With whom I shall enjoy?" He is thinking like that. Society... The same thing: society, friendship and love. Everyone wants to enjoy life with society, friends. Nobody wants to enjoy life alone. That is not possible. This is not natural. So wherefrom we got this idea, that I cannot enjoy alone? Just like generally a person is alone, but he gets a wife with a hope for enjoying family life, children, wife, friends. Gṛha-kṣetra, ataḥ gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittaiḥ. Gṛha means apartment, and kṣetra means land. Gṛha-kṣetra-suta. Suta means children. Ataḥ gṛha-kṣetra-suta āpta. Āpta means friends, society. Ataḥ gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittaiḥ. Āpta means friends, society, and to support all these things—gṛha, kṣetra, suta, āptathere is required money, vitta. Vitta means money. Ataḥ gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittair janasya moho 'yam ahaṁ mameti [SB 5.5.8]. This is material life. Gṛha, kṣetra. "I must have Gṛha." Gṛha means with wife. Na gṛhaṁ gṛham ity āhur gṛhiṇī gṛham ucyate. Gṛha. Gṛha means house.
So we are also living in house, very nice house. But still, we are not gṛhastha. A Gṛha, to live in a house, does not mean a gṛhastha. Na gṛhaṁ gṛham ity āhuḥ. Gṛhastha means gṛha. Gṛhe tiṣṭhati iti gṛhastha. Every Sanskrit word has got elaborate meaning. Gṛhastha means one who stays in gṛha, in house. He is called gṛhastha. So we can be called gṛhastha also. We are living in house. No. Śāstra says, na gṛhaṁ gṛham ity āhuḥ: "Simply a house is not gṛha." There must be the housewife. That means wife. Gṛhiṇī gṛham ucyate. In Hindi this word is used, garbhali means if there is no wife, that is not gṛha. And another Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says, putra-hīnaṁ gṛhaṁ śūnyam. "You have got wife, but if you have no children, that gṛha is also void." So gṛhastha means to live with wife and children, and cultivating spiritual life. That is called gṛhastha. It doesn't matter, you live with your wife and children, or you live with brahmacārī, sannyāsī. Anything. It doesn't matter. Therefore there are so many divisions of life. Whichever status of life is suitable for you, you can accept. Brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, sannyāsa āśrama. Āśrama, when the word is added, āśrama, that means it has got reference with cultivation of spiritual life. So gṛhastha-āśrama. One can live at home with wife and children, but the business should be Kṛṣṇa consciousness. We don't accept the Māyāvādī sannyāsī because there is no Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Simply by becoming sannyāsī... Brahma satyaṁ jagan mithyā: "This world is false. Brahman is truth. So I give up this world." That kind of sannyāsī we do not accept. Either you become gṛhastha or sannyāsī or brahmacārī, there must be Kṛṣṇa. Then it will be called āśrama. Gṛhastha-āśrama, sannyāsa-āśrama, brahmacārī-āśrama. Therefore this word is added, āśrama.
So Arjuna is in gṛhastha-āśrama. He wants to serve Kṛṣṇa. He's Kṛṣṇa's friend. He is a devotee. Kṛṣṇa has already recommended. In the Fourth Chapter He will declare, bhakto 'si priyo 'si me [Bg. 4.3]. "You are My dear friend. You are My devotee." So he is qualified, gṛhastha-āśramī. He is devotee of Kṛṣṇa, but he is also family man. He has his wife, children. So here the problem is what is śreyas? What is ultimate good? That is mistaken here. Therefore Bhagavad-gītā is required. He is thinking that "Kṛṣṇa is not so important. My family is important. My family." Although he is devotee. Therefore kaniṣṭha-adhikārī, in the lower stage of devotee, in the lower stage of devotion, one may be interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, but his real interest is how to improve this material life. Just like: "O God, give us our daily bread." So he has gone to God not to serve God, but to take bread. Ārtaḥ arthārthī. That is also good. But he... Because he has gone to God to ask for bread, he is better than the rascals who do not care for God. He has gone to God. That is recommended in the Bhagavad-gītā. Ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha. Catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ janāḥ sukṛtino 'rjuna [Bg. 7.16]. "Arjuna, four kinds of people, they become devotee." Who are they? Ārta. Ārta means distressed. Arthārthī, one who is poor, wants some money; jijñāsu, inquisitive; and jñānī, and a man of knowledge. So ārtaḥ arthārthī, this is meant, this is referred to the gṛhastha. The gṛhasthas, they become sometimes distressed. The gṛhastha-āśrama means unless there is Kṛṣṇa or full consciousness of Kṛṣṇa, it is simply miserable, simply miserable. Duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam [Bg. 8.15]. Simply working hard day and night, then there is, child is sick, then wife is not satisfied, the servant is not satisfied... So many things, problem. But if there is Kṛṣṇa in the center, the all problems will be solved. But people do not know this. They think that "I shall be happy with wife, children, servants, house, and this and that." No. That is not possible. Therefore one should be in gṛhastha-āśrama. Not only in family life. Family, the dogs have got family life. He has got wife, children. The cats and the hogs, a big family. Because a hog begets, at a time, one dozen children. What you beget? You are afraid of begetting one child even. This contraceptive method. But they are not afraid. They beget one dozen children at a time, twice in a year. So to live with family, wife, children... Then the hog accepts family life. No. That is not family life. You live with wife, children, peacefully, if you like, but bring in Kṛṣṇa in the center. That is gṛhastha-āśrama.
So Arjuna is talking of the ultimate good. But he is talking ultimate good with the point of view from material conception. He does not know... He knows, but he is playing the part of a person who does not know that ultimate śreyas, ultimate good, is Kṛṣṇa. Ultimate good is not that "We live with family—that is good." No. When you live with family because you cannot renounce, so that is allowed. But you live with family with Kṛṣṇa. So Kṛṣṇa is there, but he is thinking in terms of material role, that "If my kinsmen are dead, I kill them, then where is my good? It is no good. What shall I do with the victory and happiness? Where is happiness? I cannot live without them." This is the conception. Ataḥ gṛha... Ataḥ gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittair janasya moho 'yam [SB 5.5.8]. This is illusion. Everyone is trying to become happy with society, friendship and love, children, wife, friends, money and house and land. This is the conception of material.... So Arjuna is thinking in material concept of life. He is not thinking that "My ultimate good is to satisfy Kṛṣṇa." This is the Bhagavad-gītā's purport. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. One has to change to satisfy Kṛṣṇa, not to satisfy himself or the family or the society or the nation, no. Whether Kṛṣṇa is satisfied, that is the criterion. That is ultimate good. Kasmin tuṣṭe jagat tuṣṭam. If Kṛṣṇa is satisfied, then other things will be automatically satisfied. But they do not know. They are thinking that "I can bring Kṛṣṇa in the midst of my family provided Kṛṣṇa helps me to enjoy this material life." They are thinking like that. That is ārta. But that is also good. Just like Dhruva Mahārāja, he was ārta. Ārta, means he wanted something material, benefit. His stepmother insulted him, that "You cannot sit down on the lap of your father because you were not born in my womb." He was kṣatriya; he took it insult. So his father had two wives. So he was born the eldest queen. The father was not very much attached to the eldest queen. The father was attached to the junior queen. And the junior queen was very proud that "The king is in my hand." So she insulted. The father was not happy. The... Although Dhruva Mahārāja was born of the eldest queen... And it is sometimes liking. So that does not mean he did not like his son. So he wanted to sit down on the lap of his father and the stepmother insulted. So he took it very seriously. And he wanted to have the kingdom. This is arthārthī. He wanted something. And his mother advised that "You take shelter of Kṛṣṇa. He can fulfill your desire." So therefore ārtaḥ arthārthī. He was distressed; at the same time, he wanted a kingdom by the grace of Kṛṣṇa. That was his purpose. So because he went to worship Kṛṣṇa for some material benefit, he is to be taken as pious.
Catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ sukṛtina. Sukṛtina means pious. Kṛtī means very expert in acting worldly activities. So one who are engaged in pious activities, they are called sukṛtī. There are two kinds of activities: impious activities, sinful activities; and pious activities. So one who goes to pray in the church or in the temple, "O God, give us our daily bread," or "God, give me some money," or "God, give me relief from this distress," they are also pious. They are not impious. The impious people, they will never surrender to God, Kṛṣṇa. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ, prapadyante narādhamāḥ [Bg. 7.15]. These class of men, sinful men, rascal, lowest of the mankind, whose knowledge has been taken away by māyā, and demon—these classes of men will never surrender to God. Therefore they are duṣkṛtina, impious. So Kṛṣṇa is pious, but still he wants the family benefit. This is his defect. Er, Arjuna. Family prosperity. He wants to be happy with society, friendship and love. Therefore he says that na kāṅkṣe vijayam... This is called vairāgya. Śmaśāna-vairāgya. It is called śmaśāna-vairāgya. Śmaśāna-vairāgya means that in India, the Hindus, they burn the dead body. So relatives take the dead body for burning to the burning ghāṭa, and when the body is burned, everyone present there, for the time being, they become little renounced: "Oh, this is the body. We are working for this body. Now it is finished. It is burnt into ashes. So what is the benefit?" This kind of vairāgya, renouncement, is there. But as soon as he comes from the burning ghāṭa, he again begins his activities. In the śmaśāna, in the burning ghāṭa, he becomes renounced. And as soon as comes home, again he is vigorous, vigorous, how to earn, how to get money, how to get money, how to get money. So this kind of vairāgya is called śmaśāna-vairāgya, temporary. He cannot become vairāgī. And he said, na kāṅkṣe vijayam: [Bg. 1.31] "I don't want victory. I don't want this." This is temporary sentiment. Temporary sentiment. These people, they attach to family life. They may say like that, that "I don't want this happiness, don't want this very nice position, victory. I don't want." But he wants everything. He wants everything. Because he does not know what is the śreyas. Śreyas is Kṛṣṇa. Actually, when one gets Kṛṣṇa, or Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then he can say that "I don't want this." They will not say that. Why they will say, "Don't want this"? Here what we have got? Suppose I have got a kingdom. So that is my kingdom? No. That is Kṛṣṇa's kingdom. Because Kṛṣṇa says bhoktāraṁ yajña-tapasāṁ sarva-loka-maheśvaram [Bg. 5.29]. He is the proprietor. I may be His representative. Kṛṣṇa wants that everyone should be Kṛṣṇa conscious.
So the king's duty is, as representative of Kṛṣṇa, to make every citizen Kṛṣṇa conscious. Then he is doing nice duty. And because the monarchs did not do so, therefore now monarchy is abolished everywhere. So again the monarchs, where there is monarchy, little, at least show of monarchy, just like here in England there is, actually if the monarch becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious, actually becomes representative of Kṛṣṇa, then the whole face of the kingdom will change. That is required. Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is for that purpose. We don't very much like this so-called democracy. What is the value of this democracy? All fools and rascals. They vote another fool and rascal, and he becomes prime minister, or this or that. Just like... In so many cases. That is not good for the people. We are not for this so-called democracy because they are not trained. If the king is trained... That was the system of monarchy. Just like Yudhiṣṭhira Mahārāja or Arjuna or anyone. All the kings. Rājarṣi. They were called rājarṣi.
Evaṁ paramparā-prāptam imaṁ rājarṣayo viduḥ [Bg. 4.2]. Rājarṣayaḥ. Rāja, king means, he is not only king. He is a great ṛṣi, saintly person, just like Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira or Arjuna. They're saintly persons. They are not ordinary, this drunkard king, that "I have got so much money. Let me drink and let there be dancing of the prostitute." Not like that. They were ṛṣi. Although they were king, they were ṛṣis. That kind of king wanted, rājarṣi. Then people will be happy. In Bengali there is a proverb, rājara pāpe rāja naṣṭa gṛhiṇī doṣe gṛhastha bhraṣṭa (?). In gṛhastha life, in household life, if the wife is not good, then nobody will be happy in that home, gṛhastha life, household life. Similarly, in a kingdom, if the king is impious, then everything, everyone will suffer. This is the problem.
So Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna is thinking of the śreyas and preyas. Actual śreyas means to achieve Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is wanting in Arjuna. He is showing that feature of life, that he wants better the society, friendship and love. He does not want to kill them. Then everything will be finished. But actually the fact is that even after killing the so-called kinsmen, if he can satisfy Kṛṣṇa, that is his śreyas. That is his śreyas. That he does not know. And because he does not know, therefore this Bhagavad-gītā is there. He is playing the part that he does not know that Kṛṣṇa is the ultimate goal of life, not this so-called society, friendship and love. He is playing that part, that he does not know. He is thinking that "Kṛṣṇa is not important." Kṛṣṇa has already asked him to fight, but he is considering that "Kṛṣṇa, You are asking me to fight, and I have to kill my own kinsmen. Then where is my victory?" So therefore he said... Here in the previous verse, he has said, paśyāmi viparītāni keśava: [Bg. 1.30] "You are asking me to fight, for my victory, for my happiness, but I see it will be just the opposite." Paśyāmi viparītāni. This is his problem. And to solve this problem, Arjuna became the disciple of Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa advised him this Bhagavad-gītā, and that is the prelude. Unless Arjuna plays like that, ordinary man...
Anyone, everyone wants to be happy with this Gṛha-kṣetra-sutāpta-vittaiḥ [SB 5.5.8], household life, and having some land. In those days there was no industry. Therefore industry is not meant. Land. If you get land, then you can produce your food. But actually that is our life. Here in this village we find so much land lying vacant, but they are not producing their food. They make their food the cows, poor cows, to kill them and eat them. This is not Gṛha-kṣetra. You become gṛhastha, but you produce your food from the land, Gṛha-kṣetra. And when you produce food, then beget children, Gṛha-kṣetra-suta-āpta-vitta. In India in village, there is, still the system is amongst the poor men, the cultivators, that if the cultivator cannot provide to keep a cow, he will not marry. Jaru and garu. Jaru means wife, and garu means cow. So one should keep a wife if he is able to keep a cow also. Jaru and garu. Because if you keep a wife, immediately there will be children. But if you cannot give them cows' milk, the children will be rickety, not very healthy. They must drink sufficient milk. So cow is therefore considered mother. Because one mother has given birth to the child, the another mother is supplying milk. So everyone should be obliged to mother cow, because she is supplying milk. So according to our śāstra there are seven mothers. Ādau mātā, real mother, from whose body I have taken my birth. Ādau mātā, she is mother. Guru-patnī, the wife of teacher. She is also mother. Ādau mātā guru-patnī, brāhmaṇī. The wife of a brāhmaṇa, she is also mother. Ādau mātā guru-patnī brāhmaṇī rāja-patnikā, the queen is mother. So how many? Ādau mātā guru-patnī brāhmaṇī rāja-patnikā, then dhenu. Dhenu means cow. She is also mother. And dhātrī. Dhātrī means nurse. Dhenu dhātrī tathā pṛthvī, also the earth. Earth is also mother. The people are taking care of mother land, where he is born. That is good. But by the by they should take care of mother cow also. But they are not taking care of mother. Therefore they are sinful. They must suffer. They must have, there must be war, pestilence, famine. As soon as people become sinful, immediately nature's punishment will come automatically. You cannot avoid it.
Therefore Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement means solution of all problems. Teaching people not to become sinful. Because a sinful man cannot become Kṛṣṇa conscious. To become Kṛṣṇa conscious means that he has to give up his sinful activities. No illicit sex life, no meat-eating, no intoxication, no gambling. These are the four pillars of sinful life. So people are not ready to give up this. But we do not make any compromise, that you go on with your sinful life, at the same time I sanction that you have become Kṛṣṇa conscious. No, that we cannot do. There is no compromise on this point. You must give up all this sinful life. Because there is no chance of becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious. Why you shall make a show? There is no benefit by making a show. Just like Arjuna. Arjuna is trying to make a show of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. He has good attachment for other things. And the whole Bhagavad-gītā is taught to Arjuna to give up that attachment.
So ultimately it is said that, Sañjaya said, yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇaḥ [Bg. 18.78]. Yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanur-dharaḥ/ tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir, bhuva, dhruvā nītir matir mama. This is the conclusion of Bhagavad-gītā. Sañjaya uvāca. And at last Sañjaya said to his master, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, "My dear master, you are expecting victory between the fight, fight between your sons and..., but don't expect it. It is," matir mama, "in my opinion, yatra kṛṣṇaḥ yogeśvara, the party where Kṛṣṇa the Yogeśvara...," Yogeśvara. Yoga, yoga there are powerful mystic power. Yoga means mystic power. Not this yoga, this playing some gymnastics. That is not yoga. Yoga means when one becomes perfect in yoga, he gets many siddhis. They are called aṣṭa-siddhi, eight kinds of siddhi. Aṇimā, laghimā, prāpti-siddhi, like that, so many. Īśitva, vaśitva. So a yogi, aṇimā, he can become the smaller than the smallest. We are already smaller than the smallest, because our real dimension, spiritual dimension, is one ten-thousandth part of the tip of the hair. This is our dimension. This is only outward covering, this body. Keśāgra-śata-bhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca [Cc. Madhya 19.140]. So a yogi can give up this body and come to his original, spiritual body, and it is so small that you cannot keep yogi in prison. Anywhere. Because there is some hole, he'll get out. This is yogi. This is mystic power. What do they know about mystic power? Simply press the nose, that's all. This kind of yoga..., of course these are preliminary processes, dhyāna, dhāraṇā, prāṇāyāma. This prāṇāyāma requires to get the breathing from the opposite side... We have got experience. The two holes of the nostrils, one is blocked, one is open. So prāṇāyāma means to try to open the blocked side. That is called. So there are so many. But ultimate yoga means to get this power. That is yoga. So all these powers, they are simply fragmental. The yogis, they can attain. Although they can become, they are already smaller than the smallest. So Kṛṣṇa is the supreme master of all mystic power. Therefore He is called Yogeśvara. He is called Yogeśvara. So if Kṛṣṇa is on your side, then you do not require to practice yoga. If you are a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, because how much power you shall get. You may gain some power by this mystic process, but you cannot be equal with Kṛṣṇa's power. Just like aṇimā, laghimā. To make everything very light, or become very light, the yogi can fly in the air without an aeroplane. He can go even in the sun planet, moon planet, without any sputnik. Simply [break]
...his wife. But he was a yogi and she was devoted, so became lean and thin, because she could not eat very nicely. A yogi cannot supply nice food. Simply starvation, starvation. (laugh) That is yogi. So he thought that this poor girl came to me, his father is king. She is not accustomed to so much trouble, so she asked her, "What you want?" "No, because I have come to you, I want some children, and a little comfortable life." "All right." So he made an aeroplane by yogic power, a big town. Not this 747. The 747 is the biggest plane, but not like this. A big town with lake, with palatial building, maid-servants, servants, and that big plane went all round the universe. He showed all the planets to his wife. This is yogic power. This is yogic power. So where is that yogi? So here, Yogeśvara. All these mystic powers can be attained by ordinary man if he wants, there is process. But Kṛṣṇa is the master of all yogic power, Yogeśvara. So who can get victory? Kṛṣṇa can do anything. Just like we sing every day. Jaya rādhā-mādhava kuñja-bihārī gopī-jana-vallabha giri-vara-dhārī. Giri-vara. People may take it that Kṛṣṇa is fond of some gopīs, but they do not take care of the Kṛṣṇa's other business. As soon as the gopīs are in danger, he can lift the Govardhana Hill, Giri-vara-dhārī. That is Kṛṣṇa. The rascals they do not know they think that Kṛṣṇa is after the gopīs, therefore He is immoral. But the rascal has no eyes to see that Kṛṣṇa may be immoral in his eye, but here is Yogeśvara. At the same time, Yogeśvara.
So without becoming a disciple in bhakti-yoga, nobody can study Kṛṣṇa. It is not possible. Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ [Bg. 18.55]. So the whole thing, Bhagavad-gītā is there, how to understand Kṛṣṇa. As soon as you understand Kṛṣṇa, tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya [Bg. 4.9]. There is no more again birth in this material world. You go back to home, back to Godhead.
Thank you very much. (end)
730725BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.32-35

London, July 25, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
ta ime 'vasthitā yuddhe
prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās
tathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ
Translation: "O Govinda, of what avail to us are kingdoms, happiness or even life itself when all those for whom we may desire them are now arrayed in this battlefield? O Madhusūdana, when teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law and all relatives are ready to give up their lives and properties and are standing before me, then why should I wish to kill them, though I may survive? O maintainer of all creatures, I am not prepared to fight with them even in exchange for the three worlds, let alone this earth."
Prabhupāda: So Arjuna is thinking in terms of his own sense gratification. He is posing himself as if he does not know what is the plan of Kṛṣṇa. Yes. The plan of Kṛṣṇa is explained by Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā.
The plan is already known to everyone how the management of the cosmic manifestation is going on. The cosmic manifestation is there. This material world. It is, although temporary, it has got a purpose. The purpose is to give chance to the living entities who are rotting in this material world to revive his Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or original consciousness, and go back to home, back to Godhead. This is the plan. This material cosmic manifestation is there, bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19]. The nature is, it is sometimes manifested and sometimes it is dissolved, annihilated. Everything material, that is the way. Just like our body. It is created at a certain date, and it will be annihilated at a certain date. Similarly, this gigantic body... That is also body of the Supreme Lord, virāt body. Virāt means gigantic. Kṛṣṇa will show His virāt-rūpa to Arjuna. So this external body, exactly just like we have got our this external body. Internal body. The soul is covered by two bodies, the external and internal. External means these gross elements—earth, water, air, fire, sky. And internal means the mind, intelligence and ego. They are also material. Just like our body is covered by shirt and coat, similarly, the soul is encaged in two kinds of bodies. When this gross body is finished, the subtle body, mind, intelligence and ego, they are there. The soul is covered. The gross body is finished. That is called death. But people do not know that there is no death for the soul. The outward cover is finished, the inward cover is there, and the inward cover will carry the soul to another gross body. That is called transmigration. The mind is creating, as we are making our consciousness in this life, so we are making our next life also. Yānti deva-vratā devān pitṝn yānti pitṛ-vratāḥ [Bg. 9.25].
So we have got two kinds of bodies, gross and subtle, and within that, I am living, you are living, soul. Dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā [Bg. 2.13]. Asmin dehe, within this body, there is the dehī, the proprietor of the body. So people do not understand that this finishing of this gross body is not actually death or annihilation of the soul. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre [Bg. 2.20]. Even annihilation of the subtle body does not mean death of the soul. Na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre [Bg. 2.20]. There are two kinds of bodies. So when the gross body is annihilated, the subtle body carries me to another gross body. Just like the air carries the flavor of a certain place. If the air is passing over rose garden, it carries the flavor. Although we cannot see, but we can smell. We can understand the breeze is so fragrant, means it is coming over a rose garden. Similarly, filthy place, a bad smell, the air carries. So the subtle body carries the mental situation of the soul and puts him into a particular body according to that mental situation. Yaṁ yaṁ vāpi smaran bhāvaṁ tyajaty ante kalevaram [Bg. 8.6]. At the time of death, the mental situation will give me chance for another gross body. If we have created my mind Kṛṣṇa conscious, then he will give me, the mental situation will give me a body by which I can make further progress. That is also stated in the Bhagavad-gītā: śucīnāṁ śrīmatāṁ gehe yoga-bhraṣṭo 'bhijāyate [Bg. 6.41]. Yoga-bhraṣṭaḥ. Suppose one has begun yoga. Yoga means attempt to link with the supreme. That is called yoga. And viyoga means without any relationship, or without any attachment for the Supreme. Yoga means plus, and viyoga means minus. So plus. Plus means, one plus one equal to two.
So when we try to connect with the Supreme, then we can understand there is God and I am also there. We have got intimate relationship. That is explained in the Vedas. Two birds are sitting on the same tree. One bird is eating the fruit and the other bird is simply witnessing. The witnessing bird is God, Kṛṣṇa, and the eating bird is the living entity. So God is witnessing all our activities, and our mental situation. So He orders māyā, the external energy, prakṛti, that "He requires to be given a body like this," and the material nature gives the living entity a particular type of body, and they are numbering 8,400,000. So there is no certainty what kind of body I am going to get next life. But in the Bhagavad-gītā it is explained that if you are situated on the mode of goodness, then you will get your place in the higher planetary system.
There are three qualities, material nature. They are working. And we are under the influence of either of them. Either in the influence of goodness, or in the influence of passion, or in the influence of ignorance. So when we are under the influence of ignorance, jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti, then our behavior and activities becomes very abominable, very, very much abominable. Especially in this Kali-yuga, it is stated that people will have no fixed time for eating or sleeping or taking bath. In this way their bodily features will be like ghost. That we are seeing actually. The hippies, they are becoming. Practically in this age there will be no place even for taking daily bath. That we see especially in this country. The apartment, there is no bathing place. They have to go outside. So things are deteriorating very, very much. Adho gacchanti tāmasāḥ. Therefore the human civilization means to make progress towards the quality of goodness. That will help him for making farther progress. Ūrdhvaṁ gacchanti sattva-sthāḥ [Bg. 14.18]. Ūrdhvam means higher planetary system. Here it is said that api trailokya-rājyasya hetoḥ. Trailokya. Oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ. This is bhūr-loka. Above this, bhuvar-loka, and above that, svar-loka, heavenly planets. Oṁ bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ tat savitur vareṇyam. This is Gāyatrī-mantra.
So Arjuna is speaking of trailokya-rājyasya. He is ascertaining that "Even if I get the kingdom of the three worlds, what to speak of only this earthly planet, what is insignificant, even if I get the kingdom of trailokya, svarga, martya, pātāla, like that, still, I am not prepared to fight with my kinsmen, what to speak of this earthly planet." He decided like that. This is called family attachment. He is speaking, "Even in exchange of kingdom of the three worlds, I am not prepared to fight."
"What I shall get by killing my cousin-brothers? And along with them, there are so many relatives."
"My dear Kṛṣṇa, Madhusūdana." He is not addressing Kṛṣṇa as "Kṛṣṇa." He is addressing Him, "Madhusūdana." He is reminding Him that "You also killed, but You kill Your enemies, Madhu." Madhu was a demon. Madhu-kaiṭabha-bhare hari-murāre. Madhu-kaiṭabha-bhare. So, "You are Madhusūdana. You are the killer of Madhu demon, who was Your enemy. You are not Nanda-sūdana or Yaśodā-sūdana." That is reminding Him, little critically, that "You are Yourself Madhusūdana. You kill only Your enemies. Why You are inducing me to kill my kinsmen?" This is the criticism. So etān na hantum icchāmi. So "You may induce me, but I am not going to kill them." Etān na hantum. Hantum, "To kill, I am not willing." Then the question may be that "It is fight. If you do not kill, if you stand still, then they will kill you. Because it is fight. Then what you will do?" "Yes, I agree." Ghnato 'pi. "If they kill me, I agree. Still, I will not kill them." Ghnato 'pi. "Even they kill me, I will not fight, I will not kill them. But if they kill me, that is also agreed; still, I will not kill." Just see how much determination. This is called family attraction.
So he is preparing the ground for teaching Bhagavad-gītā. We are so much attached to our bodily conception of life, and expansion of bodily conception of life. He is thinking in terms of bodily conception of life. Śyālāḥ bandhuḥ pitaraḥ pitāmahāḥ. Because somebody happens to be... Just like there are many thousands of women. One woman with whom I have got my bodily connection I take: "She is my wife. I have to give protection." This is all based on bodily connection. So long there was no bodily connection with that woman, you didn't care for her. But as soon as there is bodily connection, immediately the attachment is there. Tayor mitho hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ [SB 5.5.8]. Generally, everyone has got attraction for woman. Woman has got attraction for man. That is general. But when they are united by marriage, the attraction becomes very acute, hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ. Hṛdaya-granthi means very hard knot. Hṛdaya-granthim āhuḥ. So this is called family attraction. Then I get my attraction for my children, for my society, for my home. So Arjuna's description of this means bodily concept of life. The sum and substance of this whole passage described by Arjuna, kiṁ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogair jīvitena [Bg. 1.32]. Everyone works so hard to acquire money. Why? The family attraction. We were student of economics and there was a book, Marshall's Economics. That Mr. Marshall is explaining that economic impetus begins from family affection, family affection. Unless one has got family, he will not try to earn. He will not try to earn money. He will be irresponsible. Therefore it is essential. When one is given some responsible post... Some... I know some English firm in India, I had some connection with him. So he was simply trying to know, "The man who is going to work for us, whether he is family man?" Because unless he is a family man, he has no attraction. He can give up the job at any moment. Because there is no family attraction. This is the psychology. Therefore according to Vedic civilization, it is the duty of the parents to get the sons and daughters married so that they will have family attraction, they will be established, they will be organized, things will go nicely. If there is no family attraction, no responsibility, then the things will not go nicely. This is the basic principle.
So anyway, the family attraction is required for regulated life. If there is no family attraction, there is no regulated life. We have got very good experience of these things. So family attraction required. It is not that it is rejected. It is required for regulated life. Unregulated life cannot make any progress. Therefore, in the Vedic civilization, the gṛhastha-āśrama is recommended. Everyone should be married and everyone should live. If possible let him live—a brahmacārī. First of all the brahmacārī-āśrama is given there, austerity, under the guidance of the spiritual master. So the idea is not to be entangled. Brahmacārī has no connection with worldly affairs. He's simply interested with the order of the spiritual master. That is called brahmacārī. So one is trained up as a brahmacārī, and he is sufficiently given knowledge, that "Don't be entangled with these material affairs. Don't be entangled. Try to avoid. But if you are still unable, your sex impulse is very strong, all right, then you go and marry." This is the process. First of all he is taught to be vairāgī. Vairāgya. This whole Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement may be called vairāgya-vidyā. Sarvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, he wrote one verse on Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He wrote one hundred verses. Out of that, two verses or four verses are available. When he composed the verses eulogizing Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and it was shown to Him, because it was self-eulogization, He immediately tore up the paper. So still, the devotees collected and got two or four verses. So one of the verses written by Sarvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya is: vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti-yogam [Cc. Madhya 6.254]. This bhakti-yoga is vairāgya-vidyā, how to teach people to be detached from this material attraction. This is vairāgya-vidyā. In another place, in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, it is said,
In the human life, two things required: jñāna and vairāgya. Jñāna means that "I am not this body." This is jñāna. Not that so-called scientific knowledge, more attachment for this body. That is not... That is ajñāna. That is not jñāna. Jñāna means how to achieve the status of vairāgya. That is jñāna. Jñāna-vairāgya-yuktayā [SB 1.2.12]. So the brahmacārī is taught vairāgya-vidyā. Vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti-yoga-śikṣārtham ekaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ [Cc. Madhya 6.254]. Sarvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya says that "This Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who has taken sannyāsa, very early age, only at the age of twenty-four years, a very young man. He has got His young wife at home, sixteen years old, and He has got His mother, old, seventy years old. So He has given up all responsibility, and there is no other male member in the family to look after them, the mother and the young wife. Still, He has taken sannyāsa. So therefore He is the Purāṇa-puruṣa, the Supreme Person, but He has come to teach us this vairāgya-vidyā." Vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti-yoga-śikṣārtham ekaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ [Cc. Madhya 6.254]. Puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ, Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is described: puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ. Śāśvataṁ purāṇaḥ. Divyam, ādi-puruṣam. So puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ. Vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti-yogam: "He has come to teach the bhakti-yoga which is vairāgya-vidyā." Vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti-yoga-śikṣārtham ekaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya-śarīra-dhārī [Cc. Madhya 6.254]. "Now He has assumed the body of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu." Tam ahaṁ prapadye: "I offer my respectful obeisances to this person. He has come to teach us vairāgya-vidyā."
So vairāgya-vidyā. This family attachment, and just the opposite thing is vairāgya-vidyā, how to become detached. This is the whole process of Vedic civilization. Everyone has got this attachment for the body and expansion of the body. So vairāgya-vidyā means to be detached. That is called brahma-jñāna. Brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati [Bg. 18.54]. That is brahma-jñāna. As soon as you understand, ahaṁ brahmāsmi, "I am not this body, I am spirit soul," this is called brahma-jñāna. So long you do not get this knowledge, you are in ignorance. That ignorance, there are degrees. In the sattva-guṇa or in the modes of goodness, you can simply theoretically understand that "I am not this body." That is sattva-guṇa. Brahminical qualities. Śamo damas titikṣā ārjavaṁ jñāna. Jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyaṁ brahma-karma svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.42]. When you... brahma-jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ. Brāhmaṇa means who has got the knowledge of brahma. Veda-paṭhād bhaved vipro brahma-jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ janmanā jāyate śūdraḥ saṁskārād bhaved dvijaḥ.
So everyone is born śūdra, but by cultivation of knowledge and culture, one can become... Saṁskārāt. Therefore, according to Vedic system, there are ten kinds of saṁskāra, reformatory method. This upanayana-saṁskāra, this is also one of the saṁskāra, sacred thread. Upanayana. Upa means near, and nayana means bringing. When the spiritual master brings nearer to spiritual consciousness, a person is given the upanayana, or the sacred thread. The sacred thread is the indication that "This man is now under the control of the spiritual master for advancing in Kṛṣṇa consciousness." This thread ceremony. This is called upanayana. Similarly, there is reformatory method, marriage, ten kinds of reformatory... The first beginning is garbhādhāna. So these things are impossible to introduce now in this Kali-yuga. Therefore the only reformatory method is: harer nāma harer nāma harer nāmaiva kevalam, kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā [Cc. Ādi 17.21]. In this age of Kali, people are so fallen, so degraded, that it is not possible to introduce systematically the whole Vedic principle; it is not possible. That is not possible. It is Caitanya Mahāprabhu's grace, mercy, that He has given us mercifully, vairāgya-vidyā-nija-bhakti [Cc. Madhya 6.254], just to teach very short-cut method. What is that? Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa. Simple. Simple. Ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanaṁ bhava-mahā-dāvāgni [Cc. Antya 20.12]. You are suffering in this material world, dāvāgni, now, forest fire. This material world is forest fire. But they are so ignorant, they cannot understand that "We are burning in the blazing fire of this material existence. Our attempt should be how to get out of it." But there is no such knowledge. Just like animals. The animals are suffering. They are being taken to the slaughterhouse. There is no, I mean, strength of protesting. They are being slaughtered. So we are being also being slaughtered by the laws of nature. We are also being slaughtered. So we do not know how to make progress. That is slaughtering.
So this is going on, very abominable condition of this age, mandāḥ sumanda-matayo manda-bhāgyā hy upadrutāḥ [SB 1.1.10]. First of all, they are very much slow, or bad. Manda means bad or slow. Slow means the human form of life is meant for making progress in spiritual understanding. So in this age every man is very slow. They do not know that there is need of spiritual understanding, there is need of making progress in spiritual life. They have forgotten. They have become just like animals. Therefore they are called mandāḥ. Sumanda-matayaḥ. And if one is little interested, he accepts something bogus which has no meaning. "I belong to this 'ism,' I belong to that 'ism,' that 'ism,' that..." "Ism," what is that "ism"? Dharma, or "ism," what is that required? Dharmaṁ tu sākṣād bhagavat-praṇītam... [SB 6.3.19]. It is simple thing that the dharma means, religious code means, the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. We have to obey. That is called dharma. But they have no knowledge, what is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, what is His order. They are here in the Bhagavad-gītā. The Supreme Personality of Godhead comes down to teach us, yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati [Bg. 4.7]. "When people forget their regulative life, I come down." So He has come down. He has come down. He will teach Arjuna that "You are so family-wise attached." Then He will teach. From the Second Chapter He will begin the teaching. Prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase. Aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase [Bg. 2.11]. When Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna accepted Kṛṣṇa, that "I am now puzzled, what to do. So I know I am puzzled, I am kṣatriya. It is my duty to fight, but I am hesitating. So it is very embarrassing puzzle. Therefore I am surrendering unto You." Śiṣyas te 'haṁ śādhi māṁ tvāṁ prapannam [Bg. 2.7]. "I am becoming Your disciple, not friend. Now let us talk as master and disciple, not as friend and friend." So when he accepted Kṛṣṇa as the master. Kṛṣṇa is always master, but it is simply acceptance. So at that time Kṛṣṇa will speak, aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase [Bg. 2.11], that "You are..." gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ. Paṇḍita. "You are posing yourself..." He will speak so many things. That is like paṇḍita, learned. It is very nice thing. "Kṛṣṇa..." Arjuna is saying that "How can I kill my kinsmen? There is my grandfather, there is my teacher, there are my kinsmen." It is not bad. For worldly men this is very nice consideration, that "I am not going to kill my kinsmen." That is a very good consideration. Prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase [Bg. 2.11]. But spiritually, it is ignorance, it is foolishness. Materially, it may be very nice thing, he's talking very nice. Therefore the first chastisement was... Kṛṣṇa took the position of spiritual master. So spiritual master has the right to chastise the disciple. So immediately he chastised. Aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase: [Bg. 2.11] "My dear Arjuna, you are talking, you are lamenting so badly, and at the same time you are talking just like a very learned man."
So this is the position of the world. One talks very high words, but his behavior is very abominable. So gradually we shall come to that point. So let us finish.Now Arjuna is promising... Kṛṣṇa arranged this fight to execute his purpose. Paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṁ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām [Bg. 4.8]. That was his purpose. "Duṣkṛtām, all these sinful rascals, they are ruling over the world, I want to kill them." Therefore this battle was arranged so that all these rascals and demons will come there and it will be killed, in one place. And the right person, Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, will be installed on the throne. That was his plan. The right person. Kṛṣṇa wants His representative to rule over the... King means representative of God. [break] (end)
730726BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.36

London, July 26, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "Sin will overcome us if we slay such aggressors. Therefore it is not proper for us to kill the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and our friends. What should we gain, O Kṛṣṇa, husband of the goddess of fortune, and how could we be happy by killing our own kinsmen?"
Prabhupāda: So pāpam eva. Pāpam means sinful activities, and puṇyam is pious. So people should consider in every activity, whether it is pāpam or puṇyam, whether it is virtuous or sinful activities. But the asuras, they do not know. Pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca na vidur asurā janāḥ [Bg. 16.7]. Those who are asuras, they do not care what is sinful or what is right. "I like it; I must do it." This is asura. There is no reference to the authorities, whether the action which I am going to do, whether it is pious or impious. Because by impious activities I will be degraded. Adho gacchanti tamasaḥ [Bg. 14.18]. Jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthāḥ. If we become addicted to sinful activities, the result will be we shall be degraded. But they do not know. Even so-called religious priests, they support killing, condone it. Killing is impious, sinful activity, but in the name of religion, killing is also going on. If someone says, "It is my religion to cut throat," will it be accepted very nice thing? Sometimes... Just like here is the war. This is also religious war. But still, discrimination. Arjuna, because he is a Vaiṣṇava, a Vaiṣṇava means devatā, demigod. Viṣṇu-bhakto bhaved daiva āsuras tad viparyayaḥ. What is the difference between deva and asura? Who is called a devata, and who is called an asura? There are two kinds of men. One class is called deva, devata. The other class is called asura. Devāsura.
So there is always fight between deva and asura. Now at the present moment, the number of asuras have increased. Formerly the number of devatās were greater. So Arjuna is devatā because he is Viṣṇu-bhakta. Dvau bhūta-sargau loke ('smin) daiva āsura eva ca [Bg. 16.6]. There are two classes of men within this creation. Viṣṇu-bhakto bhaved daivaḥ. Those who are devotees of Lord Viṣṇu, they are called devatā. Just like the demigods like Indra, Candra, Sūrya, and many others. There are thirty-three krores of devatās in the higher planetary system. They are all Viṣṇu-bhakta. They will abide by the orders of Viṣṇu and Vaiṣṇava. Just like Indra. He is devatā. There was fight between Hiraṇyakaśipu and the Indra's party. So when Hiraṇyakaśipu was defeated, naturally the... Afterward, if the other party is defeated, the victorious party makes some, so many aggression, especially aggression of women. That is still current. Innocent women, they are very much harassed after the war by the victorious party. You know, the soldiers are given freedom to rape the women. And plunder the property. So many things they have. So when Hiraṇyakaśipu was defeated, all the devatās, they did not make such aggression, but the wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu—Kāyadhu, I think—she was arrested by Indra and was taken. She was crying, just usual, woman. But she was being dragged by Indra. So Nārada was passing. Now, he said, "What are you doing this?" "No, there is no question of harassing this woman. But I am taking her in my custody because she is pregnant and the child is begotten by asura, Hiraṇyakaśipu. Therefore I shall wait for the birth of the child, and as soon as she gives birth, I will kill that child." Yes. So Nārada said, "No, no. That child is not asura child. He is coming, a great devotee, mahā-bhāgavata of Kṛṣṇa." Because Nārada knew that when... Not before. After all, he knew. But before also, he knew. Because they are saintly persons, they can understand that here is a child is coming who will be a great devotee of Kṛṣṇa. So mahā-bhāgavata. So "Don't try that. You don't take her to your custody. Better give her in my custody. I shall take care." So immediately he abided by the order of Nārada, immediately. He released. And not only released, circumambulated the woman. So here is a mahā-bhāgavata, in the womb of this woman. So let us offer our obeisances. This is Vaiṣṇava. As soon as understood, that there is a Vaiṣṇava mahā-bhāgavata, in the womb of this woman, "She is to be respected, offered obeisances." This is called Vaiṣṇava. But the asura would not do that. Asura would not do that. That is the difference between devatā and asura. In the Bhagavad-gītā, Sixteenth Chapter, you will find the description of the asura: pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca na vidur asurā janāḥ [Bg. 16.7]. Pravṛtti. Pravṛtti means what sort of activities we shall do, and what sort of activities we shall not do. The asuras, they do not know. The asuras, they do not know. Anything they do. "For my sense gratification I must do everything." Therefore they become entangled. So long they are strong in this life, they do not take care of anyone. Śāstra, sādhu or guru. They do not care for anything. So that means... But the asuric civilization, the living entities become entangled because he may not care for any action, the asura, but the nature is there.
Rascals, they are thinking that they are free to act anything he likes. That is not possible. So long we are in this material world, we are conditioned. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi. As we are associating with the particular quality of this material nature...
There are three varieties of quality. Goodness, passion and ignorance. So we have to associate with either of these qualities. Unless we are Kṛṣṇa conscious. Unless one is engaged in devotional service, he must be influenced by these three kinds of qualities. Goodness... Somebody may be very good man, according to the estimation of the... Just like Arjuna, he is talking in the modes of goodness, considering, considering. "Although they are ātatāyinaḥ..." Pāpam eva āśrayed asmān hatvā etān ātatāyinaḥ. Ātatāyinaḥ means aggressor. According to law, if somebody comes to attack you, or if somebody comes to kidnap your wife, these are ātatāyinaḥ. Or somebody comes to set fire in your house, especially they are called aggressors. So these aggressors are to be immediately killed. There is no question of nonviolence. You must kill immediately. There is no sin. Ātatāyinaḥ. But here, although the other party is ātatāyinaḥ, aggressor, still, Arjuna is considering whether they should be killed or not. That is the difference between devatā. In every action, they are calculating. But he is considering that "This kind of aggressor, because they are my kinsmen, they are my family men, whether this kind of aggressor should be killed or not?" It is common sense. Suppose your son has done something mischievous. The same thing. Same thing means to attack the father. Still, the father will consider, "Whether I shall kill my son or not?" That is natural. "If my son sets fire in the house, whether I shall kill him or not?" So Arjuna's position is like that. "Although they are ātatāyinaḥ, aggressor, still, because they belong to the same family, whether I shall kill them?" He is considering, pāpam eva āśrayed: "If I kill this kind of aggressor, I will be attacked with sinful activities. I have to suffer the result of sinful activities." And he is explaining why. Pāpam eva āśrayed asmān. "Because these are bāndhavān." Sva-bāndhavān dhārtarāṣṭrān. The dhārtarāṣṭrān means the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Duryodhana and others. So sva-bāndhavān. "They are our family members, bāndhavān." Sva-janaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava [Bg. 1.36]. "Mādhava, my dear Mādhava, You are the husband of the goddess of fortune. So you are always very happy. Do you think I shall become happy by killing my own men? Do you think like that?" Because friend and friend talking.
So this is the position. Just see, they were ātatāyinaḥ, aggressor. There is no doubt about it. Because these dhārtarāṣṭrān, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, they insulted Draupadi. Arjuna's wife. There was betting. The wife was betting. So they defeated, they were defeated in the chess play, and the wife was taken by the other party. So Karṇa took the opportunity. Because during Draupadi's svayamvara, Karṇa was insulted by Draupadi. The piercing of the eyes of the fish, Karṇa was greater, what is called, arrowman. So when Karṇa came to touch the arrow for piercing the eyes of the fish, Draupadi objected, objected because she wanted Arjuna to become her husband. But she knew that "If Karṇa comes to this combat, he will be victorious. Then I will have to go to Karṇa." So she was also very intelligent daughter of kṣatriya king. So Karna, nobody knew that he is kṣatriya. He was supposed to be son of a carpenter. Karṇa was born before Kuntī's marriage. Therefore she... Karṇa remained hidden, whose son. But he was kṣatriya. So it was unknown. So Draupadi took this opportunity that "This competition is meant for the kṣatriyas, not for the non-kṣatriyas." Because he was supposed to be son of a carpenter, śūdra. So he was not given the opportunity to gain Draupadi. But if he was given the opportunity, he would have come out victorious. So now Karṇa took this opportunity. When Draupadi was lost in the game, so he immediately... Karṇa was Duryodhana's friend. He immediately advised, "Now she is our property. We can do whatever we like with. Arjuna has lost his wife." So he advised that "Make her naked in this assembly." To become naked in the, so many people, that is a great insult for woman. So actually, they tried to insult. Not tried, it was fact. But Kṛṣṇa saved. You know, Draupadi's vastra-haraṇa. She was tried to become naked, but these people could not make her naked. The sārī was supplied by Kṛṣṇa, one after another, one after another, heaps of sārī. Then they become fed up, gave up that business, that "She cannot be made naked."
So they were actually ātatāyinaḥ. Because ātatāyinaḥ means one who comes to kidnap your wife, insults your wife. You should immediately kill. Just like Lord Rāmacandra. He was so pious king, but when it so happened that his wife, Sītā, was insulted... Sītā was taken away by Rāvaṇa. Lord Rāmacandra could marry hundreds and thousands of Sītās. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He could create Sītā, Rādhārāṇī, Lakṣmī. They are the pleasure potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Personality of Godhead cannot have a material wife or material companion. Kṛṣṇa's Rādhārāṇī or Lord Rāmacandra's Sītādevī, Nārāyaṇa's Lakṣmīdevī, they are pleasure potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Rādhā-kṛṣṇa-praṇaya-vṛkitir āhlādinī-śaktir asmāt. Āhlādinī-śakti. Kṛṣṇa, God, has got many potencies. One of the potencies is called āhlādinī-śakti, pleasure potency. So Kṛṣṇa's consort, Lord Rāmacandra's consort, they are pleasure potency, exhibited. So to show the example, Lord Rāmacandra, because Sītā was kidnapped, Sītā was insulted, or Rāmacandra was insulted, the retaliation was Lord Rāmacandra killed not only Rāvaṇa, but the whole dynasty, finished. Only for one woman. He could create so many. No. Because ātatāyinaḥ, aggressed over. Just to teach people that anyone, if he is aggressor, he must be killed. This is the position.
But Arjuna is considering whether it will be pious or impious. This is devatā. In every action, they will consider, "What I am going to do, whether it is pious or impious." That is devatā. "If it is pious, then it will elevate me. And if it is impious, then it will degrade me." Nobody wants degradation. The human life should be especially meant for elevation, not for degradation. You have come to this human form of life from the lower status of life. Jalajā nava-lakṣāṇi sthavarā lakṣa-viṁśati kṛmayo rudra-saṅkhyakāḥ. Through so many status of life: the aquatics, the trees, the plants, the insects, the reptiles, the birds, the beasts. In this way... Bahūnāṁ janmanām ante. Bahūnāṁ sambhavante [Bg. 7.19]. This human form of life is gotten, we have received, after many, many births. These people, they do not know. It is very rare. Therefore Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura sings, manuṣya janama pāiya, rādhā-kṛṣṇa bhajiyā, jāniyā suniyā viṣa khāinu. Hari hari viphale janama goiṅu. He is lamenting, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, I am so unfortunate. I got this human form of life. It was meant for developing Kṛṣṇa consciousness. But I have wasted my time otherwise. So how it is so? Jāniyā suniyā viṣa khāinu. Knowingly I have taken poison. Knowingly." Labdhvā sudurlabhaṁ idam bahu-sambhavante, manuṣyam artha-dam [SB 11.9.29]. These people, they do not know. Because they are asuras, they do not know what to do in this human form of life and what not to do. They are killing animals without any hesitation. They do not know these rascals. And still they are spiritual leaders. How horrible condition is this, in this Kali-yuga. Just imagine. Without any restriction, without any hindrance, they are committing sinful life. They do not know, next life, all this boastfulness, pride, will be finished. He will have to accept another body, which will be offered by the material nature. You cannot say that "I will not accept this body; I want this body." No. Nature is not under your dictation. You have to abide by the dictation of nature. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni. This verse of Bhagavad-gītā is very important.
Ahāṅkāra, by false ego. The asuras, they think, "I am independent. I can do whatever I like." No. You cannot do so. If you do so, then you will be punished.
For every little action, you are responsible. It is being noted by the material nature. And you will be forced to accept a kind of body for suffering. In so many types of bodies. Therefore Arjuna, being devatā, he is considering that "Although they are ātatāyinaḥ, at the same time, they are family men. Whether it is good to kill family?" He is asking Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is there. He is considering, he is consulting with Kṛṣṇa that "Do you think that killing this kind of aggressor, I will be benefitted or not?" Therefore in the last line he said, sva-janaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava: [Bg. 1.36] "My dear Kṛṣṇa, do you think by killing my family men, my relatives, shall I be happy? You are Mādhava. You are always happy because You are husband of goddess of fortune. But do you think I shall be happy in this way?" This is consultation.
So this is the proof of Arjuna's character, a devotee's character. A devotee is always devatā, demigod. So one who is devotee, one who is Kṛṣṇa conscious, sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ [SB 5.18.12]. Sura means devatā. All the good qualities of devatā. A devotee of Kṛṣṇa will never accept that killing is very good. No. "For the satisfaction of my tongue, I shall kill so many animals." A devotee will never accept. Ahiṁśa. Ahiṁśa. That is the third quality. Amānitvam adambhitvaṁ ahiṁśā kṣāntir ārjavam [Bg. 13.8]. These are... Everything is there in the Bhagavad-gītā. Amānitvam. Amānitvam means to accept this body as "I am." This is amānitvam, er, not to accept. That is amānitvam. Everyone is proud that "I am Indian," "I am American," "I am Englishman." So it is boastful, very proud of this body. So knowledge means "I am not this body. I am not this body." That is amānitvam. Adambhitvam. As soon as we become aware that "I am not this body," then my false pride immediately goes. Amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṁśā. Then ahiṁśā, nonviolence. Ārjavam, simplicity. There are eighteen qualifications of the demigods. So one who becomes a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa conscious, these, all these good qualities develop. So here is the proof, that Arjuna, because he is a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, he is considering, "Whether I shall kill them or not?" Ahiṁsā. It is consideration, not that it is final settlement.
So people are trying to elevate the status of the society by so many things. But they do not know the secret. The secret is that if one is trained only to become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, all good qualities automatically will be visible in his person. There is no need of separate endeavor, how to make a man honest, how to make a man religious, how to make a man high-thinking, simple living. These are good... Śamo damas, titikṣa ārjavaṁ jñānaṁ vijñānam āstikyam [Bg. 18.42]. All these qualities immediately develop. Because a living entity, spirit soul, he is part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Mamaivāṁśo jīvaḥ [Bg. 15.7]. Kṛṣṇa says all this. Ahaṁ bīja-pradaḥ pitā [Bg. 14.4]. "They have come to this material world. I am the seed-giving father. They wanted to enjoy. So I have given them chance. But actually I am the father. The material nature is the mother." Just like we have got experience, the father injects the living entity in the womb of the mother. And the mother, by her blood, develops the body of the child. Similarly, all these living entities, 8,400,000 species, the... Bījo 'haṁ sarva-bhūtānām [Bg 7.10]. The father is Kṛṣṇa. He has given the seed in the womb of this material nature. And the material nature has given the body. Somebody has got the body of fish, somebody has got the body of tree, plant, somebody has got insect, reptile, somebody bird, sometimes beasts, somebody human being, somebody demigod. But all these materials have been supplied by the mother. It is very easy to understand. Just like the child grows, the mother supplies the bodily ingredients. Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore... This is very scientific. When He took sannyāsa and the mother came... Advaita Prabhu arranged to see for the last time her son. Because a sannyāsī is no more coming home. So at that time, mother became overwhelmed: "Such beautiful body. He has nice hair. Now it is shaven." So she became very much overwhelmed and was crying. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately fell down on her lotus feet and He said, "My dear mother, this body is yours. My dear mother, this body is yours. This body should have been engaged for your service, but some way or other, I mistake, I have taken this sannyāsī. Kindly excuse Me." Caitanya Mahāprabhu said that "This body belongs to you. This is your body." Every son should think like that. This is Vedic culture. Actually, the body supplied, mother. From the very beginning, after sex... These are all described in the Bhāgavata. The two secretions become emulsified, and a body is formed just like a pea, and gradually develops. The ingredients, the energy is supplied by the mother. So the same thing. The whole creation, the body is supplied by material nature, mother. Therefore she is called "mother." Material nature is called "mother." Mother Durgā. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktir eka. The material nature..., and her name is Durgā.
This is description of Durgā. So Kṛṣṇa also says. So we should not think like that, that animals or trees or birds and beasts, they are other than ourself. They are our brothers. Because the seed-giving father is Kṛṣṇa, and the mother is material nature. So we have got the same father and same mother. So if we have got the same father and mother, they are all our brothers.
So unless one is advanced in spiritual consciousness, how he can think of universal brotherhood? This is nonsense. There is no possibility. The so-called universal brotherhood is possible when he is Kṛṣṇa conscious, when one knows that Kṛṣṇa is the common father of everyone. The father will not tolerate. Suppose father has got ten sons. Out of them one or two sons are useless. So those who are very capable sons, if they say to the father, "My dear father, these two sons of yours, they are useless. So let us cut their throat and eat." So father will say, "Yes, you do that"? No. Father will never say. The father will say, "Let them be useless, but let them live at my cost. Why...? You have no right to infringe on their rights." This is common sense. But these rascals, they think that animals are to be killed for the satisfaction of the tongue of the human being. No sense. No sense. And still they are passing on as religious heads. Such type of cheating religion is completely kicked out from this Bhāgavata religion. Dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo atra paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ vāstavaḥ vastu vedyam atra [SB 1.1.2]. It is meant for, this Bhāgavat-dharma. Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is meant for the paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ those who are not envious. How they can be envious? Paramahaṁsa, one who has understood what is this creation, who is the creator, what are these living entities, one who has got this knowledge, he is called paramahaṁsa. So how a paramahaṁsa can be envious of others? Therefore it is said paramo nirmatsarāṇām [SB 1.1.2]. Matsaratā. Matsaratā means envious. So without becoming Vaiṣṇava, without becoming a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, you do not think that anyone is a human being. He is simply animal.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730727BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.37-39

London, July 27, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "O Janārdana, although these men, overtaken by greed, see no fault in killing one's family or quarreling with friends, why should we, with knowledge of the sin, engage in these acts?"
Prabhupāda: So other party, Duryodhana's party, they were not considering all these pious or impious, sinful or vicious, activities. Because lobha-upahata-cetasaḥ: "They have lost their sense on account of greediness for acquiring the empire." When one becomes lusty or overpowered by greediness, then he loses all intelligence. There are many places stated that. Kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ yajanti anya-devatāḥ [Bg. 7.20]. Kṛṣṇa says that "Those who are worshipers of other demigods..." Actually worshipful is the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa. Others, they should be shown respect. But worship means for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is worshipful. Śaraṇyam. He is to be taken shelter of; He is to be worshiped. That is being taught. That is religion. Man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. Always thinking of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, worshiping Him, offering Him obeisances, that is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. The Deity room offering obeisances, worshiping, chanting, dancing, always be engaged to offer respect and submission to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the duty of everyone. Because all living entities are by constitution eternal servant. That is their healthy position. So long they remain servant of the Supreme, that is healthy. Same example, I have given many times, that my part and parcel of the body, this finger, so long it is fit to give service to the body, it is healthy. If it cannot give service, then it is diseased. Similarly, all living entities who are not giving, rendering any service to the Lord, they are simply working for sense gratification, that is diseased condition. And in the diseased condition, nobody can be happy. That is not possible. If you have got some disease, you cannot be happy.
So that is the position. They cannot understand that by serving Kṛṣṇa, we become healthy or in our normal position. This is called ignorance. Somebody is trying to forget Him, somebody is trying to become equal with Him. This business is going on. And nobody is submitting that "My Lord, I forgot my service. From this day, I become again Your servant. Please give me protection." Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām... [Bg. 18.66]. This is the teaching of all śāstra, all Vedas. But these people, the other party, they have become blind. They have become blind. Why? Lobha-upahata-cetasaḥ. They have lost their sense. Kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣam. There is a great fault by destroying dynasty. Nowadays people are destroying from the womb, abortion, contraception, destroying. They do not know. Kula-kṣaya. Actually putra. Putra means, put means puṁ-nāma-narakam. There is a hell which is called puṁ-nāma-naraka. And tra means trāyate, deliver. So putra means puṁ-nāma-narakāt trāyate iti putra. The Sanskrit word for son, putra means that the son is expected to deliver the forefathers from the hellish condition of life. Sometimes due to our sinful activities, we become ghost. That is very hellish condition. So when śraddhā is offered by the putra..., who will offer? The putra will offer. That is the duty. Then he gets again material body. These are the subtle laws. People do not know. Neither they are eager to know. But these are the information we get from Vedic literature. Putra has got a duty, to save the forefathers. Therefore one has to, it is his duty to keep a putra. At least one son he must leave. But people are not very much anxious to have putra. Rather to kill putra. They are so sinful. Kāma-lobha-hata-cetasaḥ. Simply sense enjoyment. That's all. Why bhāryā? Why one should marry? Putrārthe kriyate bhāryā. Bhāryā means wife. One accepts a wife. Why? For a putra. For a son. Why son is required? Putraḥ piṇḍaṁ prayojanam. Offering oblations by the putra to deliver the forefathers. That is prayojanam, that is absolutely necessary. Each and every one should leave a putra before his death. He has got so many duties. This is Vedic civilization. But nobody now cares for that. Neither it is possible. Therefore the only remedy is to surrender. Śaraṇyam.
The one excuse is that every one of us, we are indebted to devarṣi, devatā, the demigods. The demigods. Just like Indra. He supplies us water. Just like we are obliged to pay tax to the water department, to the fire department, to the education department, so many departments government. Or once we pay our income tax, that is distributed to so many departments. So actually why we pay? Because we are indebted. Now, the sunshine, we are getting advantage of sunshine. So we are indebted to the sun-god. Similarly, we are indebted to the moon-god. We are receiving so much advantages. Varuṇa. Deva. So we are indebted to so many demigods. Similarly, we are indebted to the ṛṣis. Just like Vyāsadeva. He has given us this Vedic literature. We are taking advantage of it. So we must feel indebted. Deva ṛṣi, ṛṣi. First of all, we are indebted to the devatās, and then to the ṛṣis, then the bhūtas, ordinary living entities. Just like we are taking milk from the cow. We are indebted. "No, we are killing them." They are committing simply sinful life and they want to be happy and peaceful. Just see. We are indebted. I am obliged to you for your service. So instead of feeling obligation, if I cut your throat, how gentleman I am, just see, imagine. So we are indebted. Devarṣi-bhūtāpta-nṛṇāṁ pitṝṇām [SB 11.5.41]. And pitṝṇām, these pitṛ, kula-kṣaya, forefathers. I have got this body... From my grandfather, my father has got this body; from my father, I have got this body. I am also indebted. Because this body, human body, is a chance for understanding, for my position. I can get out of the clutches of this māyā of transmigrating from one body to another. So this opportunity I have got by the grace of my forefathers. These are feelings of obligation. And there is duty. Therefore Arjuna is considering so many things because he is devotee. Kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ mitra-drohe ca pātakam [Bg. 1.37]. "These rascals, they have become lost of their intelligence on account of greediness for acquiring the empire. But so far I am concerned," Arjuna said, kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ [Bg. 1.38]. Plural number: "By us." "Us" means including Kṛṣṇa. He is saying not "I" or "by me." He is including Kṛṣṇa: "You are in this side; so because You are on my side, You are my charioteer, if I do not consider all these things, what people will say? That 'Arjuna is such a great devotee of Kṛṣṇa. And Kṛṣṇa is there. He is committing such sinful activities.' " Therefore he says, kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ. He is dragging Kṛṣṇa also. That is right, yes. A saintly person, a devotee, should consider all these things, before acting, "Whether I am doing it property or improperly?" This is Arjuna. The other party, lobha-upahata-cetasaḥ. Upahata-cetasaḥ. They have lost their sense. But we cannot. A devotee must be very responsible. He must act in such a way that nobody can blame him. Otherwise everyone say, "What kind of devotee he is?" So this is the duty. They should be very cautious. A sannyāsī, they should be very cautious. Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, sannyāsīra alpa-chidre bahu kari' mane. An ordinary gṛhastha, or... Gṛhastha only, If he talks with woman nobody will blame. He is gṛhastha. But if a sannyāsī talks with woman very intimately, oh, immediately people will take note of it. Sannyāsīra alpa-chidre bahu kari' mane. That is the practice. He should be very cautious. So a devotee, a sannyāsī, they have got very, very great responsibility. People will very easily criticize them. So Arjuna is considering all these points. Kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum [Bg. 1.38]. They may indulge in these sinful activities, how we can indulge? What people will say? Kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhir janārdana. "He Janārdana, You are maintainer of the people. So if the people become sinful, so it is very difficult to maintain them." These things are being considered. Kula-kṣaya. So we cannot destroy family. But on one condition we can become free from all this obligation. What is that? Gataḥ śarabyaṁ parihṛtya kartum [SB 11.5.41]. Śaraṇyam. Mukunda-caraṇam. One who has dedicated his life simply to serve Mukunda, Kṛṣṇa, Mukunda. Muk means mukti, liberation. And ānanda. Kṛṣṇa gives liberation, His name is Govinda, Mukunda. Hundreds and thousands of names Kṛṣṇa has got. So if one has taken, fully surrendering unto the lotus feet of Mukunda, he has no more any obligation, either these pitṛ, devarṣi, deva, devatā, demigod, ṛṣi, bhūta. He is immune because he is transcendental. But so long one is not a devotee, one who is not fully surrendered to the lotus feet of Mukunda, he must have to follow all these regulative principles and duties. He cannot be released. Everything, account is kept. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ [Bg. 3.27]. Everything is noted down. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa [SB 3.31.1]. According to his karma, he is going to get another body. These are the subtle laws. Therefore kula-kṣaya-doṣam. You cannot destroy your family. Materially, you cannot destroy your family. So Arjuna is speaking, kula-kṣayaṁ kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhir janārdana [Bg. 1.38]. "We can see. These rascals, they have lost their intelligence, but when we see, how we can destroy the family?" So further explanation will be given next.
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "With the destruction of dynasty, the eternal family tradition is vanquished, and thus the rest of the family becomes involved in irreligious practice."
Prabhupāda: So, so much responsibility is there, killing the family. Because they have no responsibility at the present moment, everyone irreligious. Two things are there: religion and irreligion. Kṛṣṇa also says, yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati abhyutthānam adharmasya [Bg. 4.7]. If we cannot keep on religious principles, then... We have to do something. Then we have to enhance our irreligious principle. So this family tradition, according to Vedic civilization, was very strictly observed so that the family may be kept in order in religious principles. Why? Now, because the human life is meant for reviving his eternal position, sanātana. This word is used here. Kula-dharmāḥ sanātanāḥ. The real purpose of life, especially human life, is meant for reviving our sanātana-dharma, sanātana occupation, eternal occupation. By observing the rules and regulations of varṇāśrama-dharma, four varṇas and four āśramas..., that is called kula-dharma. Brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra, brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa. Each one of them must strictly observe the rules and regulations of that particular āśrama. Why it should be observed so strictly? Because by observing the regulative principle of each stages of life, one will be able to please the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
varṇāśramacarvatā
puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān
viṣṇur ārādhyate (panthā)
nānyat tat-toṣa-kāraṇam
[Cc. Madhya 8.58]
If we observe strictly the rules and regulations of kula-dharma... Kula-dharma means if you are a brāhmaṇa, you must observe the regulative principles, the qualitative principles of a brāhmaṇa. If you are in, a kṣatriya, then you must also observe the kṣatriya principles.
All these are described in the Bhagavad-gītā, who is brāhmaṇa, who is kṣatriya, by symptoms. By symptoms we have to accept whether one is brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya or vaiśya, not by birth. That is the injunction of the śāstras. So this has to be observed. If we want actually deliverance from this material entanglement, so these rules and regulations of kula-dharma, we must observe. If we do not observe, then immediately we become irreligious. Dharme naṣṭe kṛtaṁ kṛtsnam adharmam abhibhavati iti uta. Uta, Arjuna said, "It is said." He has learned from higher authorities. Uta, "it is said" means "said by authorities." So "If adharma, irreligious life, is propagated, on account of loss of kula-dharma, then everything is lost, my dear Kṛṣṇa. So why shall I kill?" Other things also will be described later on, that the, when the male members are killed, the female members become widow, and they, their character becomes polluted. So many things Kṛṣṇa will speak about this family life.
So at the present moment, there is no such family life, no consideration of religion, no consideration of irreligious life. Everything, just like animals. Kalau śūdra-sambhavaḥ. If not animals, they are all śūdras, nobody brāhmaṇa, nobody kṣatriya, nobody vaiśya. So it is a chaotic condition of the human society. Therefore it cannot be revived to the original position of systematic institutional position. It is not possible. Everything is lost. Therefore by the Caitanya Mahāprabhu's grace, one thing:
harer nāma harer nāma
harer nāmaiva kevalam
kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva
(nāsty eva) gatir anyatha.
[Cc. Ādi 17.21]
Everything is lost. Now, simply by chanting harer nāma, the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa, you become again situated in the original position. Everything is adjusted because it is transcendental. So there is no other way. Caitanya Mahāprabhu is so merciful that from the śāstras he has selected this process of saṅkīrtana movement: ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam bhava-mahā-dāvāgni-nirvāpanam [Cc. Antya 20.12]. The human life is meant for extinguishing the blazing fire of material existence. But we are not in regulative principles. We have lost everything, our sanātana-kula-dharma, everything. Under the circumstances, Caitanya Mahāprabhu gives us the greatest facility according to śāstra. That is the boon of this age: kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya mukta-saṅgaḥ paraṁ vrajet [SB 12.3.51]. Simply by chanting the holy name of Kṛṣṇa, everyone becomes free from all contamination of this age, mukta-saṅgaḥ, paraṁ vrajet. And he becomes so purified that he becomes fit to go back to home, back to Godhead. So this opportunity, chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, we should not miss. We should... We must. Where is the difficulty, Hare Kṛṣṇa chanting? Kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ [Cc. Ādi 17.31]. Tṛṇād api sunīcena taror api sahiṣṇunā. This is the only savior for the human society of this age.
Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. (end)
730728BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.40

London, July 28, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
"When irreligion is prominent in the family, O Kṛṣṇa, the women of the family become corrupt, and from the degradation of womanhood, O descendant of Vṛṣṇi, comes unwanted progeny."
Prabhupāda: This is very important point. For good population. Without good population in the society, gentlemen, cultured, educated, following the rules and regulations of religious principles, how you can expect peace and prosperity? That is not possible. So the whole Vedic system was meant for having very good population. Not such kind of population who are addicted to killing and drinking and so many other sinful activities. No. Then you cannot check. If such population is there, then everything will be polluted. Especially nowadays, because there is want of good population, and they go in the government, and how you can expect good government, good administration? The whole population is polluted. Therefore even such a great state, U.S.A., the president is being tried and he's being criticized.
So there must be good population. So to have good population, the women should be very chaste. That is the basic principle of Vedic civilization. And to keep the women chaste, it was the function of the responsible father, or, in the absence of father, the elder brother... So he must get the woman, the girl, married. It is compulsory. There was no compulsory for man to marry. Because a man may remain brahmacārī. By training, he can abstain from sex. But if woman is not protected very strictly, it is very difficult. It is very difficult. We are discussing śāstra. Don't think otherwise. Cāṇakya Paṇḍita says: viśvāsaṁ naiva kartavyaṁ strīṣu rāja-kuleṣu ca. Viśvāsaṁ naiva kartavyam. "Don't trust women." Viśvāsaṁ naiva kartavyaṁ strīṣu. Strīṣu means women. Rāja-kula... And politicians. Yes. Viśvāsaṁ naiva kartavyaṁ strīṣu rāja-kuleṣu ca. Never the trust the politician and woman. Of course, when woman comes to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, that position is different. We are speaking of ordinary woman. Because Kṛṣṇa says, in another place, striyo vaiśyas tathā śūdraḥ [Bg. 9.32]. They are considered, women, vaiśya, the mercantile community, and śūdra, and the worker class, they are less intelligent. Pāpa-yoni. When the progeny is defective, then they become less intelligent. So Kṛṣṇa says:
Even pāpa-yoni, degraded birth, even women, śūdra and vaiśya, they also can become fully Kṛṣṇa conscious by training. And they can also go back to home, back to Godhead, without any check.
So when we study things from material point of view, these things are to be taken care. But when a man or woman becomes Kṛṣṇa conscious, he or she takes care of herself or himself. So it is spoken... Arjuna is speaking of ordinary woman. Strīṣu duṣṭāsu. Just like adharma-abhibhava. Adharma. If the woman is trained, a girl is trained from the very beginning that: "You should remain chaste," that is dharma. It is called Satītā dharma. Satī means chastity. There are many stories of Satī, chaste woman. Nala-damayantī. His husband became so poverty-stricken. He was king, but he became later on so poverty-stricken that he had no sufficient cloth. The husband and wife was putting on the same cloth, half and half. So still, still there was no divorce. You see. Still the woman did not consider... She was also king's daughter. But the husband has fallen down to so much poverty-stricken condition. "So why shall I live with him?" These are some of the extreme examples of chastity. Not to speak of olden days, I have seen in Bombay, in 1935 or '34, on the roadside, there was a beggar. The beggar, the face was defaced. Might be some accident. His eyes and everything became defaced. He could not see, everything became useless. So he, he was sitting on the roadside, and his wife also, also sitting. But I saw that beggar was neat and clean. The wife was also neat and clean. The wife's business was that to keep the husband always neat and clean and fresh and bring him there and again take him at home. Young woman. So I could understand that the wife is so chaste. She has not left such ugly husband. Because his face was defaced. And helping him. Because they require some money. So we have seen.
There are many stories of chaste woman. Many stories. There was one disciple of Rāmānujācārya, a very poor. So Rāmānujācārya came in that poor disciple's house and he saw there was no one in the house. So he thought: "What is this? This is my disciple's house. He's family man. Why there is none?" That means he could understand that the door is not locked. Door was closed only. Then he could understand that within the door his wife is there. Therefore he knocked the door, and there was response also, knocking, but she could not come out. That means she, she was so poor that she had no garment. She was keeping herself within the room, naked. So Rāmānujācārya could understand that "There is his wife. Maybe she has no sufficient clothing." So immediately, his own cloth he gave her, within the room, and the woman came out, putting on that... And then offered obeisances. So he could understand the position. They were very, very poor. Even no clothing. So after putting on the cloth, she went to the grocer's shop. Because Rāmānujācārya is there. She must receive. Grocer shop. The grocer knew that this woman is very woman, uh, very poor, so his business was to entice her. But she never agreed, although she was young. Now this woman went to the grocer's shop that: "You know that I am very poor. I require immediately some grains, ghee, and other things. My Guru Mahārāja has come at home. I must receive. So tonight I agree with your proposal. Please give me. Even at the sacrifice of my chastity I want this." So the grocer was very glad. "Oh, this woman, I have canvassed her, I have tried to induce her. She never agreed. And now she's agreeing." So: "All right, you take, whatever you like. Take." So she was given all kinds of food grains, as much as she wanted. And she cooked and gave to the spiritual master and his associates, his servants. Everything was very nice. In the meantime, the husband came, working whole day. And he saw that everything was nicely done. "Guru Mahārāja is fed, and his associates, they're fed." So he asked his wife: "How did you get all these things?" Then she narrated the whole story. Then husband also said: "Yes, you have promised. All right. Take some prasādam and go to him. Because you have promised to meet him this evening. So go." Then the grocer heard the whole story and his mind became changed. "Oh, such a chaste woman. Such a faithful... You are my mother. You take more ingredients, grains, as much as you like, you shall..."
So there are still. That is not very long ago. So this was the training. And the psychology is that woman, the first man she meets and if she is kept carefully, she becomes staunch lover. This is psychology. There is good psychology in maintaining the society. Therefore a woman, especially in India, especially in Bengal, before attaining puberty, she was married. Not to meet the husband unless she attains puberty. But she remained at father's house, but she must know that: "I am married. I have got husband." This psychology. Then she becomes very chaste. Because she thinks of her husband, and becomes more and more devoted. So this arrangement that woman must be married before puberty... Or even after puberty, she must get a husband. So if this dharma... It is called kanyā-dāya, kanyā-dāya. Kanyā-dāya means it is very obligatory that the father must get the daughter married. This is dharma. So if this dharma, or this religious principle is violated, that is... Arjuna is marking: adharma-abhi, abhi-bhava. When people become neglectful of the family tradition and religious principles, adharma abhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kula-striyaḥ [Bg. 1.40]. Kula-striyaḥ. Kula-striyaḥ means... Kula means family, and striyaḥ means woman. So woman must be belonging to a respectable family. Therefore it is said: kula-striyaḥ. Not society-girls. Kula-striyaḥ. Of the family. We have got experience in our school, college days. I was sitting in a friend's house and one sweeper woman, sweeper, with broomstick and with, what is called, covering?
Devotee: Shawl.
Prabhupāda: She was standing, say, about twenty yards distant from our sitting place. So I asked my friend that: "Your, this sweeper woman wants to come in. She's waiting because we are sitting. She is ashamed to come. So let us come here." So we stood separately. That means although she was a sweeper woman, still we had to honor her to enter. We stood up separately. She was feeling that; "How can I go between two men?" This we have seen in our... So this is Vedic culture. Woman should not be allowed to mix with man. Not allowed. In Japan also, the same system. Before marriage, they can mix. But after marriage they cannot mix. In Japan also I have seen. But in India still the system is there. Woman, without husband, cannot talk with any man. That is also psychological. In the Bhāgavata it is stated that man is like ghee, butterpot, and woman is like fire. Therefore, as they, as soon as there is fire and butter pot, the butter pot must melt. Therefore they should be kept aside. These are the statements. And the śāstra says that in a solitary place you should not remain even with your daughter, even with your sister, even with your mother.
mātṛ-svasra-duhitravan
na viviktaḥ sanevaśet
balavān indriya-grāmo
vidvāṁs api karṣati
Either your mother or sister, or daughter. No, nobody becomes lusty with mother or sister or daughter. But śāstra says: "Even your mother or sister or daughter, you should not live in a solitary place." Then one may question that "How it is possible?" No. The śāstra says: balavān indriya-grāmaḥ. The senses are so strong that it becomes polluted. "Now it may be, some rascal fools may be polluted like that." No. Śāstra... Vidvāṁs api karṣati. Even the most learned, he can be polluted. So sometimes in India, I am criticized that I keep women and men in the same temple. In India, that is not allowed. No women can live at night. They can come and go. But I defend myself that this is the system of the country, the women and men, they intermingle. How can I check it? Then the women, shall I not give them any chance for chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa? No, I shall do this chance, I shall give this chance to woman even at the risk. That is my reply.
So therefore chastity is very, very important thing for producing good population, nice population. So unless the population is good... If the population becomes hippies, then how there can be any peace and prosperity? Therefore, to produce children, there is saṁskāra. First saṁskāra is Garbhādhāna saṁskāra. This is called kula-dharma. Garbhādhāna saṁskāra means when, especially the high caste, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya especially...Not śūdra. Śūdra has no saṁskāra. Only the higher class, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya and vaiśya. Vaiśya also sometimes no saṁskāra. But brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya must have saṁskāra. Daśa-vidhā saṁskārāḥ. Ten kinds of saṁskāra. One of the saṁskāra... Saṁskāra means purificatory method. One of the saṁskāra is also marriage. One must get married. So, before the child is given birth, there is a saṁskāra, what is called? Garbhādhāna saṁskāra. It is not that the husband and wife mix without any restriction and have sex life at any time. No. You know that, that mother of Hiraṇyakaśipu, Kaśyapa Muni, I think, father. So she, the woman became very much sexually excited and the husband replied that: "This is not time. This is very bad time, evening. Why you are insisting?" But she was too much lusty, and because the husband was obliged, Hiraṇyakaśipu was born, a demon was born. Therefore there is Garbhādhāna saṁskāra, to find out when the husband and wife should mix and give birth to a child. Therefore in the Bhagavad-gītā you'll see that sex life which is according to the principle of religious ideas, that is "I am." So sex life is not bad, provided it is executed according to the religious principles. So Garbhādhāna saṁskāra... Just, what is the idea? The idea is the child born must be first class. He'll be able to become Kṛṣṇa conscious. He'll be able to understand the śāstras, the Vedas. He must have the good brain. These were the ideas. But if they are not born in that way, like cats and dog, that is called varṇa-saṅkara. Varṇa-saṅkara. You cannot specify whether he's a brāhmaṇa or a kṣatriya and vaiśya and śūdra. That is called varṇa-saṅkara. So varṇa-saṅkara population is not good. Varṇa-saṅkara. No caste. No designation, no definition to which class this man belongs.
So at the present moment, because these purificatory processes are not accepted, even in India... Accepted, they're unable. Everything has topsy-turvied. Therefore the śāstra says that: "Accept everyone as śūdra." Kalau śūdraḥ sambhava. There is no more brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya or vaiśya. All śūdras. We have to accept. Because no Vedic culture, no Garbhādhāna saṁskāra. They are born like cats and dogs. So where is this division? There cannot be. Therefore, accept them as śūdra. Varṇa-saṅkara is less than śūdra. So at least, śūdra they should be. So there is no Vaidic dīkṣā. For śūdra, there is no dīkṣā, there is no initiation. Initiation is meant for the persons who are born in brāhmaṇa family, kṣatriya family, or vaiśya family. The śūdra has no initiation. So in India there are professional gurus. They initiate śūdras, but do not eat foodstuff touched by the disciple. So there are so many things, that if he's initiated, how he can remain śūdra? But they keep him śūdra; at the same time, they become guru. Sanātana Gosvāmī gives direction in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa that: tathā dīkṣā-vidhānena dvijatvaṁ jāyate nṛṇām. If properly initiated, he becomes immediately brāhmaṇa. Dvijatvam. Dvija means second birth. Yathā kāñcanatāṁ yāti kāṁsyaṁ rasa-vidhānataḥ. There is a chemical process that kāṁsya, bell metal, can be turned into gold by mixing with proportionately mercury. Now here is a hint of chemistry. If anyone can prepare gold... But it is very difficult to mix mercury. As soon as there is little heat, immediately the mercury's finished. So there is a process. Everything has process. Many yogis know how to make gold from copper. Actually, chemically, copper, tin and mercury, if you mix proportionately, it will be gold. So Sanātana Gosvāmī gives this example. As the copper and tin, these two metals, mixed with mercury, there can be production of gold, similarly, by proper initiation, by the proper spiritual master, one śūdra, even though he's a śūdra, less than śūdra, varṇa-saṅkara, or caṇḍāla, he can become dvija, brāhmaṇa. So our process is to make dvija. Pāñcarātrikī vidhi. Pāñcarātrikī vidhi. That is recommended.
śruti-smṛti-purāṇādi-
pāñcarātrikī vidhiṁ vinā
aikāntikī harer bhaktir
utpātayaiva kalpate
[Brs. 1.2.101]
Rūpa Gosvāmī gives this direction that the initiation must be done according to śruti, smṛti or pāñcarātrikī vidhi. There is nyāya-prasthāna, śruti-prasthāna and smṛti-prasthāna. To make spiritual progress in three ways: by the Vedānta philosophy, or Vedic ways, or according to Smṛti. Smṛti means authorized books written in accordance to the Śruti. Śruti smṛti. Just like Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā is not directly Vedas, but the all the stanzas of Bhagavad-gītā, they're strictly according to the Nyāya-prasthāna and Śruti-prasthāna. So any book which is strictly written according to the Vedas and Vedāntas, that is also accepted as Vedic literature. So Pāñcarātrikī vidhi means that it doesn't matter whether man is śūdra or caṇḍāla... Caṇḍāla means less than śūdra. Pañcama The fifth grade. First class, brāhmaṇa; second class, kṣatriya; third class, vaśya; fourth class, śūdra; and below this fourth class, they're all caṇḍālas. Caṇḍālas means pañcama. Untouchable. They are called untouchable. So even the untouchables... Because Kṛṣṇa has said: Māṁ hi pārtha vyapāśritya ye 'pi syuḥ pāpa-yonayaḥ [Bg. 9.32]. The pāpa-yoni, caṇḍāla means pāpa-yoni, born of low-grade family... The Bhāgavata says, Śukadeva Gosvāmī says, that: Kirāta-hūnāndhra-pulinda-pulkaśā ābhīra-śumbhā yavanā khasādayaḥ [SB 2.4.18]. Yavana, mlecca yavana. They, they are called... They are also counted amongst the caṇḍālas. Ye 'nye ca pāpāḥ, even lower than that. Ye 'nye ca pāpāḥ śuddhyanti. They becomes purified. How? Prabhaviṣṇave namaḥ. When they are initiated to become Kṛṣṇa conscious. So if a, one may argue, "How it is possible to make a caṇḍāla a Vaiṣṇava?" No, that is possible. Prabhaviṣṇave namaḥ. Viṣṇu is so powerful, omnipotent. He can do that. So only by Viṣṇu mantra, by becoming a Vaiṣṇava, one can transcend all this restriction, sociology. They can be. That is confirmed by Kṛṣṇa: māṁ cāvyabhicāriṇī bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate sa guṇān brahmātītyaitan brahma-bhūyaya kalpate [Bg. 14.26]. Immediately he transcends. He's in the Brahman platform. One who has taken very seriously this devotional service, he's no more on this material platform. So long we are in the material platform, these distinction, brāhmaṇa, ksatriya, vaiśya, varṇa-saṅkara, they are considered. But when one is transcendentally situated, simply in pure, unalloyed service of the Lord, he's no more in the material platform. He's in the spiritual platform. Brahma-bhūyāya kalpate. He's already in the Brahman platform. Brahman platform means sa guṇān samatītya etān. This material platform means three modes of material nature. Sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa, tamo-guṇa. Here, even one is brāhmaṇa... Sattva-guṇa means the brahminical qualification. He's also contaminated. He's conditioned by the material nature. And what to speak of śūdra and varṇa-saṅkara? Everyone is conditioned by the material nature. Daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī [Bg. 7.14]. Brāhmaṇa means to be situated, a first-class prisoner. A first-class prisoner is also prisoner. You cannot say that he's free. No, free is different from a first-class prisoner. Sometimes, any respectable gentleman, some political offense, he's put into jail. Just like Gandhi also went to jail. And so many others. But they were given the place, first-class prisoners. They got servant. They got separate bungalow and books, library, all facilities. But they cannot go out of the prison house. They are called first-class prisoners. So to become a brāhmaṇa means to becomes a first-class prisoner. That's all.
So our, our point of view is not to become a first-class prisoner. To get out of the prison. That is Vaiṣṇava vision. You'll find... Last night I have given comments that Mādhavendra Purī, he was performing the Annakuta ceremony and installing the Deity. So everything was being brāhmaṇa, done by brāhmaṇa, qualified brāhmaṇa, but Mādhavendra Purī initiated them again to become Vaiṣṇava. Then he gave them in charge of the Deity worship. So the Vaiṣṇava functions cannot be done even by a brāhmaṇa. Even one is qualified brāhmaṇa, he is unfit to propagate Vaiṣṇava philosophy. That is stated in the śāstras.
sat-karma-nipuṇo vipro
mantra-tantra-viśāradaḥ
avaiṣṇavo gurur na syād
vaisnavaḥ śva-paco guruḥ
Śva-paco means caṇḍāla, who was eating dog. That is considered the lowest. There are different kinds of meat-eaters. But in India, the cow-flesh-eaters, they were none. Some of them were eating hogs, even dogs. No government will not allow to eat the cow flesh. No, that is not allowed. If you want to eat flesh, you can eat hogs and dogs, and other, goats also. But you cannot touch a cow. This is restriction. First of all, they should not be meat-eater. But if you are staunch meat-eaters, then you cannot touch cow. You can eat some other animal. So śva-pacaḥ. Śva-pacaḥ means the dog-eaters. In Korea, and some parts of there, they eat dogs. They, they sell dog flesh publicly. So in India also there is a class. In Asamsaye, they eat also dog. So the dog-eaters, they are considered lowest of the mankind. Śva-pacaḥ. Śva means dog and pacaḥ means who cooks. Śva-pacaḥ means caṇḍāla. If a man from the śva-pacaḥ family, or the caṇḍāla family, he becomes a Vaiṣṇava, strictly according to the orders, then he can become guru, but not a brāhmaṇa if he's not a Vaiṣṇava. This is the stricture. Even one is born in the family of a brāhmaṇa, and he's not only born, he's qualified, sat-karma-nipuṇo... Nipuṇo means qualified. Brāhmaṇa has got six kinds of occupation. He must be learned himself, he must be able to teach others Vedic literatures. That is called paṭhana pāṭhana. Then he must worship... Worship means demigods. Or they consider that any demigod or God, the same, some impersonalists. So yajana, yājana. There are other also, religious ritual functions. They perform. That is called yajana. Yajana yājana. And dāna pratigṛha. A brāhmaṇa takes contribution. A brāhmaṇa is never engaged in service like śūdra. That is śūdra's business.
So these are called dharmas. There are so many departmental dharmas. So Arjuna is referring to this, that: adharma-abhibhavāt kṛṣṇa. When these principles are sacrificed and there is awakening of adharma, irreligious principles, then the result will be... Adharma abhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kula-striyaḥ [Bg. 1.40]. Then the stricture will be withdrawn and the family women, women, they'll be polluted. And as soon as the women is polluted, strīṣu duṣṭāsu, the woman is polluted, vārṣṇeya, "My dear Kṛṣṇa," jāyate varṇa-saṅkara, "then the whole population will be varṇa-saṅkara." And the next verse will explain how varṇa sankara population makes this world exactly like hell. That is stated.
This will be explained next...
So five thousand years. You just try to understand how the society was going on strictly on the Vedic principles. So now there is no such thing. Nobody is observing Vedic principles. And because the Vedic principles were strictly being followed, the whole world was one unit, controlled by these Pāṇḍavas. Even the grandson of Pāṇḍava, Mahārāja Parīkṣit,... This is on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. Then when the battle was over, the next king was Mahārāja Parīkṣit, grandson of Arjuna. Up to that time, everything was in order, Vedic principles. All over the world. There was no question of eating meat. The same principles were followed. No meat-eating, no illicit sex, no gambling, no intoxication. Because the king was very strong. Mahārāja Parīkṣit, when he saw that a black man was going to kill one cow, immediately he took his sword: "Who are you? I shall kill you immediately." That was king's stricture. So the Kali was ordered to get out of his kingdom. He begged of his life: "Sir, you are going to kill me. But it is my time. I have now come, and it is my business, cow-killing. So what can I do? This is my business." So Mahārāja Parīkṣit understood that now the Kali-yuga is coming. So it is his business. So "I am as king. How can I stop his business?" That is also another problem. One must be occupied, one must be engaged in his business. Therefore, he asked him to go to these places. Where? In the slaughterhouse, in the brothel for illicit sex, and slaughterhouse and in the drunkard den for intoxication, and gambling place. So Kali was in difficulty to find out a place like that in that time. He could not find. Therefore there was conspiracy to kill the king so that Kali can enter.
So these are the principles. This is called human society. Varnāśramācaravatā puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān [Cc. Madhya 8.58]. In human society, viṣṇur ārādhyate, the Lord is worshiped. But ne te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇuḥ. At the present moment, these rascals, they do not know. Andhā yathāndair upanīyamānāḥ. And the so-called leaders, they are blind, themselves, and they are trying to lead other blind men. This is the social position. Therefore there is no more hope of reviving the Vedic culture. But by the grace of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, ceto darpanaṁ mārjanam... The Vedic culture means to cleanse the heart and make him perfect. Brahma-bhūtaḥ, perfectly spiritualized. That is Vedic culture. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [Bg. 15.15]. To know the Supreme Lord. That is Vedic culture. Now everything is topsy-turvied. Therefore, by the grace of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, He has simply recommended: harer nāma harer nāma harer nāma eva kevalam [Cc. Ādi 17.21]. Only chant. Then the result will be: ceto-darpana-mārjanam [Cc. Antya 20.12]. The same result as the Vedic culture introduced will purify the heart to understand one's position. By the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, the same position will come. It is so nice. Kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya mukta-saṅgaḥ paraṁ vrajet [SB 12.3.51]. Therefore there is no question of being depressed that: "We do not belong to this, do not belong to that." Never mind. Whatever it is. Simply chant and you'll become purified. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.
Thank you very much. (end)
730729BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.41-42

London, July 29, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
saṅkaro narakāyaiva
kula-ghnānāṁ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ
lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ
[Bg. 1.41]
Translation: "When there is increase of unwanted population, a hellish situation is created both for the family and for those who destroy the family tradition. In such corrupt families, there is no offering of oblations of food and water to the ancestors."
Prabhupāda: Saṅkaro narakāyaiva. When there are unwanted children, then the family tradition, the family obligation, they are all forgotten. At the present moment, nobody knows that after death there is life, and still such life is connected with the family, the forefathers and the descendants. Nothing of this science is known at the present moment. More or less, exactly like animals. That's all. An animal has no such feelings of connections. Simply the number of days he will eat. He will eat, sleep, have sex life and die, that's all. This subtle regulation of family connection is unknown at the present moment, and still they are very proud of advancement of knowledge. So unwanted children, as we have discussed in the previous... Praduṣyanti kula-striyaḥ [Bg. 1.40]. If the woman, kula-striyaḥ, family... Family woman and prostitute are different. Still in India, the uncontrolled woman, or there is a class of prostitutes. They are not family women. But kula-striyaḥ, family women, they have got so many obligations. There is a verse that svargāpta-kāma-mokṣāya dharā samprati hetutā. Dharā means wife. Wife can help one to be elevated to the heavenly planets, and dharmārtha-kāma, to become helpful in the matter of advancement in religious and spiritual knowledge: dharma; artha, economic development; kāma, satisfying the husband for sense gratification; dharma artha kāma; and mokṣa also, also for salvation. The wife is so important. If there is chaste wife, she can help the husband in these four principles of life, dharma artha kāma mokṣa [SB 4.8.41, Cc. Ādi 1.90], dharā samprati hetutā. If we can train up nice wife, or the society trains the girls to become nice wife, she becomes a great source of energy to the husband. Dharma-artha-kāma-mokṣāḥ dharā sampra.... And if they are polluted, they become source of the saṅkara, varṇa-saṅkara.
The exact example of varṇa-saṅkara is the hippies at the present moment. All over the world, not only in the Western countries but in India also. So the population, hippie population means saṅkara population. So increase of such population means narakāyaiva, naraka, hellish, hellish condition of life in this life, also in the next life. At that time, to live, actually we have practically seen in recent years, especially in Calcutta, it has become a hellish life. The population, the younger generation, is so polluted, so contaminated, that you cannot safely walk in the street. Anywhere, the young boys they can encircle you and rob you. You cannot say on. The police cannot help, the government cannot help. So these unwanted children, without being trained up in the varṇāśrama system, they become the cause of hellish life in this life also after death. After death according to Vedic regulations, piṇḍa-udaka, piṇḍa, offering Viṣṇu prasāda and water at least once in a year it is required by the family members. And according to Vedic culture, there is one month fixed up in a year when all people will offer piṇḍa and udaka to the forefathers. Tarpana, tarpana. Week or fortnight, for one fortnight. So the idea is that if the forefather in the family has not achieved a proper life... Sometimes due to sinful activities, too much attachment, a man becomes ghost. Ghost, there is ghosts. Bhūta preta piśāca. Not only this life, demonic life, but after death also, there are ghostly lives. They do not get this gross body. They remain in the subtle body, mind, intelligence, and ego. Due to their gross sinful life, they are punished by not getting a gross life. Because without getting a gross life, we cannot enjoy. With mind, I cannot enjoy rasagullā. I must have the tongue, I must have the hand, fingers, I can pick up, then... In the mind, I may think of eating or collecting rasagullā, but actually I do not get the taste. So gross body is required, because every living entity in this material world, they have come to enjoy. Kṛṣṇa bhuliyā jīva bhoga vāñchā kare pāśāte māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare. This is the beginning of our material life. When we forget to render service to Kṛṣṇa, immediately we get a material body offered by the material nature.
So this gross body is required for enjoyment. Spirit, spiritual body is also very subtle, and the astral body, or subtle body, is also very subtle. The gross body required. So on account of one's severe sinful life, he does not get this gross body. Therefore the lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyā [Bg. 1.41]. Taking for granted that some of my forefathers have become ghostly life and has not got the gross body, so by this piṇḍodaka... Piṇḍa means offering prasāda of Viṣṇu prasāda. Still in India there is a place Gayā. There is Viṣṇu temple, and it is a custom all Hindus... Nowadays, they do not go. They do not believe even. They have given up everything. Due to unwanted children, they don't care for it, what is family, what is piṇḍa-udaka. Simply eat, drink, be merry, and enjoy, that's all. But you see 5000 years, Arjuna... Arjuna was not a brāhmaṇa, neither a sannyāsī. A gṛhastha, householder, and a, in royal order. He's on the battlefield. He's not a Vedantist. But just see how his knowledge is perfect. This is Vedic culture. One may not be a brāhmaṇa. Brāhmaṇa is very advanced. Satya śama dama titikṣa [Bg. 18.42]. But even kṣatriyas, they are also so advanced, so advanced we can see that he is hearing Bhagavad-gītā from Kṛṣṇa in the battlefield. How much time you can spare in the battlefield? The talk took place between the two soldiers when he was just going to throw his arrow. Śāstra sampate. Just we going to... He became very compassionate: "Kṛṣṇa, I have to kill my own kinsmen." And he's describing. He's describing, "What kind of sinful activities I am going to do." So just try to understand how much people were advanced. These Bhagavad-gītā talks took place between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna in the battlefield just on the verge of his beginning the battle. So how much time he could spare? Utmost, half an hour. Not more than that. So within half an hour, this Bhagavad-gītā was taught to Arjuna, and he could understand it, and then he agreed to fight. Yes, naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā, kariṣye vacanaṁ tava. [Bg. 18.73] How much advanced he was in education and learning, just imagine. At the present moment they are reading Bhagavad-gītā years after years, big, big scholars, big, big theologians and... But they cannot understand. After reading Bhagavad-gītā, they are accusing Kṛṣṇa as immoral. One professor in Oxford University, he is a student or professor of Bhagavad-gītā, has written book. Now his conclusion is that Kṛṣṇa is immoral. That means he could not understand Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā cannot be understood by any demon or third-class man. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā. Kṛṣṇa said to Arjuna that: "I am speaking to you the same Bhagavad-gītā [Bg. 4.1], science of God, which I spoke millions of years ago to the sun-god, because the paramparā is lost and I have picked up you because bhakto 'si me priyo 'si [Bg. 4.3], you are very dear friend and bhakta."
So Bhagavad-gītā is not meant for the demons or the abhaktas. The first condition is that he must be a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Then it will be revealed. Otherwise it is not possible. Nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samāvṛitaḥ [Bg. 7.25]. Na māṁ duṣkṛtino mūḍhā prapadyante narādhamāḥ [Bg. 7.15]. These things are there. So if one is devotee of Kṛṣṇa, he can understand Bhagavad-gītā very easily. Just like Arjuna understood within half an hour. Others, they cannot understand. In one sense, the people at that time were so educated, advanced, that they could talk about the Absolute Truth and understand within half an hour, one hour. There was no need of books in those days. People were so sharp memoried. Once heard from the spiritual master they'll never forget. With the advancement of Kali, so many things will reduce. One of them is the memory will be reduced. People will be weaker. There will be no more mercy. The brain will not be so powerful or sharp. These things are described. So we cannot even imagine what kind of brain Arjuna possessed. Another thing, this Bhagavad-gītā is part of Mahābhārata. And the Mahābhārata was written for strī-śūdra-dvija-bandhūnāṁ trayi na śruti-gocarāḥ [SB 1.4.25]. Strī, woman, strī, śūdra and dvija-bandhu. Dvija-bandhu means a person born in high family, brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, at least brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, but he's not qualified brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya. He's called dvija-bandhu, the friend of the twice-born. The brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, they are twice-born. One birth is father and mother; another birth is by the spiritual master, by Vedic knowledge. The Vedic knowledge is mother and the spiritual master is the father. So the second birth. Therefore, they are called dvija, twice born. So dvija-bandhūnām, those who are not actually twice born but born in the family of dvijas. Therefore they are called dvija-bandhu, "not dvija, friends of the dvijas." Dvija-bandhu. One may become a friend of the dvija. One may become a son of a high-court judge, but that does not mean he's also high-court judge. But now they are taking: "Because my father is brāhmaṇa, therefore I am brāhmaṇa." No. That was not accepted. Your father may be brāhmaṇa, but if you are not qualified brāhmaṇa, you cannot be called a brāhmaṇa. You can be called dvija-bandhu. So this Mahābhārata was written: strī-śūdra-dvija-bandhūnāṁ trayi na śruti gocarāḥ [SB 1.4.25]. Woman and dvija-bandhu and the śūdras, it is very difficult for them to understand the Vedic literatures directly, because they have no advanced knowledge or education. Therefore the same thing. The Vedic knowledge was described in the Mahābhārata. Because it is history. Everyone is interested to read history. So through history, the Vedic knowledge was imparted. Therefore, Mahābhārata is called the fifth Vedas. There are four Vedas, Sama, Yajur, Ṛk, Atharva. And Mahābhārata is fifth Veda. They are meant for this stri, śūdra, dvija-bandhu. So Bhagavad-gītā is within the Mahābhārata. So actually it was meant for the less intelligent class of men. But, at the present moment, the highest intelligent class of men cannot understand. Just see the difference. Formerly, 5000 years, this was meant for the less intelligent class of men, and we have deteriorated so much that the so-called highest intelligent class of men cannot understand this Bhagavad-gītā. And he is posted as the professor in the Oxford University.
So this class of men are leading the society. The third-class, fourth-class men, they are leaders. Andhā yathāndhair upanīyamānāḥ [SB 7.5.31]. So now we are talking with so many big, big persons, guests, coming daily. But actually, we can see how much the third-class, fourth-class men, practically blind, they are leading the society. That we can understand. Therefore, the social order is... Just like Arjuna is describing here, saṅkaro narakāyaiva kula-ghnānāṁ kulasya ca [Bg. 1.41]. Who knows this? Who knows this science, that saṅkaro narakāyaiva, if you produce unwanted hellish condition? Who is caring for that? The world is in hellish condition, we can perceive, but they are trying in a different way. They want to remain demons; at the same time, they want to become leaders. So at the present moment, comparing the social status 5000 years ago... According to Darwin's theory, 5000 years ago, men were uncivilized, uncivilized. Now this literature is written by uncivilized men. Just see. So highly intellectual writings, they were uncivilized. Now they have become civilized. That is Darwin's theory. We are now making progress. So Arjuna said that patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ [Bg. 1.41]. Piṇḍodaka. In Calcutta, there was a big scientist. His name was Sarpisirat. He was speaking in a, he was atheist number one, he was speaking that: "This piṇḍodaka, by offering piṇḍa, prasāda and water, it will go to my forefather. So just give me to eat downstairs whether I can eat upstairs?" This reasoning. But he does not know that how much there are different types of eating. They do not know there is eating in the subtle body also. The ghosts also, they eat. But the method is different. So even a big scientist speak like that, then how the ordinary people...? Yad yad ācarati śreṣṭhaḥ, lokas tad anuvartate [Bg. 3.21]. If the so-called advanced in education they speak so irresponsibly, naturally, others will follow. Therefore, at the present moment, the whole generation is covered with ignorance and darkness. No clear knowledge. And without clear knowledge, whatever we do... Just like in darkness, whatever we act, that is simply embezzlement. That's all. It is not very correctly understood. Therefore we have no correct knowledge, no correct activities, and, and the result is narakayaiva. So you can read next verse.
Translation: "Due to the evil deeds of the destroyers of family tradition, all kinds of community projects and family welfare activities are devastated."
Prabhupāda: So jāti-dharma. Jāti, nowadays it has been taken as "national." But here, jāti-dharma means...Just like one is born in brāhmaṇa jāti, kṣatriya jāti, vaiśya jāti, śūdra jāti. So each jāti, they have got different types of responsibilities. So when the unwanted children, irresponsible children, they do not follow any more the tradition, the family tradition, or jāti-dharma, so they create a class of population in the varṇa-saṅkara. So everything becomes topsy-turvy, hellish condition. And actually it has so happened. Now there is no more jāti-dharma. Everyone is engaged somehow or other to fill up the belly. Formerly, formerly there was stricture. The brāhmaṇas, the kṣatriyas, and the vaiśyas, these three higher castes, there were certain restrictions. The brāhmaṇa would not do this or the brāhmaṇa must do this. So that is called jāti-dharma. A brāhmaṇa cannot accept service from anywhere. I have discussed many times. A kṣatriya also cannot. And vaiśya cannot. Only the śūdra can become servant of others. Paricaryātmakaṁ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāva-jam [Bg. 18.44]. So, at the present moment, nobody can observe the strict rules and regulations, that "I am born in a brāhmaṇa family. I cannot accept anyone's service." Then you will have to starve. Because he has no brahminical capacity... By education, by culture, he's a śūdra, although falsely he's claiming that he is a brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya. So his jāti-dharma, family tradition, family rituals, everything is lost due to this unwanted children. Unwanted children make everything topsy-turvy. So Arjuna is visualizing all the future calamities. But there is one remedy. It is a fact that jāti-dharma we have lost. No more we can be called strictly following the jāti-dharma. No more can one present himself strictly as a brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya. Everything is lost now, by the influence of Kali-yuga. And varṇa-saṅkara. So there is only one remedy, only one remedy. That is stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Eleventh Canto:
We must admit that we have created hellish condition of society by producing unwanted children, and disobeying the jāti-dharma or kula-dharma. That one has to admit, everyone. So what is the remedy? Only remedy is to surrender to Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is canvassing that: "Even you can give up your jāti-dharma, but simply surrender unto Me. I shall give you protection."
There is another verse in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: tyaktvā sva-dharmān caraṇāmbujaṁ harer [SB 1.5.17]. Sva-dharma. Sva-dharma means jāti-dharma. So I may be born in a brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya, so I have got sva-dharma. A kṣatriya or brāhmaṇa has got his own regulative principles. So Bhāgavata, Nārada says, Bhāgavata says and Nārada says that if one has given up his jāti-dharma..., because Kṛṣṇa is asking: sarva-dharmān parityajya [Bg. 18.66]. Sarva-dharma means this sva-dharma, jāti-dharma, or so many other dharmas man created for the nice keep-up of the society. Just like we create even in the modern world so many rules and regulations. Take for example that one must keep to the left. Just to keep order in the society. There are so many things. So jāti-dharma, kula-dharma is also like that. Spiritually, it has no value. It, it can help one to be elevated on the spiritual platform. But spiritual advancement does not depend on this jāti-dharma or kula-dharma. It does not depend. Even without following the rules and regulations of jāti-dharma and kula-dharma one can become advanced in spiritual life. Ahaitukī apratihatā. If one is serious to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, then all these material impediments cannot check him. Anyone can become. Sat, sat śva-paco... There is a... What is called? Mantra-tantra-viśārada, avaiṣṇavo gurur na syāt vaisnavaḥ śva-paco guruḥ. One is very expert in jāti-dharma, but if he's not a Vaiṣṇava, if he's not a devotee of Lord Viṣṇu... Vaiṣṇava means visnur yasya devatā one who has accepted... There are many demigods, devatās. So sometimes they are advised that: "If you want this result, then you worship this demigod." Just like it is said that if you want a beautiful wife, so you worship Umā. Umā, the wife of Lord Śiva, she is very beautiful. So similarly, if you want learning then you worship such and such demigod. If you want money, then you worship such and such demigod. These are there, I mean to say orders in the Vedic literature. But if you want to get relief from this material condition of life, then you have to take the shelter of Viṣṇu, Vaiṣṇava. Or the śāstra says even if you have got other desires to fulfill, still you become Vaiṣṇava. That is the last instruction. You don't require to worship other demigods. In the Bhagavad-gītā also it is said kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ yajanty anya-devatā [Bg. 7.20]. If one is bewildered on account of lusty desires, they go to different demigods for begging some benefit. So they are hṛta-jñāna. Hṛta-jñāna means lost of intelligence. If Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme, so suppose if you want some material happiness, can He not give you? He can give you also. So why should you bother about other demigods? Therefore, it is said kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñāna. If Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Lord, so if I have got some desires, material desires... Actual bhakti means minus all material... Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam [Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.11]. One must be freed from all material desires. But even if you have got some material desire, still you can take shelter of Kṛṣṇa. You don't require to take shelter of other demigods. So that is the last instruction in the Vedic literature.
Akāma means devotee. Devotees have no desire. They have got desire just to become devotee of Kṛṣṇa. That is natural desire. If the son desires that: "I shall be obedient son of my father," that is natural desire. Or the son desires that: "I shall depend on my father, and I shall be happy," that kind of desire is natural desire. Similarly, if one desires that: "I shall become a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa," that is natural desire. But when I desire to lord it over the material nature and forget my service to Kṛṣṇa, that is called vāsanā. That is material desire, abhilāṣa. So we have to give up these material desires. Then it is bhakti. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñānaṁ karmādy anāvrtam anukūlyena kṛṣṇa... [Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.11].
So even if we have violated the jāti-dharma and kula-dharma... That is a fact. We have done so. There is no denying this fact. Every one of us, we have done that. Then what is the next duty or remedy? Because we have violated everything. So that, for that purpose, in the Bhāgavata gives you direction. Here is the verse: devarṣi-bhūtāptaṁ nṛṇāṁ pitṝṇām [SB 11.5.41]. Pitṛ, pitṛ piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ. So we are obliged to offer piṇḍa and water to the pitṛs. But here is an, what is called, an outlet. Devarṣi, we are indebted to the devatās. Ṛṣis, we are indebted to the great sages. Devarṣi, devarṣi bhūtānām. We are indebted to so many other living entities, bhūtānām, and nṛṇāṁ. We are also indebuted to the human society. Nṛṇāṁ, pitṝṇām. We are indebted to the pitṛs, forefather. Pitṝṇām. So na kiṅkarā nāyam ṛṇī ca rājan. One becomes freed from the servitude of all these personalities, devarsi-bhūtāpta nṛṇāṁ pitṝṇām [SB 11.5.41]. How he can become? Sarvātmā yaḥ śaraṇaṁ śaraṇyam. One who has fully surrendered unto the lotus feet of the Lord, śaraṇyam. Śaraṇyam means here is the real place where one can surrender fully. Others, if I surrender to a cats and dogs, what he will help me? Therefore they are not śaraṇyam. But, by mistake, if they take shelter of such cats and dogs, what benefit they will get? Therefore śaraṇyam, the worthwhile surrender is to the lotus feet of Mukunda. Therefore it is said, sarvātmā yaḥ śaraṇaṁ śaraṇyaṁ gato mukundaṁ parihṛtya kartum [SB 11.5.41]. We have got so many duties, but in this age, we have lost everything. Therefore, our only duty is to surrender unto the lotus feet of Mukunda, Kṛṣṇa. That will save us. Kṛṣṇa says—it is not story—Kṛṣṇa says ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi [Bg. 18.66]. "I know that you have violated your family tradition, your past regulations, everything you have done for which you are to be punished, sinful activities, but I give you assurance, if you surrender unto Me, then ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi. I shall give you deliverance from all the reactions of sinful activities." Therefore at the present moment, because we have lost all culture, we have done so many sinful activities, if we want to be saved, it is, the only remedy is to surrender to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, and thus become saved.
Thank you very much. (end)
730730BG.LON
Bhagavad-gītā 1.43

London, July 30, 1973
Pradyumna (leads chanting, etc.):
Translation: "O Kṛṣṇa, maintainer of the people, I have heard by disciplic succession that those who destroy family traditions dwell always in hell."
Prabhupāda: So family tradition, whose family tradition? Manuṣyāṇāṁ. Family... Manuṣyāṇāṁ, those who are human being, they have got family and family rituals, kula-dharma, jāti-dharma. Just like cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. This is meant for the human being, manuṣyāṇāṁ, not for the animals. So unless the human society accepts this principle of varṇāśrama-dharma ordained by Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Lord, he is not considered amongst the human being. They are as good as animals because there is no regular, systematic principles of how to live, a human being. Therefore in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa... When Caitanya Mahāprabhu was talking with Rāmānanda Raya, so Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired, "What is the actual aim of life?" Sādhya-sādhana [Cc. Madhya 8.118]. Sādhya and sādhana. "What is the aim?" Sādhya means what for this human form of life we have got. That is called sādhya, the goal, the goal of life. And sādhana. Sādhana means the activity by which we can attain, we can achieve that goal of life. This is called sādhya-sādhana. The Darwin theory, although they are giving some idea of progressive evolution, but he does not know what is the goal of life, why this progress is there. That these rascals they do not know. Simply just imagining, taking some whims from the Padma Purāṇa, Brahmā Vaivarta Purāṇa. Aṣitiṁś catvarāṁś caiva, jīva-jātiṣu, lakṣāṁs tān jīva-jātiṣu. There are 8,400,000 types of jīva-jātis. Aṣitiṁś catvarāṁś caiva lakṣāṁs tān jīva-jātiṣu. So this is already there. Brahmādbhiḥ. In this way the living entity is wandering in the cycle of transmigration of the soul. So from this, Mr. Darwin might have taken some hints, but he could not explain properly. He could not catch up that brahmādbhiḥ, who is wandering. So it is a chaos.
So anyway, why this living entity is wandering, not fixed up? So there must be some goal. He is hankering after that. There must be some goal of life. To achieve that goal of life that is called sādhya. Why we are struggling here for happiness or something else? We are struggling. So this question was raised by Caitanya Mahāprabhu, that "What is the goal of life?" Unless there is goal of life, why there is struggle? Why... There must be some goal of life, sādhya. And sādhana. Sādhana means the means by which we can achieve that goal of life. That is called sādhana, sādhana. So Rāmānanda Rāya quoted... Because when there is talk between two learned persons, they... Just like nowadays it has become a fashion: "In my opinion," "I think in this way." What, nonsense, what you can think? What is your knowledge? But he is very proud. Everyone like that. The other day, that Sir Alistair? Alistair Hardy came. He also said, "It is my opinion." Nobody thinks that he is a nonsense number one; what is the value of his opinion? Nobody thinks. But this is the Vedic principle. Even Caitanya Mahāprabhu, He, when He was asked by Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī that "You are a sannyāsī. You do not engage Yourself in the study of Vedānta. You are simply chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa." So... Because a sannyāsī is supposed to be always reading Vedānta philosophy especially and all other philosophy. So "What is this, that you are chanting like a sentimental person?" So Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, "Yes, My Guru Mahārāja, spiritual master, saw Me a fool number one." So Caitanya Mahāprabhu, it was known to Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, He was a great learned scholar in His student life. So He is posing Himself as a fool number one. So this is the way. Caitanya-caritāmṛta the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he is presenting himself: purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi sei laghiṣṭha: [Cc. Ādi 5.205] "I am lower than the worm of the stool." Purīṣera kīṭa haite muñi sei laghiṣṭha. Laghiṣṭha means lower, lowest. Jagāi mādhāi haite muñi sei pāpiṣṭha. Jagāi and Mādhāi was taken, they were drunkards, woman hunters. Therefore they were sinful. So Caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe, says that jagāi mādhāi haite muñi sei papiṣṭha. This is the way, nobody think himself as one has become very big man and he has his own opinion to give. This is rascaldom. So everyone should think that "What is my value?" That is really learned, humble and meek. Nobody should think that "Now I have learned everything. I can surpass everyone. I have become above all rules and regulation. Now I have become paramahaṁsa." This is rascaldom. Everyone should always think, "I am fool number one." Therefore the endeavor will go on, to become perfect. If we think that "Now I have become perfect, paramahaṁsa," then the spiritual regulative principles will never be followed, and you will fall down.
So here Arjuna also says that narake niyataṁ vāso bhavati iti anuśuśruma: [Bg. 1.43] "Kṛṣṇa, I have heard it from authorative sources." He never says, "Kṛṣṇa, in my opinion, if it is done like that, then people will go to hell." He does not give his own opinion. He says iti, "Thus," anuśuśruma, "I have heard." This is called paramparā system. Nobody should give his own opinion. He must quote the authoritative statement to support his proposition. So similarly, when Caitanya Mahāprabhu asked that "What is the aim of life and how to achieve it?" so Rāmānanda Rāya, he did not give his own opinion, that "In my opinion, like this." Here also Arjuna says, ity anuśuśruma, "I have heard it." He heard it means... Śuśruma means "heard from authority." So Rāmānanda Rāya said that "Real purpose of life, goal of life, is to satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Just like as we are citizens, what is our duty? We want to satisfy the authority, the government. When one serves the government nicely, in this country he is recognized as knight. He is recognized as earl, as lord, as... So many, they have got titles. Every country, when a person is very exalted citizen, then he is recognized by the government. So if this is the system in our ordinary life, then the aim of life should be to satisfy the supreme governor, or supreme government. It is very common sense. But they have no supreme government. They think, "Whatever government we make, that is final." No. There are so many kingdoms, so many planets. In each planet there is government, there is authority, and above all of them, there is the supreme authority, Kṛṣṇa. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs. 5.1]. This is the śāstric injunction. There are many controller. In this planet there is controller. There is another planet, another planet. Even Brahma is the controller of the whole universe. Just like in our government there is system. One department... Several departments is being managed by another director. Several directors is being managed by another secretary. As... The same system. Kṛṣṇa is the supreme proprietor, sarva-loka-maheśvara [Bg. 5.29], and He has got many secretaries, assistants. They are called Brahmā. So Brahmā means the manager of one brahmāṇḍa, universe. And there are millions of Brahmās, millions, trillions. They are numberless. Ananta-koṭi. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭiḥ [Bs. 5.40]. Koṭi. Koṭi means unlimited. Jagad-aṇḍa. Jagad-aṇḍa means universe. Brahmāṇḍa or jagad-aṇḍa. Aṇḍa. Aṇḍa means it is egg-shaped, round, egg-shaped. Therefore it is called aṇḍa, brahmāṇḍa. Bhū-gola. Gola means round. I have heard that before the science, the people were under the impression that this world is square. Is it not?
Devotees: Flat.
Prabhupāda: Flat. Flat, yes. But in the Vedic śāstra, millions of years ago it is mentioned: bhū-gola. Gola means round. Just see. And these rascals say that formerly people were not so intelligent. They are intelligent because they are thinking that this world is flat. And those who have spoken millions of years ago, "It is round," they will have less intelligence. Just see. Bhū, gola. Gola means round. Bhū-gola. Similarly, jagad-aṇḍa. Abda means round, just like egg. Aṇḍa means egg. Jagad-aṇḍa. This universe is egg-shaped. And we can see also, the sky is round. This is the wall of this universe.
So anyway, so as we are here, in this small government, our business is to satisfy the governor... Suppose if you decry the queen. If you say publicly in a meeting that "Queen is a prostitute." Then what will be? Immediately you will be arrested and punished. In your private house you can say. Nobody will hear. But if you say such thing nonsense in public, immediately you will be criminal. Therefore your duty is to respect the queen, to abide by the orders of the government. That is your aim of good citizenship. What is the difference between good citizen and outlaws? The difference is a good citizen is always trying to satisfy the government by abiding the laws given by the government. So therefore our ultimate goal is to satisfy the supreme government, Kṛṣṇa. Because Kṛṣṇa is the supreme. These universes, they are Kṛṣṇa's kingdom. There are many kingdoms. Just like we have got many universes within this material world, similarly, there are many spiritual planets in the spiritual world. These are common-sense affairs. Why people will not understand? Therefore our business is to satisfy Kṛṣṇa, to become perfect, satisfy Kṛṣṇa. Viṣṇur ārādhyate [Cc. Madhya 8.58]. So how viṣṇur ārādhyate? This is the philosophy. Na te viduḥ svārtha-gatiṁ hi viṣṇum [SB 7.5.31]. Suppose in an office your immediate boss, some superintendent of the office, you follow his orders, although he is not final. Above the superintendent of the office, there is another secretary. Above the secretary, there is one other director. Above the director, there is managing director. These are common-sense things. Similarly there are many, many controllers, but the supreme controller is Kṛṣṇa, or Viṣṇu. So it is common-sense affair that our aim of life is to satisfy the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa. This is common sense. Is there any other reasoning that "Why He should be satisfied?"? No. You have to satisfy.
So this is Vaiṣṇavism. One who wants to satisfy Viṣṇu, he is called Vaiṣṇava. That is Vaiṣṇavism. Viṣṇu means the Supreme Lord. So everything is arranged to satisfy the Lord Viṣṇu. So where from it begins? The cats and dogs, they can be trained up for satisfying Viṣṇu? No, there is no possibility. They are dogs, animals. They are simply busy with four principles of life: eating, sleeping, sex-life and defending. That's all. They cannot be trained up that "You become very obedient to Lord Viṣṇu. Become a devotee." Man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad yājī māṁ namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]. "You become the devotee of Kṛṣṇa." No, that is not possible. Therefore it is said that manuṣyāṇāṁ. Manuṣyāṇāṁ. It is the duty of the manusya, not of the dog. Manuṣyāṇāṁ. Utsanna-kula-dharmānāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana [Bg. 1.43].
So human life has got a great responsibility. If you become like cats and dog, the hippies, then utsanna, everything is destroyed. Utsanna-kula-dharma. They have no family. They don't care for any rules and regulation. Utsanna, everything destroyed. Jaghanya-guṇa-vṛtti-sthaḥ [Bg. 14.18]. No family life, no taking bath, no worship, nothing of... All irresponsible. I have seen it in Amsterdam. What is that park?
Haṁsadūta: Vondal Park.
Prabhupāda: Horrible. Actually this, this, what was spoken by Arjuna five thousand years ago, it is now happening. Utsanna, all destroyed, finished. Kula-dharmānām. No family life. So therefore for human being, it is the duty to understand his position, and it is his duty to satisfy the Supreme Lord. This is the whole plan. Therefore Rāmānanda Rāya quoted the verse from Viṣṇu Purāṇa that varṇāśramācaravatā puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān, viṣṇur ārādhyate [Cc. Madhya 8.58]. Because the aim is to satisfy Viṣṇu, to become Vaiṣṇava. To become brāhmaṇa is also lower status. You will hear from the Caitanya-caritāmṛta that our Mādhavendra Purī, he was installing Deities. So there are many brāhmaṇas, caste brāhmaṇa, born in... So in order to give charge of worship to those brāhmaṇas, he initiated them to become Vaiṣṇava. Because without becoming Vaiṣṇava, nobody has got right to worship Viṣṇu. Viṣṇu will not accept anything from anyone unless he is devotee. And Viṣṇu is poverty-stricken that He has come to take from you? He cannot eat? He has no eating means? No. He agrees to accept our offering just on the basis of love. The Vaiṣṇava loves Viṣṇu, and Viṣṇu agrees to accept any foodstuff. Patraṁ puṣpaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati [Bg. 9.26]. That bhakti is main thing, not your palatable dish. Viṣṇu is quite competent to prepare thousand times better palatable dishes than you can offer. But the real thing is bhakti.
So viṣṇur ārādhaṇam means viṣṇur ār..., that should be the aim of human life. Viṣṇur āradhana means one must become a Vaiṣṇava, and Vaiṣṇava means regulated life, not destroyed everything, finished, to become hogs. That is not Vaiṣṇava. Vaiṣṇava means regulated, end—to, how to satisfy Viṣṇu. So whole Vedic scheme is there, how to satisfy Viṣṇu. Therefore it is said that utsanna kula-dharmānāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ [Bg.