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Bhagavad-gita 18.41

Stockholm, September 7, 1973
To Upsala Student Assembly
I shall try to explain the social structure of the human society as they are described in the Bhagavad-gita. In previous chapters, Sri Krsna has explained: catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah [Bg. 4.13]. By quality and by work, there is, or there must be four divisions of the social structure. Catur-varnyam, first-class, second-class, third-class and fourth-class. That is very natural. Just like in your body, my body is divided into four divisions. The head, head department. In every, I mean to say, unit, there is head department, the first-class department, the second-class department. So we can understand from our own body, there is head department, there is arms department, there is belly department and there is the leg department. So head is first-class. Because if the arms, belly and legs are there and head is cut off, then everything is useless. If the head is there, arm is cut off, you can go on with your business. So there is four divisions everywhere. Krsna says:
Krsna says that either on this planet or in other planets in the outer space, or anywhere, the three qualities or three modes of material nature is working. The modes of goodness, the modes of passion, and the modes of ignorance. Everywhere, you'll find these three classes of living entities. Not three classes, four classes. The first-class, goodness. Second-class, passion, third-class, mixed passion and ignorance, and fourth-class ignorance. And below the fourth class, all fifth class, pancama.
So according to these three modes of material nature, there must be division of the society. The first class men are called brahmana, most learned scholar. Learned scholar means, as I was explaining, one who has complete knowledge of God, that is learned scholar. Otherwise, to know how to eat, how to sleep, how to have sexual intercourse and how to defend, this, these knowledge is also there in the animals. They know how to eat. There is no need of university for teaching how to eat or how to sleep or how to have sex life or how to defend. These are animal necessities. But actually human being should be still more advanced in knowledge. That knowledge is not comprising only eating, sleeping, mating and defending. That knowledge is to understand the Absolute Truth, God. That knowledge.
Therefore, the Vedanta-sutra philosophy, that begins with the word athato brahma jijnasa. Now, this life, this human form of life, is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth. Athato brahma jijnasa. Brahma means the Absolute Truth. So, that should be the subject matter for studying in human form of life. So Bhagavad-gita is the right book to understand about that brahma, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or the Absolute Truth, whatever you call. The Absolute Truth is known in three phases: Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan.
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvam yaj jnanam advayam
brahmeti paramatmeti
bhagavan iti sabdyate
[SB 1.2.11]
The Absolute Truth is one, but it is realized from three angles of visions. Some of them are realizing the Absolute Truth as impersonal Brahman, some of them are realizing the Absolute Truth as the localized Paramatma, and some of them are realizing the Absolute Truth as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Absolute Truth is one, but because we are under different modes of material nature, we are understanding the Absolute Truth in three modes of material nature.
So Krsna says that these three modes of material nature is current all over the universe. Even in the topmost planet down to the lowest planet. Therefore he says: na tad asti prthivyam va divi devesu va punah. Prthivyam means on this earth. Or in the other higher planetary system or even the heavenly planets. Everywhere. Sattvam prakrti-jair muktam. Nowhere, anyone is freed from the influence of these modes of material nature. Sattvam means existence. Sattvam prakrti-jaih. Prakrti-jaih means by the material nature, gunaih, means the modes, this goodness, passion, and ignorance. Yad ebhih syat tribhir gunaih. Everything, everywhere, even amongst the plants life, beast life, there these three gunas are working.
Just like some trees, they're useless. Neither produce any nice fruit nor flower. That is third-class, in ignorance. In animals also. Just like cows, they are first-class animal, in the modes of goodness, supplying so valuable nutritious food, milk. But the cats and dogs, they are third-class animals. This is the calculation of the three modes of material nature. Either human being or animals or trees, birds, everywhere Krsna says, or in the higher planetary system, everywhere, these three modes of material nature is working. Therefore, in the human society, because there are three modes of material nature, the classification should be made scientifically according to these three modes of material nature. And that is explained by Bhagavan, Sri Krsna, in the Bhagavad-gita, catur-varnyam maya srstam: [Bg. 4.13] four classes of men. Brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra. Brahmana means the most intelligent class of men who can understand even up to the knowledge of Brahman, brahma janati iti brahmana. And the second class are the ksatriyas or the administrative class of men, and the third-class are the mercantile class of men, industrialists, traders, agriculturalists. Everything will be explained. And the fourth-class men means workers. They have no intelligence, but they find out some good master and get some money. That's all. So there are four classes. So here Krsna says,
According to the modes of material nature, the brahmana should be selected, the ksatriya should be selected, the vaisyas or the mercantile people should be selected, and the sudras, the worker class, should be selected.
Then Krsna says, that how the brahminical class should be educated. This should be taken very seriously by educational department of all countries. And it is the duty of the government to see that every man according to his quality is working, is employed. Not that... Secular state does not mean they should be callous about the quality and work of the citizens. There must be department of practical psychology to see the students, in which class he belongs to. Either he belongs to the first-class, brahmana class, or second-class, the ksatriya class, administrator class, and the third-class, mercantile, or business man, and the fourth-class, sudras, worker. If education is given according to the quality and position, then there will be complete system in the whole human society. Take the same example. Just like your body, if your head is working nicely, if your hand is working nicely, if your stomach is working nicely, if your leg is working nicely, then the whole body is to be considered as healthy and working nicely. If any part of this body, either head, leg, or arms or belly, does not work nicely, then the whole body becomes diseased. So that is the instruction of Krsna, Bhagavad-gita. That... Not that...
Now there is a hobby that classless society. Classless society cannot be. That is not possible. So long you are in the material world there must be classes. By nature, there is. Just like even in birds, there are a class of birds known as the crows and there is a class of birds which are called the swans. The swans will try to reside in a place where there is very clean water, flowers, good trees, nice arrangement parking. So they will flock there. Birds of the same feather flock together. And the crows, the will flock... In your country you don't find many crows, but in India there are many crows. They go to the place where all garbages are there. They'll enjoy there. So there is division actually, taste. But one thing is, that the human form of body, although there is natural such division, but one can be raised to the higher position by this Krsna consciousness movement. So far material body is concerned, you cannot change the quality. This is already. One has got the particular type of body by nature's arrangement according to the quality. According to the quality. Now, if you want to change him to the better quality, then you have to accept this Krsna consciousness. Because Krsna consciousness is on the spiritual platform. It has nothing to do with the material platform. From the material platform, you cannot change anyone's quality.
For example, I can tell you, practical example, in United States, America, the government is spending millions of dollars to stop this intoxication habit, LSD habit. Many responsible government officers, they have given us certificate. But they could not control. But in our Krsna consciousness movement, anyone who is coming, even though coming from the LSD-addicted society, still, as soon as he comes to our society he gives us not only LSD or any intoxication, he gives up even drinking tea, coffee and smoking cigarette. You can at once check. Because our principle is: anyone who wants to join seriously this Krsna consciousness movement, just like these boys, they have joined, our first condition is that one must give up these four prohibited things: no illicit sex, no gambling, no meat-eating, no intoxication. So that is being possible. Although they are habituated to all these things from their very beginning of life, but as soon as they take to Krsna consciousness activities, they give up these habits very easily.
So if, practically, the world wants classless society, then one has to take this Krsna consciousness movement. Then there will be classless society. We have got in our society boys and girls from various parts of the world. There are Africans, there are Indians, there are Canadians, Englishmen, American, Australian, but they have forgotten that he is Englishmen or American or Australian or black or white or Indian. No. They have forgotten. They are simply interested in Krsna consciousness. This is the importance of the movement. If you want classless society, actually pure, without any contamination of these material modes of nature, then this Krsna consciousness movement is the prime movement. That is the definition of Krsna consciousness movement, sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam, hrsikena [Cc. Madhya 19.170], anukulyena krsnanusilanam bhaktir uttama [Cc. Madhya 19.167]. Bhakti, devotional service, first-class devotional service can be achieved when one is freed from all designations. So long one feels designated that "I am American," "I am Indian," "I am Englishmen," "I am German," "I am black," "I am white," and, no. You have to feel yourself. Not feeling, practically, training that I am spirit soul, I am eternal part and parcel of the Supreme Lord. When you come to this position, this is called sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Freed from all designation. These are, the bodily identification is designation.
Just like you are sitting here, so many boys and girls in different dress. Some is dressed in black coat or some in white coat or red coat. If I ask you what you are, if you say "I am black coat," or somebody says, "I am white coat," that is not your identification. Similarly, we living entities, we are neither American or Indian nor African nor Englishman. We are all spirit soul. That is our position. Aham brahmasmi. This is perfect knowledge. Aham brahmasmi, I am spirit soul. When you come to this understanding, aham brahmasmi, sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam [Cc. Madhya 19.170], then your position will be different from this material understanding. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma [Bg. 18.54]. Prasannatma means jubilant. You'll find all our boys and girls, they're always jubilant. Unless they are jubilant, they cannot dance in this way. It is not dancing dogs. They are not dancing dogs. They're feeling jubilant, and therefore they are dancing. This is the position of brahma-bhutah prasannatma [Bg. 18.54]. Prasannatma, unless one is very satisfied he cannot be jubilant. He should be morose, he cannot dance, he cannot chant. That's a fact. So this is sign of brahma-bhutah. Without any material designation. Brahma-bhutah. Everything is there in the Bhagavad-gita. If you study carefully you'll understand everything. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma na socati na kanksati [Bg. 18.54]. How one is jubilant? When one is freed from all anxieties. What are these anxieties? Anxieties mean if I lose something, then I will lament, and if I haven't got anything, something, then I hanker after it.
So far we are concerned, we have no business, we have no profession. We do not know what we shall eat tomorrow. Or in the evening. We are in such a position. But we have no anxiety. You can see practically. We have no anxiety that "what shall I eat in the evening, what shall I eat tomorrow, there is no bank balance, there is no money." No. There is no anxiety. We know certain that as soon as we go, chant Hare Krsna, Krsna will send us everything. That is actually a fact. If you study our activities, you'll see practically it is so. Na socati na kanksati. We have no hankering, no lamentation. Suppose we have got thousand dollars, and somebody takes away. It happens so. Somebody comes and mixes with us and takes away some money. So we are not very much sorry for that. We think: Krsna gave us, and Krsna has taken away. It doesn't matter. Na socati na kanksati. Brahma-bhutah prasannatma na socati kanksati samah sarvesu [Bg. 18.54]. Equal to all living entities. Our philosophy is not like that, that we give protection to the human being and send the cows to the slaughterhouse. No, that is not our philosophy. Samah sarvesu bhutesu. We think on this subject matter, that if a man is killed, as he's put into so difficult position for being killed, the animal also. They also feel. It is nonsense to think that animal has no soul, no. Everyone has got soul. There are 8,400,000 species or forms of life. Everyone has got soul. Even the ant has got soul, or the elephant has got soul, what to speak of other animals. Everyone, even the trees, birds, beasts, plants, everyone has got soul. And in the Bhagavad-gita Krsna says
The part and parcel of Krsna or God, the soul, is there everywhere. Don't think that simply human being has got soul. This is not very good philosophy, that the animals have no soul. They have got soul. You can practically examine. What is the symptom of possessing soul? First of all try to understand. That is explained in the Bhagavad-gita: avinasi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam: The presence of soul can be perceived when there is consciousness on the body. This is the proof. When you pinch my body, I feel pain, when I pinch your body, you feel pain, when I pinch an animal's body, he also feels pain. Even I pinch even the tree's body he feels pain. It is scientifically proved. Sir Jagadish Candra Bose has proved by machine that when you cut a tree, it feels pain and it is recorded in this statistic machine. So everyone has got the soul. So how you can think...?
When you take the animal to the slaughterhouse for killing, he cries. Why? Because he's feeling pain. He knows that "I'm going to be killed." So there is soul. Soul is there. You don't think that soul is not there: soul is there. Therefore, a Krsna conscious person who has realized God, he is samah sarvesu bhutesu, he's equal to all living entities. He'll feel pain even for cutting a tree. He'll feel pain, he'll feel pain even he traverses over an ant. There is a story that one hunter, he was killing in the forest all kinds of animals and he was killing them half. So they were suffering too much severe pain. So Narada Muni was going in that way. He saw that these animals have been half killed, and they are so much suffering. Who is doing that? So he searched out the hunter. He requested, "Sir you are killing the animals, why don't you kill them all at a time? Why you are killing half? They are suffering. You'll have to suffer in that way." The hunter did not know that killing animals is sinful and he has to suffer again. So he said, "Sir, I am trained like this by my father. This is my profession. I do not know what is sin, but this is the first time I am hearing from you that killing this animal, especially in this way, is very much sinful."
So because he saw a saintly person, he got his sense. He asked him that "How I can get rid of this sinful life?" So Narada Muni suggested, that "I shall give you the way how you can become free from this sinful life." So he made him a disciple and asked him to chant this Hare Krsna mantra and sit down on the bank of the Ganges, and the hunter said, "Sir where shall I get my food?" Narada Muni said, "I'll send you, don't bother. I'll send you food." So the village people, when they understood that the hunter has become a saintly person, so everyone used to come and see him. Somebody was bringing some rice, somebody wheat, somebody some sweets, some fruits, some flower. So huge quantity of foodstuff was coming. So in this way, he became a perfect saintly Vaisnava.
Later on, when Narada Muni came to see him, he was coming to receive the spiritual master jumping over the road. So when the hunter, now he becomes Vaisnava, so Narada Muni and his friend, Parvata Muni asked "Why you are jumping?" He said, "Sir, there are so many ants, so I was trying to save their life." The same hunter who was killing animals one time half-dead and was enjoying, is no more interested to kill even an ant. This is called saintly life. Samah sarvesu bhutesu. Samah, equal to all living entities. Not that simply protection should be given to the human being.
And the Communist philosophy also, there are so many defects. They also think of equal rights for everyone but why not for the animals? What right you have got to kill the animals? Similarly, the animal also kill you. So this is not organized society. The organized society should be that there should be first-class men, brahmana. They would give advice to the second-class men, the administrators. And the administrator class of men, they will see that everyone is following the religious principles. And the third class men or the mercantile class of men, they should produce food. Krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava-jam [Bg. 18.44]. You'll find here, I'll read it. So, in this way, there must be classification. Not that everyone is one. No, that cannot be. By nature's division... Just you try to understand from your body. The nature's division is there. Why nature has not made only the head? No leg, no arms. No. They are required. But they should not cooperate. It doesn't matter that one is brahmana, one is ksatriya, one is sudra. Just the same example of the body. The head is there, very important department of this body. But the leg is not unimportant. Although the leg is not as important as the head, still leg is also required. There is necessity. You cannot avoid the leg. Similarly, there should be first-class intelligent men, administrative class of men, mercantile class of men and the worker class of men, but they should cooperate.
Just like in this body, the head, the arms, the belly and the legs, they are cooperating for the proper upkeep of the bodily health. Similarly, if we actually want the human society should be organized, then the intelligent class of men, the administrative class of men, the mercantile class of men, and the worker class of men, they should cooperate for understanding Krsna, or God. Then there will be harmony in the human society. Without God consciousness, everyone will think "I am very important, others are not important. I should be given only protection, not others." No. As soon as you become Krsna conscious, as soon as you become brahma-bhutah, then you'll see samah sarvesu bhutesu. Samah, samah means equality to all kinds of living entities. Not only human being.
How many human beings are there out of 8,400,000 species of life? A few only. Only 400,000 species. This information we get from the sastras, Vedic literature. Bhagavad-gita is the summary of all Vedic literature. Therefore, it is advised here that how the first-class of men should be trained up. How the second-class men should be trained up, how the third-class men should be trained up and how the fourth-class men should be trained up. Not that everyone should become first-class. Even everyone is not first-class, because there is cooperation, there is no distinction between first-class and third-class or fourth-class, the same example. Just like if there is some disease on my leg, it does not mean that I shall neglect, I shall take care of the head only. No. I spend more money to cure the disease of the leg. May not be I don't spend any money for the head. So no part of society is unimportant provided there is cooperation. But there must be division, first-class, second class, third class, fourth-class. There must be division. Without division, as there is division anywhere you go, in office, there are the head department, the directors, they are working in a different atmosphere. There must be division, there is already division, you cannot avoid it. Because the material nature is working in three modes of material nature. So anyone who is in the modes of goodness, he's not equal to the person who is in the modes of ignorance. That is not possible. There is difference, but they should be trained up in such a way that they can cooperate to understand the (this) Absolute Truth. That is first-class society. That is real perfect human society. So here it is said
If you want to train the first-class men then they should be qualified like this. Samah, samah means controlling the senses. Controlling the senses, samah. Damah, controlling the mind. These are very disturbing elements, our senses are very disturbing elements. My eye is dictating, "Please take me to see that naked dance," Yes. "Yes, come on, I'm going." So, the eyes are dictating some way, the tongue is dictating some way, the ear is dictating some way. Therefore, one should be trained up not to be dictated by the senses, but he must be master of the senses. That is called samah. And damah, mind is dictating something. You should not be carried away by the dictation of the mind, but mind should be carried by your dictation. That is called damah. These are the qualities of the first-class man. Not that because I have got some degrees and I'm dictated by my mind and senses. He is not first-class man. He's not first-class man. Because he's the servant of the senses. How he can be first-class man? One must be the master of the senses. Then he is first-class man.
In our, there is one Canakya Pandita, he was a great politician. Perhaps those who have gone to India, New Delhi, there is Canakya-puri where all the ambassadors and foreign diplomats are situated. That Canakya Muni, Canakya Pandita, he was a great learned brahmana and politician. He gave his instruction. So he gives the formula, "Who is a learned scholar?" Who is a learned scholar. He has given three formulas. What is that?
Who is a learned man. He said, "A person who can see all the women of the world, except his wife, as mother." Matrvat-para-daresu. Para-dara means other's wife. If one has learned this art how to see other's wife as mother, and para-dravyesu lostravat, and other's riches, possessions, as garbage in the street. Just like you don't touch the garbage. Similarly, other's property, other's riches, one does not touch or even see to it. And he thinks all woman as mothers except his own wife. And atmavat sarva-bhutesu, and treating everyone equally, as he wants to be treated himself. If by pinching your body or giving pain to your body, if you feel pain, you should not give pain to any living entity. If one has learned these three things: matrvat para-daresu para-dravyesu lostravat atmavat sarva-bhutesu, then he's is learned scholar. It is not that one has got this degree from this university, then he has got. That degree will not help us. Unless one is God consciousness, he cannot have any good qualification. That is the Vedic injunction. Yasyasti bhaktir bhagavaty akincana sarvair gunais tatra samasate surah [SB 5.18.12]. As I have given the example of the hunter: before becoming God conscious, he was a cruel hunter, and after being God conscious, he was not ready to kill even an ant. This is the result. Samah sarvesu bhutesu mad-bhaktim labhate param [Bg. 18.54]. Then he's entered in the devotional service of the Lord. Not abruptly one can become devotee. The symptoms must be there, the qualities must be there. Suppose if somebody comes and says, "I am very rich man." So I shall have to see his symptoms, whether he has got a nice car, nice dress, or, there are so many symptoms. Similarly, simply by speaking that "I am God conscious" will not do. These are the symptoms:
Bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah [Bg. 18.55]. The God can be realized only by the devotees who have got all these good qualities. These good qualities already mentioned, samah sarvesu bhutesu. That is God consciousness. God consciousness does not mean that I shall be protected, I shall be happy, and let others be unhappy. Let them go to hell. Never mind. No. That is not God consciousness. Therefore, in order to become perfectly God conscious, the first-class men must be there in the society. And that first-class man is described here, samo damas tapah: he is able to control the mind, he is able to control the senses, tapah, he has undergone austerities, tapah. Saucam, he is always clean, outside and inside, saucam ksantih, always peaceful, arjavam, simplicity, and jnanam, full of knowledge, vijnanam, practical application of knowledge in life, jnanam vijnanam astikyam, and firmly convinced about the existence of the Supreme Lord. These are the qualification of the first-class man. Brahma-karma svabhava-jam. These are the qualities.
So there should be educational department to create first-class men by all these qualities. How to become controller of the mind, how to become controller of the senses, how to become cleansed, bahyabhyantaram, inside clean and outside clean. Saucam, titiksa, how to become tolerant, tolerant. One should be not agitated by a single cause. Tolerant, and similarly, simplicity. He should be so simple. It is said simplicity: even the enemy inquires from him some secret thing, he'll say, "Yes, it is like this." Simplicity. And jnanam full knowledge. Full knowledge, what is this world, what I am, what is my relation with this world, what is God, what is my relation with God. Everything full knowledge. And vijnanam, vijnanam means completely application of the knowledge of life. And astikyam, astikyam means full faith in transcendental literature, that is called also astikyam, and full faith in the existence of the Supreme Lord. Astik... These are the brahminical qualifications. So those who are claiming to become first-class, learned men in the society, they must have all these qualifications. This is Bhagavad-gita's teaching. The second-class man, what is that?
Administrator class. Ksatriya, ksatriya means those who are in the governmental power. They should be sauryam, very powerful, and very influential. Sauryam tejah. Nowadays, without seeing these qualifications, a third-class, fourth-class man is voted, and therefore we find out that Mr. Nixon, he's attacked now so many... Because he has no ksatriya qualification. These are the ksatriya qualification, administrator. Saucam, sauryam tejo dhrtih. He must be determined, daksyam, he must very expert, yuddhe capy apalayanam, and he should not flee away from fighting. When there is... Nowadays, when there is... the politicians and diplomats, they sit down very safely in their room and poor people, they are, by force, sent to fight. This is not ksatriya, this is not administration. The ksatriya is, he must come forward first of all. Then others will follow. Yuddhe capy apalayanam. And danam, he must be very charitable. That is another qualification of the administrator. Isvara-bhavas ca, and the governing spirit. These are the ksatram karma svabhava-jam. Similarly, this is second class.
The third-class means krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam vaisya-karma svabhava-jam [Bg. 18.44]. Third-class means mercantile traders. They should produce food, enough krsi, agricultural products, and go-raksya. Now we see instead of go-raksya... Go-raksya means protection to the cows. Instead of protection to the cows, they are killing the cows. How you can have perfect society? Cows must be protected. It is so important animal. It is giving the you nectarean food milk, and from milk, you can save your children, you can save your diseased persons. And how it is that you take the cow's milk and send it for slaughterhouse. Oh, this is not, not at all human civilization. Here it is said go-raksya. You should give all protection to this important animal. Krsna does not say that you should protect the pigs and hogs or other animals. He especially meant the cows because cow is very important animal to the human society. If there are meat-eaters, they can kill other animals, but they should not kill the cow. This is, if you want actually perfect society. Krsi-go-raksya-vanijyam [Bg. 18.44]. And these persons, they let them produce enough food grains, and where there is no, there is scarcity of food grain, let them supply there. That is called trade. Vanijyam. Vanijyam.
But at the present moment, there are so many countries, they can produce profuse quantity of food grain. Sometimes they do it and throw it in the ocean for what is called, economic balance. This is not good. Everyone should produce enough quantity of food grains, and if there is shortage, they should send there. In this way, the whole world should cooperate. There is United Nations, but what they are doing? Let them study Bhagavad-gita, how to make United Nations. That will be perfect. Not these short-sighted men, with politics and diplomacy in the heart, they can bring all the nations united. That is not possible. Let them discuss Bhagavad-gita. Let them discuss how perfect society can be established. Then there will be peace. And vaisya-karma svabhava-jam.
And paricaryatmakam karma sudrasyapi svabhava-jam [Bg. 18.44]. And those who are not intelligent, to be trained up as a brahmana or a ksatriya or a vaisya. The fourth class men, let them work these three other classes, let them work. Paricaryatmakam karma sudrasyapi svabhava-jam. In this way the human society should be divided into four divisions, they should cooperate, and they should be trained up. Not a single man should remain unemployed. He must be engaged in some employment as a brahmana, as a ksatriya, as a sudra or as a vaisya. Otherwise, idle brain will be devil's workshop. Therefore, in spite of so much educational propaganda in the Western countries, the young men are coming to become hippies. Because there is no proper training. Here is the hint, Bhagavad-gita gives you. You train the students in that way, then there will be perfect society. Thank you very much. Hare Krsna. (end)

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