Tokyo, May 1, 1972
Prabhupada: This material existence, which we are now passing through, is not our actual existence. There is a Bengali Vaisnava poet. He said... Generally, the question is raised: "How the living entities became fallen in this material world?" The Mayavadi philosophy, they say that we are the same with God, but we are now covered by maya, and as soon as we are free from this maya's covering, we become again one with the Supreme. This is Mayavada philosophy. Practically, the Vaisnava philosophy, also the same, but only difference is that the jivatma, he is eternal servant of the Supreme Lord. Actually, if we scrutinizingly study, our constitutional position is to render service. Any one of us who are sitting here, everyone is servant. Nobody can say that "I am master." We are thinking like master, but actually we are all servants—anyone—either you are servant of your family or you are servant of your country or you are servant of your senses. Everyone, at the present moment, we are servant of the senses, servant of this body. And gradually our illusion expands. Atah grha-ksetra-sutapta-vittair janasya moho 'yam aham mameti [SB 5.5.8]. This material world, it is explained by Vaisnava philosopher:
Maya is nothing but an illusion which is covering my Krsna consciousness. That is called maya. I am... Krsna says that mamaivamso jiva-bhutah: [Bg. 15.7] "All these living entities, they are My parts and parcels, sanatana, not that they have now become servant of Me by material contact, but they are eternally servant." Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, jivera svarupa haya nitya krsna dasa: [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109] "The real identity of the living entity is that he is eternal servant of God, or Krsna." When we speak of Krsna, Krsna means God. Krsnas tu bhagavan svayam [SB 1.3.28].
So actually we are still servant although we have rejected servitude of Krsna. That is our rebellious condition. Every one of us, all living entities within this material world, they are more or less rebellious condition. We don't want to serve Krsna. I want to become Krsna. That is maya. That is the last snare of maya. First of all, in our karmi life we want to become master of the world. I want to lord it over the material nature. That is our struggle. Everyone is trying, "I shall become the master." Nobody wants to become servant. That is maya. But actually he is serving. That is our position. Try to understand. We are serving our senses whimsically. I want to become this. I want to become that. First of all I want to become a big businessman, or I want to become a prime minister. I want to become the president. And when I am frustrated, then I want to become God. That want—"I want to become master"—is going on. So this is also maya. How one can become God? Krsna says, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya [Bg. 7.7]. Nobody can become equal to God or greater than God. Asamaurdha. In the Bhagavad-gita Krsna is described as asama urdha. "Nobody is equal to God, and nobody is greater than God." Asama urdha.
So this disease, this is called material disease. I want to lord it over the material nature, and when I fail to lord it over, then I want to become one with God. Of course, there are five kinds of liberation: sayujya sarupya samipya salokya. By liberation you can become one with God. That is not very difficult. If you want to become, merge into the existence of God, that is not very difficult job. God is all-powerful. You are emanation from God. Janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. So if you want to... Sayujya mukti. If you want to finish your individuality and merge into the existence of God, that is not very difficult job. Even the enemies of Krsna—Kamsa, Jarasandha, Dantavakra, Sisupala, and many demons—they also merged into the existence of Krsna. The enemies also given the liberation to merge into the existence of Krsna. That is not very difficult job. But to keep your individuality and serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, that is your actual position, constitutional position. That mukti... The Vaisnava philosophers, they want that mukti. They want to keep... Nitya-yukta upasate. Nitya-yukta. In the Bhagavad-gita it is said, nitya-yukta upasata. The upasana, the worship of the Supreme Personality of Godhead—man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru [Bg. 18.65]—this is not stopped after liberation. The same business goes on. That is Vaisnava philosophy. Vaisnava, even if he is offered mukti... Diyamanam na grhnanti. Even if he's offered that "You take mukti," they do not accept it.
na dhanam na janam na sundarim
kavitam va jagadisa kamaye
mama janmani janmanisvare
bhavatad bhaktir ahaituki tvayi
[Cc. Antya 20.29, Siksastaka 4]
Na dhanam na janam. The karmis, they are hankering after wealth, riches, great following, great dependents. Na dhanam na janam. But Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, "I don't want. I don't want riches. I don't want many followers." Na dhanam na janam na sundarim kavitam va jagadisa kamaye. Another demand of the karmis is that "I must have very nice, beautiful, obedient wife." Caitanya Mahaprabhu said, "No, I don't want that." Na dhanam. This is finishing materialism. In the material world people want these three things: dhanam, janam, and sundarim kavitam. So Caitanya Mahaprabhu says, na dhanam na janam na sundarim kavitam va jagadisa kamaye. "Then mukti, You take mukti?" "No." Mama janmani janmanisvare bhavatad bhaktir ahaituki: [Cc. Antya 20.29, Siksastaka 4] "I don't want to finish My repetition of birth and death also." That is called mukti. Mukti means stopping the repetition of birth and death. So those who are hankering after... The jnanis, the jnani-sampradaya, they want to merge into the existence of the Supreme Lord. But that merging is possible in the brahmajyoti. Brahmajyoti. The Absolute Truth is divided into three. Actually He is not divided. Because He is absolute, He cannot be divided. But according to the, I mean to say, realizer, somebody is realizing the Absolute Truth as impersonal Brahman, somebody is realizing the Absolute Truth as localized Paramatma, and somebody is realizing Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, most beautiful, lovable object. So the Bhagavata Purana says, vadanti tat tattva vidas tattvam yaj jnanam advayam [SB 1.2.11]. There is no difference between Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan. It is only the different features of realization. If you want to realize the Absolute Truth by your imperfect senses... We should always know that our senses are always imperfect. Just like we are very much proud of seeing with my own eyes. We say sometimes, challenge, "Can you show me God? Can you show me this or that?" But we do not know how much imperfect are our eyes. We are seeing every day the sun, but we are seeing it just like a disk. But actually the sun is fourteen hundred thousand times bigger than this planet. We cannot see. If there is (indistinct), immediately there is darkness, we cannot see. Unless there is light, sunlight or electric light or moonlight, we cannot see. We cannot see our eyeballs. We cannot see the eyelid, nearest. Longest, longest we cannot see; nearest we cannot see. Therefore we should not be very much proud of our seeing directly, direct perception. So direct... Anyone who is trying to understand the Absolute Truth by direct perception, he can rise up to the impersonal Brahman understanding, not more than that. And those who are trying to understand the Absolute Truth within his heart, just like yogis... Dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pasyanti yam yoginah [SB 12.13.1]. The yogi, by meditation, being in samadhi, they are seeing the Absolute Truth, Personality of Godhead, Visnu, within the heart. Dhyanavasthita. And those who are devotees, they are seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead as Arjuna is seeing, personally, face to face: Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the origin of everything.
As it is explained in the Vedanta-sutra, janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. What is Absolute Truth? This human form of life is meant for understanding what is Absolute Truth. Athato brahma jijnasa. This is human form of life. The cats and dogs cannot inquire about what is Brahman. That is not possible. This human form of life, they can inquire. Inquisitiveness. Athato brahma jijnasa. And immediately reply, the Vedanta-sutra, "Brahman, the Absolute Truth, is that which is the source of everything." Janmady asya [SB 1.1.1]. Now that reply is given by Krsna in the Bhagavad-gita:
aham sarvasya prabhavo
mattah sarvam pravartate
iti matva bhajante mam
Budha. Budha means one who is actually in knowledge, one who is actually in understanding. Such person, he knows that Krsna is the origin of everything, janmady asya yatah [SB 1.1.1]. The Vedanta-sutra gives hint that "Absolute Truth is that which is the original source of emanation of everything." That Absolute Truth is Krsna. He says further, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya: [Bg. 7.7] "Beyond Me, there is no other superior authority or truth."
So in another place Krsna says,
"Out of many million of persons, one is interested how to make this life, human life, successful..." Everyone is interested how to enjoy senses, sense gratification. But that is the business of the animals. The animals, they do not know anything beyond their sense gratification. Ahara-nidra-bhaya-maithunam ca, samanyam etad pasubhih naranam. The sense gratification business is equal in human being and animal. The animal eats, and human being also eats. The animal sleeps, a human being also sleeps—maybe in nice compartment, but the sleeping business. The animal eats directly anything, whatever he gets; we make palatable dishes for satisfaction of our tongue. We kill many animals and eat them. So that may be the difference. Otherwise the eating business of the animal and the human being is the same. Similarly, sexual intercourse. The dog can freely have sexual intercourse on the street. The hog can have sexual intercourse on the street and without any discrimination whether mother, sister, or anything. That is hog life, dog life. But a human being has the same sexual desires but little decently. That is the difference. So the sastra says that if you become simply engaged in these four kinds of business—eating, sleeping, mating and defending—then you are no better than animal. Your business is brahma-jijnasa. Try to understand what is Brahman. That is your business. The Krsna replies in the Bhagavad-gita, brahmano aham pratistha. Even if you want to understand the impersonal Brahman, you have to search out wherefrom this effulgence is coming. That is Krsna. That is confirmed in the Brahma-samhita:
yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-
kotisv asesa-vasudhadi vibhuti-bhinnam
tad brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam
govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami
So this Krsna consciousness movement is very important movement—important in this sense, that we are educating people without any discrimination about Krsna, what is Krsna. And actually, as we understand from the Bhagavad-gita, if we simply can understand what is Krsna, as Krsna says, that manusyanam sahasresu kascid yatati siddhaye, yatatam api siddhanam... [Bg. 7.3]. It is very difficult to understand Krsna. But still, Krsna is understandable if we simply follow the instruction of the Bhagavad-gita as it is, without any malinterpretation. Actually there are so many editions of Bhagavad-gita all over the world, about six hundred, seven hundred in America, in Japan, in England. I have seen so many editions, English editions, what to speak of other language editions. So anyway, the malinterpretation is going on. We have, therefore, published Bhagavad-gita As It Is, without any malinterpretation. Our business is to present Bhagavad-gita As It Is. Krsna says, mattah parataram nanyat kincid asti dhananjaya [Bg. 7.7]. We say that, that Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. What Krsna says Himself, we simply carry the message. That's all. Krsna says, man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji mam namaskuru: [Bg. 18.65] "Just always think of Me," man-mana bhava mad-bhaktah, "just become My devotee," and man-mana bhava mad-bhakto mad-yaji, "just worship Me and offer your respectful obeisances unto Me. In this way you shall come back to Me." So we are teaching that, that... We are teaching our students that "Always think of Krsna." Smartavyam satato visnuh. Visnu and Krsna, the same category.
So this Hare Krsna mantra, very easy. There is no need of education, there is no need of becoming very wealthty or very intelligent. Anyone, even a child, can chant Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. So each time you pronounce the holy name of Krsna, you remember Him, the smartavyah satato visnuh. Ante narayana-smrtih [SB 2.1.6]. If by practicing this, at the time of death, if we can remember Krsna, then our life is successful. Then our life is successful, ante narayana-smrtih, if you can remember simply Narayana at the time of death. Because next life means the mental position of your life at the time of death. Whatever mental position you put yourself, that is your next life. That is your next life. Yad yad... What is that? Yad yad bhavam. I forget that verse. At the time of death, whatever you think, that is your next life. I prepare my next life in this life. That is in the hands of the material nature. Prakrteh kriyamanani gunaih karmani sarvasah [Bg. 3.27]. As we associate, gunesu... It is also described in this Bhagavatam, ramamanah asya gunesu. We are now enjoying in the company of different modes of material nature. Some is enjoying life in company with the modes of material nature, goodness, and some is enjoying the modes of passion, and some is enjoying the modes of ignorance. There are three qualities: sattva, rajah, tamah. Sattva is translated as goodness, rajah as passion and tamah as ignorance. And according to these gunas, different people are there. That is also mentioned in the Bhagavad-gita: catur-varnyam maya srstam guna-karma-vibhagasah [Bg. 4.13]. As we associate with different types of gunas, we make our position like that. So those who are in the sattva-guna, they are called brahmanas. Those who are in the rajo-guna, they are called ksatriyas. Those who are mixed gunas, they are called vaisyas. And those who are in the tamo-guna, they are called sudras. These are described in the Bhagavad-gita. So our aim of life should be how to transcend all these gunas. Trai-gunya-visaya veda nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna. Krsna advises Arjuna that "The Vedic knowledge or this whole material creation is mixed up with three kinds of the modes of material nature. So you have to transcend." Nistrai-gunyo bhavarjuna. And what is the process to put ourself in that transcendental position? That transcendental position is sa gunan samatityaitan brahma-bhuyaya kalpate [Bg. 14.26]. What is that? Mam ca vyabhicarini bhakti-yogena yah sevate. Anyone who is situated in the bhakti-yoga process, especially mentioned, bhaktya mam abhijanati, you can understand Krsna simply by this bhakti-yoga process. Krsna never meant jnana-yoga or dhyana-yoga or karma-yoga process. He especially meant that bhaktya mam abhijanati yavan yas casmi tattvatah [Bg. 18.55]. If you want to know Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then you have to accept this bhakti-yoga process. There are many thousands of yogic processes, but if you want to know Krsna, if you want to know God, then you have to take to this bhakti-yoga process.
That is also indicated by Arjuna. When Arjuna was being advised, he was assured that... Why Krsna was advising about Bhagavad-gita to Arjuna? He was a grhastha, householder, a ksatriya, fighter, warrior. He was not a Vedantist, neither he had any time to study Vedas. He was a grhastha. Study of Vedas is the business of the brahmanas. So he was not a brahmana. But still, Krsna said that "Still, I am instructing you this Bhagavad-gita, rahasyam etad uttamam. The most confidential, secrecy, mystery of Bhagavad-gita is difficult to understand, but I am instructing you." "Why? Why You have selected me?" Bhakto 'si: "Because you are My devotee." This is the only qualification to understand Bhagavad-gita. Otherwise, unless one is a devotee of Krsna, he cannot understand the confidential teachings of Krsna, Bhagavad-gita. Krsna also says in the Fourth Chapter,
Evam parampara-praptam imam rajarsayo viduh [Bg. 4.2]. The Bhagavad-gita, the process is given there, how to study Bhagavad-gita—by the parampara system, not by your whimsical way. You must hear from the authorized person. Just like Krsna said, evam parampara-praptam: "I instructed this Bhagavad-gita philosophy to sun-god, and he instructed to his son Manu. And Manu instructed to his son Iksvaku." So in this way you have to study. Evam parampara-praptam. So if you want to study Bhagavad-gita As It Is, then you should study immediate parampara. Arjuna was present. Arjuna was personally instructed by Krsna. And you should catch up how Arjuna understood Krsna.
That is explained in the Tenth Chapter. Param brahma param dhama pavitram paramam bhavan purusam sasvatam: [Bg. 10.12] "You are the Supreme Personality, purusam, the supreme enjoyer. Sasvatam. Not that at the present moment. Eternally You are the enjoyer." And Bhagavan, Krsna, also says the same thing in another place:
jnatva mam santim rcchati
People are hankering after santi, peace, but they do not know the way. The way is described in the Bhagavad-gita. What is that? Bhoktaram yajna-tapasam: "I am the supreme enjoyer of everything." Bhoktaram yajna-tapasam sarva-loka mahesvaram: "I am the proprietor of everything." Isavasyam idam sarvam: [Iso mantra 1] "God is the proprietor of all planets." But we are claiming that "I am proprietor. We are proprietor, nationally." That is our mistake. Actually, everything belongs to God. Now, the Japanese claiming that "Japan is our country." Indians are claiming, "India is our country." But nothing belongs either to the Japanese or to the Indians or to the Americans. Everything belongs to God. This consciousness is called Krsna consciousness. If we understand three things only, that God is the only proprietor, Krsna is the only proprietor, He is the only enjoyer, and we are simply servant to help Him in His enjoyment... The highest perfection is found in Vrndavana. Everyone is trying to satisfy Krsna. That is real life. That is real mukti. In the Bhagavata it is said, mukti means hitva anyatha rupam svarupena vyavasthitih [SB 2.10.6]. Mukti means you have to give up your artificial ways of life and you have to situate yourself in your normal constitutional position. That is called mukti. Mukti hasn't got any other definition. Mukti means just like you are attacked with fever. If your fever is gone, then you are mukta, you are liberated from fever. Similarly, this disease, aham mameti... [SB 5.5.8]. I am in this material world, I am thinking this body as myself, I am identifying with this body, and according to that bodily relation, I am identifying my... Mamaham iti. There are thousands of women, but the one woman who has got bodily relationship with me, (s)he is my wife. There are thousands of children, but the one children or two children who has got bodily relation with me, they are my sons, my daughters. Mamaham iti manyate. Then our... First of all, this whole world is based on sex life, either in human society or animal society or bird society or tree society or aquatic society, any society, go. The central point is sex life. Sex life. And as soon as we unite with sex life, our, this bodily concept of life becomes more and more entangled. Then we want... Atah grha-ksetra-sutapta-vittair janasya moho 'yam [SB 5.5.8].
So actually, in this material existence we are forgetting our real constitutional position, that we are all eternal servant of the Supreme Lord, Krsna. Manah-sasthanindriyani prakrti-sthani karsati [Bg. 15.7]. But some way or other, we have come to this material world for enjoying, for lord it over the material nature. And that is not possible. You cannot lord it over. The Lord is Krsna, but we are trying to be lord. And the endeavor, the labor which we are giving incessantly, that we are thinking happiness. The nature, the material nature, is putting stumbling block every time. That, to overcome the impediments offered by the material nature and our trial for overcoming that stumbling block, that is our endeavor. And we are thinking this is happiness. Just like you are making one high road and there is, material nature is offering a big hill, a big mountain before you. Now you have to make tunnel. You have to call for dynamite and try to penetrate through the hill. That struggle is known as advancement of material condition. That you cannot. In America and other materialistic countries we see—here also, in Japan—they are laying down one kind of road for plying their motorcars. After some years it becomes a problem—another flyway, another flyway. So this is going on. This is called struggle for existence. We are trying to conquer over the stringent laws of material nature, and that labor, that useless spoiling our life, we are thinking that we are..., this is happiness. This is called maya. We are actually giving service to the maya instead of giving service to Krsna. This is illusion.
Now, if you change your consciousness, that "I have never been satisfied, happy, by giving service to the maya. Now let me serve Krsna," that is your liberation. That is your liberation. Therefore Krsna said, sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja: [Bg. 18.66] "You come under Me." Aham tvam sarva-papebhyo moksayisyami. This is the instruction of Krsna consciousness. We are actually struggling with material nature to become happy. But it is not possible to conquer over the material nature. That is not possible. Daivi hy esa gunamayi mama maya duratyaya [Bg. 7.14]. It is very difficult. You cannot do it. Then how I can get from the clutches of the hands of material nature? Mam eva ye prapadyante mayam etam taranti te: "You simply surrender unto Me," Krsna says, "and you immediately get rid of this maya." There are many greatly, great saintly persons. They are trying to get out of the clutches of maya, to become liberated. But here is the simple process: simply you surrender unto Krsna. He personally advocated. It is not that we are manufacturing in some way. It is spoken by Krsna Himself, that "You simply surrender unto Me, and immediately you are out of the clutches of maya." Mam eva ye prapadyante mayam etam taranti te.
So I do not wish to take much of your time, but the thing is that the whole world is struggling hard. They are not in peace. One man is enemy of another man. One nation is enemy of another nation. This is going on. This is... All these things are going on simply due to our forgetfulness of Krsna. The same formula:
As soon as you forget your relationship with Krsna, immediately there is maya, and she will capture you. And the counterprocess is: as soon as you surrender to Krsna, the maya is gone. Just like it is said, krsna surya-sama maya andhakara [Cc. Madhya 22.31]. "Maya is considered as darkness, and Krsna is the sunlight, or sun." So wherever there is sun, there is no darkness. Similarly, wherever there is Krsna, wherever there is Krsna consciousness, there is no more darkness of ignorance. Tasmin vijnate sarvam idam vijnatam bhavanti. So this Krsna consciousness movement is very important movement. It is not a sentimental movement. It is authorized. It is based on Vedic conclusion. Vedais ca sarvair aham eva vedyam [Bg. 15.15]. Actually, the Vedas are meant for understanding Krsna. One who does not understand Krsna, his studies of Veda is simply useless waste of time. And one who understands Krsna simply, he has studied all the Vedas. Aradhito yadi haris tapasa tatah kim, naradhito yadi haris tapasa tatah kim [Narada-pancaratra]. Krsna also said that,
Do not think that those who are devotees of Krsna, those who are fully surrendered to Krsna, they are ignorant. No. Krsna from within, He is giving intelligence. He gives intelligence to the devotees. Tesam satata-yuktanam bhajatam priti-purvakam, dadami buddhi-yogam tam [Bg. 10.10]. He will give. Krsna is within your heart. Simply you have to surrender to Krsna, and everything will (be) supplied by Krsna. Especially He says, tesam evanukampartham: "In order to show them special mercy." To whom? Tesam satata-yuktanam bhajatam priti-purvakam If you engage yourself in the service of the Lord, bhajatam, with love and faith, then Krsna is within you—He will give you all intelligence. Tene brahma hrda adi-kavaye. He gave the intelligence. That is... We are describing how He gave intelligence to Lord Brahma, who is the creator of this universe.
So this Krsna consciousness movement is neither new nor any concocted manufactured thing. It is authorized, based on the Vedas, based on the Vedic authorities, and it is very simple and it has become simplified by the mercy of Lord Caitanya. Because Lord Caitanya is Krsna Himself. When Krsna said that sarva-dharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja [Bg. 18.66], many fools and rascals could not accept it. Na mam prapadyante mudha duskrtina naradhamah. Those who are miscreants, those who are lowest of the mankind, those who have lost their knowledge, they cannot. And those who are mudhas, rascals, they cannot surrender to Krsna. Therefore Krsna again, in the form of a Krsna devotee, Lord Caitanya, He came. He taught how to love Krsna. Prema pum-artho mahan. That is the philosophy of Lord Caitanya, Krsna-prema. You have to increase your love for Krsna. We have got our love, dormant love, but that love is now being distributed in so many ways, and we are spoiled, we are frustrated. But if you concentrate your love, oh, upon Krsna, then you will not only love Krsna; you will love the whole human society, whole living entities. That is Krsna philosophy. So the process is very easy, given by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Ceto-darpana-marjanam bhava-maha-davagni-nirvapanam sreyah-kairava-candrika-vitaranam vidya-vadhu-jivanam, anandambudhi-vardhanam [Cc. Antya 20.12]. You will increase anandambudli. Anandambudhi-vardhanam sarvatma-snapanam param vijayate sri-krsna-sankirtanam. In this present age, in this Kali-yuga, kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha, very simple. You may remain a family man. You may remain a renounced man. It is very difficult in the present age. Practically, sannyasa is forbidden in this age. So you remain (in) your position. But our only request, this Krsna consciousness movement, that you chant Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, and gradually you will be emancipated, liberated. You will get your light. Everything will come one after another.
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