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Bhagavad-gita 13.18

Bombay, October 12, 1973
Pradyumna: "He is the source of light in all luminous objects. He is beyond the darkness of matter and is unmanifested. He is knowledge, He is the object of knowledge, and He is the goal of knowledge. He is situated in everyone's heart."
Prabhupada: You have recited the word meaning?
Pradyumna: Yes Srila Prabhupada.
Jyoti. Jyoti means light. There are different types of light. There is lamp. There is candle. There is electric bulb. The power also, they are different powers: one hundred powers, fifty powers, twenty-five... There are different grades of jyoti. But there is supreme jyoti.
Just like this moon. The moon. This night is full moon. This moon has got its illumination, but wherefrom this illumination comes? It comes from the sunshine. The sunshine is reflected on the moon, and the moon has become illuminating source. Just like in a mirror when there is reflection of the sunshine, the mirror can also reflect another dark place, not independently. Everyone... In childhood everyone has played with a mirror. Just put a mirror in front of the sunshine, and the reflection is there, and you can pass on the reflection in the darkest place and it will be illuminated. Have you got experience? Yes. Similarly, neither the mirror has got reflection, neither the dark place can be illuminated by the mirror. But when the sunshine is there on the mirror, the mirror acts as illuminating agent, and it dissipates the darkness of a corner. So sunshine is the source of all light.
In the material world we have got experience that sunshine, jyoti, prakasa... But wherefrom the sunshine comes? Sunshine is also a reflection of another jyoti, or illumination. That illumination is called brahmajyoti. And wherefrom that brahmajyoti emanates? That emanates from Krsna. Just like the sunshine is emanation from the sun globe, and the sun globe is fiery, illuminated, on account of the persons within the sun globe. They have got some bodily rays. That rays is emanating from their body. Therefore the whole sun planet looks like fiery planet. And from there the illumination comes, and it is reflecting on the moon, and the moon is illuminating the whole dark night. This is called purnima. So one is borrowing the illumination from the other. But there is the supreme source of illumination. That is Krsna.
That is confirmed in the Brahma-samhita: yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Yasya prabha, the bodily rays of Krsna, being illuminated... In that illumination, which is called brahmajyoti, there are innumerable Vaikuntha planets. The Vaikuntha are self-illuminated. Therefore in the spiritual world there is no darkness. Tamasah param. Therefore is said here that taj jyotis tamasah param ucyate: "That spiritual world is beyond this material world." This material world is called tamah. Tamah means darkness. Just like this night, it is darkness. Why it is darkness? By nature it is dark. Simply by the sunshine, moonshine, electricity, we keep it brightened for some time. Otherwise, by nature it is darkness.
Similarly, there is another world, paras tasmat tu bhavah anyah [Bg. 8.20], another cosmic manifestation, spiritual manifestation, where there is no need of sunshine. Na tad bhasayate suryo na sasanko na pavakah [Bg. 15.6]. There is no need of sunshine. There is no need of moonshine as here in this darkness, material world. There is arrangement by God to illuminate the darkness of this world. There is sun; there is moon; there is electricity; there is fire. But in the spiritual world, which is tamasah param, which is beyond this darkness of this material world, there is jyoti.
Therefore here it is said, jyotisam api taj jyotih, param. There are different kinds of illumination, sunshine, moonshine, electricity, fire. But that jyoti which is directly emanating from Krsna's body, that is the real jyoti. So on account of Krsna's bodily rays, the whole creation is coming out. That is Krsna's inconceivable power, brahmajyoti. Janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. Athato brahma jijnasa. In the Vedanta-sutra, you have to inquire about that param jyoti, brahmajyoti. And from that param jyoti, everything is coming out. Just like from the sunshine.
What is this material world? This material world is resting on the sunshine. Because the sunshine is there, therefore all the planets are rotating. There is a small machine. You'll find it. As soon as it is heated, within that machine the balls begin to rotate. Similarly, the certain temperature of the sunshine, the whole planetary system is rotating on the orbit, on account of the sunshine. This is scientifically true. And because there is sunshine, there is vegetation, there is water, there is rainfall, and from the rainfall, there is agricultural products.
So as the sunshine is the cause of all material variegatedness, similarly, the sunshine is also due to the brahmajyoti. The sunshine, yac caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam. The sun is described in the Brahma-samhita as the eyes of all the planets. Yac caksur esa, esa sakala-grahanam caksuh. The sun is the actual eyes for all the planets because unless there is sunshine you cannot see. We are very much proud of our eyes. Sometimes we challenge, "Can you show me God?" But he does not think that what power his eyes have got. It is simply completely dependant on the sunshine. If there is no sunshine his so called eyes are useless. Still, with that useless eyes he wants to see God. Just see. "Can you show me God? I am not seeing God, Therefore God cannot be seen. Therefore I don't believe in God." But he does not think that what power he has got to see. It is only dependant on sunshine. Not only this planet, all the planets, unless there is sunshine... Because it is darkness. This material world is simply darkness.
Tamaso ma jyotir gama. The Vedic instruction is that "Don't keep yourself in this darkness of material world. Come out to the spiritual world." Jyotir gama. So people do not think of their imperfectness of the senses, how the senses working, dependent on the laws of material nature. Still, one is very proud of his senses, especially of the eyes. Adhyaksinaeverything dependent on his eyes, although his eyes are completely useless without being helped by the light of the sun. So actually these eyes are useless. The eyes of the eyes is the sun. Yac caksur esa savita sakala-grahanam. Every planetary system there are many millions and trillions of living entities. They can see only when there is sunrise.
This gayatri-mantra is, therefore, offering prayer to the savita. Om bhur bhuvah svah tat savitur varenyam bhargo devasya dhimahi. Sunshine. So sunshine is... But there are many suns, not only one sun. As there are many universes, yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Koti means innumerable. Numberless universes. And in each and every universe there is sunshine.
So this sunshine is reflection of the brahmajyoti. Yasya prabha prabhavatah [Bs. 5.40]. When the bodily rays, shining rays, of Krsna is there, then all these universes are generated. The universes are also generated. In another place, yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah [Bs. 5.48]. Jagad-anda-nathah means... Jagad-anda means universe. Each universe has a principle living being. That is Lord Brahma. So there are many innumerable Brahmas also, innumerable Sivas, innumerable suns, innumerable moons, because there are innumerable universes. And each and every universe, there are innumerable planets. Yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-kotisv asesa-vasudhadi [Bs. 5.40]. Vasudha means this planet.
Vibhuti-bhinnam. Each planet has got different atmosphere. Therefore these people, they cannot understand what is the atmosphere. They understand. Some scientists, they say the atmosphere in the moon planet is two hundred degrees below zero. So there are difference of scientists' opinion, but according to Vedic literature we understand that there are innumerable planets, and one of the planets is the moon planet. Naksatranam aham sasi. Naksatranam: "Among the stars and planets," Krsna says, "I am the moon."
So jyotisam api jyotis tamasah param. So this jyoti, this illumination, is beyond this material world. And because there is illumination, that illumination is reflected in the material world. You will find the reflection, bluish reflection, in the sky. It means that brahmajyoti is bluish because it is coming out from the blue body of Krsna. Therefore it is bluish. We see the sky bluish, and in darkness we see, although it is darkness, there is some brightness in the sky. Always the sky is... The sky is everywhere, but the covering is seven times covered by different types of material elements, and that brahmajyoti is penetrating through the covers, and little reflection we can see in the sky. So therefore, here it is said,
Visthitam. Krsna is situated in everyone's heart. Actually He is knowledge, and He is the object of knowledge, jneyam, and one should try to understand Krsna. Jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam. And He is in everyone's heart. Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese arjuna tisthati [Bg. 18.61]. Simply we have to know the process how to know Him. That is explained already, We have discussed. Amanitvam adambhitvam ahimsa ksantir arjavam [Bg. 13.8], acaryopasanam, indriya, vinigrahah, bhakti-yoga... Mam ca yo 'vyabhicarena bhakti-yogena... [Bg. 14.26]. These things are already discussed. So human life is meant for understanding this. Athato brahma-jijna... These are all Brahman subject. They are not material subject matter. Tattva-vastu. Vadanti tat tattva-vidas tattvam yaj jnanam advayam [SB 1.2.11].
So this Vedic civilization is meant for Brahman realization. Therefore we have got so many Vedic literatures. Bhagavad-gita is only a part, ABCD, the first book of spiritual knowledge. Still, people are so degraded that they cannot understand even Bhagavad-gita, the ABCD. What they will understand, other things? Their education is so poor and they are so unfortunate that even Bhagavad-gita which Krsna left behind Him...
Krsna was present five thousand years ago on this planet, and just to benefit us He left His instruction, Bhagavad-gita. Arjuna did not require the instruction of Bhagavad-gita. He was already enlightened, but he presented himself as a fool just to induce the Lord to speak on Bhagavad-gita, and it is noted by Vyasadeva, Vedavyasa, in the Mahabharata, so that people may take advantage of the instruction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Everything is there, what is this brahmajyoti, what is this material world, what is that spiritual world, what is our object of life, what we should know.
But we are... Because we are so much influenced by the material world, especially in this age of Kali, the age of misunderstanding and quarreling, that people are... Mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah [SB 1.1.10]. Prayenalpayusah kalav asmin yuge janah. In this age their life is very short. Span of life is very short. And manda, all bad, not good men. Manda. And even there are so-called good men, they have their own process of knowledge, speculative process, godless. The main basic principle of speculative process is to avoid Krsna, to avoid God. There are so many commentaries on Bhagavad-gita to make Krsna nil. That is mental speculation. Somebody is saying that in the there is karma only recommended. Somebody says jnana. Somebody says yoga. Somebody says bhakti.
But actually Bhagavad-gita is meant for bhaktas. Bhakto 'si sakha ceti. Bhagavad-gita was instructed to Arjuna for his only qualification, that he was a devotee of Krsna. Bhakto 'si me sakha ceti. So the whole Bhagavad-gita is the essence of Vedic knowledge, and the Vedic knowledge means to understand Krsna. Vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyah [Bg. 15.15]. Vedesu durlabham adurlabham atma-bhaktau [Bs. 5.33]. Even if you study Vedic literature, without bhakti, without studying the Vedic literature, you cannot understand the Absolute Truth. Bhaktya sruta-grhitaya. Tac chraddadhana munayo jnana-vairagya-yuktaya [SB 1.2.12]. Tac chraddadhana munayah. Those who are faithful, such great saintly persons, sraddadhana munayo jnana-vairagya-yuktaya... Jnana-vairagya-yuktaya. There is sufficient knowledge and vairagya, detachment.
Vairagya... Vedanta knowledge is not to be discussed on the table as a recreation, taking tea and smoking and discussing on Vedanta-sutra. This kind of discussion will not help. Jnana-vairagya-yuktaya. Vairagya. There must be detachment from material activities. Tac chraddadhana munayo jnana-vairagya... [SB 1.2.12], pasyanty atmani catmanam bhaktya sruta-grhitaya. Bhaktya. There must be bhakti. And what kind of bhakti? Not sentiment but sruta-grhitaya, taking, accepting bhakti, the devotional path, after being completely aware of the spiritual science. Bhaktya sruta-grhitaya.
Sruta. The specific meaning of sruta means this knowledge has to be received through the ear, through the tongue. Sevonmukhe hi jihvadau [Brs. 1.2.234]. Sruta-grhitaya. It is never explained in the Vedic literature that the science of God can be understood by the eyes. No. It has been mentioned, the tongue and the ear. These are the sources. Sruta-grhitaya. One must hear the Vedic literature. The Vedic literature is called, therefore, sruti. Srotriyam brahma-nistham [MU 1.2.12]. Srotriyam. Formerly there was no book. The students used to hear from the spiritual master. Sruta, srotriyam. That was perfect. There was no need of literacy. That ear is sufficient. Sruta-grhitaya. Tac chraddadhana munayo jnana-vairagya...[SB 1.2.12]. And hearing, hearing, hearing, one becomes enlightened with knowledge, and the effect of knowledge is vairagya. Vairagya, detachment. Otherwise, we, hearing or studying... But there is no vairagya.
Even big, big sannyasis, they cannot... They are in a saffron dress but they Vairagya... So far vairagya is concerned, if you study their inner history, there is no vairagya. They are attached to all kinds of material enjoyment. Simply a show-bottle dress. That will not help.
There must be vairagya. That vairagya can be achieved by bha... Bhaktya sruta-grhitaya. When you hear... Bhakta means through the devotees, or you becoming devotee. There must be devotional service. And bhakti means sevonmukha, the attitude of rendering service to the Lord. That is bhakti. Hrsikena hrsikesa-sevanam bhaktir ucyate [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Bhakti means when you engage your senses for the service of the master of the senses, Hrsikesa. That is called is bhakti. Bhakti is not sentiment.
Just like these boys, these American, European boys, Indian boys, who are working for Krsna Consciousness. They are simply engaging their senses in the service of the master of the senses, Krsna. Therefore they are making progress. Hrsikena hrsikesa-sevanam bhaktir ucyate. Sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah [Brs. 1.2.234]. When you engage your tongue in the loving service of the Lord, He becomes revealed. He manifests Himself. Isvarah sarva-bhutanam hrd-dese arjuna... [Bg. 18.61]. He is already there within your heart, and if you become purified... Tat-paratvena nirmalam, sarvopadhi-vinirmuktam tat-paratvena nirmalam [Cc. Madhya 19.170], if you become nirmala, if you become purified...
How you can become purified? Tat-paratvena. Just being absorbed in thought of Krsna. Tat-paratvena nirmalam. If you simply remain always in fire, then you remain always warm. There is no possibility of being caught by the chilly coldness. That is not possible. Daivi hy esa mama maya duratyaya.
So the only process for keeping yourself aloof from the touch of maya is bhakti. Is bhakti. That is the conclusion of all sastras. Without taking to the process of bhakti, you cannot get out of the influence of maya. That is required. That is the objective of life. Jneyam jnana-gamyam. So if we utilize our life for understanding the supreme, jneyam jnana-gamyam... Mayi ca, ananya-yogena bhakti... If you learn that art, how you can become ananya-yoga-bhakti, avyabhicarini-bhakti, then you'll understand what is Krsna. Bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah [Bg. 18.55]. By tattva, by truth, you will be able to understand Krsna, and as soon as you understand Krsna, your life becomes successful. Janma karma me divyam yo janati tattvatah.
So the same tattva, in truth, not superficially, if you understand Krsna, then tyaktva deham punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9]. After giving up this body, you'll not have to accept another material body. That is samsiddhim paramam gatah. That is highest perfection of life. If you don't accept anymore the material form of body...
There are eight million four hundred thousand species of body. Any type of body we accept, it is troublesome. It is miserable. Matra-sparsas tu kaunteya sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah [Bg. 2.14]. The bodily pains and pleasures are perceivable, matra-sparsa, because we have got this material skin, matra, and when it is touched, in touch with the influence of this material world, matra-sparsah, you become subject of pains and pleasures.
But if you don't have this material body, then you are untouched by the material qualities, you are completely in spiritual body, so there is no question of pains and pleasure. It is simply blissful life.
That is the highest perfection of life. If you come back, if you go back to home, back to Godhead, Krsna, there you get sac-cid-ananda body, eternal, blissful body of knowledge. And that is our aim, jnana-gamyam, jneyam. That is jnana-gamyam.
Therefore the bhakti path has to be acceptedbhaktya sruta-grhitayaby knowledge in the Vedic literature, by hearing. Sruta-grhitaya means I... You... The Vedic literature is also understood by hearing from the bona fide spiritual master. Satam prasangan mama virya-samvido bhavanti hrt-karna-rasayanah kathah [SB 3.25.25]. Unless you hear from realized soul, it is not possible. Simply by speculation it is useless waste of time. Tesam klesala eva sisyate. After hearing for many, many years the Vedas from the non-realized soul, simply hearing from this hole of the ear and going out from the other holethat kind of hearing will not help us.
Therefore Krsna says that satam prasangan mama virya-samvido bhavanti hrt-karna-rasayanah kathah [SB 3.25.25]. Satam prasangat. In the association of devotees, if you discuss about the message of Krsna, then it becomes very relishable, pleasing to the ear and the heart. And if we bring them into practical use of life, taj-josanad asu, very soon, apavarga-vartmani, on the path of liberation, sraddha, faith, bhakti, devotion, rati, attachment, anukramisyati, comes one after another, one after another. So this is the process. So we shall discuss tomorrow again. (end)

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