This chapter gives the history of Diti, the wife of Kasyapa, and how she followed a vow to have a son who would kill Indra. It also describes how Indra attempted to foil her plan by cutting to pieces the son within her womb.
In relation to Tvasta and his descendants, there is a description of the dynasty of the Adityas (sons of Aditi) and other demigods. Prsni, the wife of Aditi’s fifth son named Savita, had three daughters—Savitri, Vyahrti and Trayi—and very exalted sons named Agnihotra, Pasu, Soma, Caturmasya and the five Mahayajnas. Siddhi, the wife of Bhaga, had three sons, named Mahima, Vibhu and Prabhu, and she also had one daughter, whose name was Asi. Dhata had four wives—Kuhu, Sinivali, Raka and Anumati—who had four sons, named Sayam, Darsa, Pratah and Purnamasa respectively. Kriya, the wife of Vidhata, gave birth to the five Purisyas, who are representatives of five kinds of fire-gods. Bhrgu, the mind-born son of Brahma, took his birth again from Carsani, the wife of Varuna, and the great sage Valmiki appeared from Varuna’s semen. Agastya and Vasistha were two sons of Varuna and Mitra. Upon seeing the beauty of Urvasi, Mitra and Varuna discharged semen, which they kept in an earthen pot. From that pot, Agastya and Vasistha appeared. Mitra had a wife named Revati, who gave birth to three sons—Utsarga, Arista and Pippala. Aditi had twelve sons, of whom Indra was the eleventh. Indra’s wife was named Paulomi (Sacidevi). She gave birth to three sons—Jayanta, Rsabha and Midhusa. By His own powers, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared as Vamanadeva. From His wife, whose name was Kirti, appeared a son named Brhatsloka. Brhatsloka’s first son was known as Saubhaga. This is a description of the sons of Aditi. A description of Aditya Urukrama, who is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will be offered in the Eighth Canto.
The demons born of Diti are also described in this chapter. In the dynasty of Diti appeared the great saintly devotee Prahlada and also Bali, Prahlada’s grandson. Hiranyakasipu and Hiranyaksa were the first sons of Diti. Hiranyakasipu and his wife, whose name was Kayadhu, had four sons—Samhlada, Anuhlada, Hlada and Prahlada. They also had one daughter, whose name was Simhika. In association with the demon Vipracit, Simhika bore a son named Rahu, whose head was severed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krti, the wife of Samhlada, bore a son named Pancajana. Hlada’s wife, whose name was Dhamani, gave birth to two sons—Vatapi and Ilvala. Ilvala put Vatapi into the form of a ram and gave him to Agastya to eat. Anuhlada, in the womb of his wife, Surya, begot two sons, named Baskala and Mahisa. Prahlada’s son was known as Virocana, and his grandson was known as Bali Maharaja. Bali Maharaja had one hundred sons, of whom Bana was the eldest.
After describing the dynasty of the Adityas and the other demigods, Sukadeva Gosvami describes Diti’s sons known as the Maruts and how they were elevated to the position of demigods. Just to help Indra, Lord Visnu had killed Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu. Because of this, Diti was very envious, and she was eager to have a son who could kill Indra. By her service, she enchanted Kasyapa Muni in order to beg from him a greater son to do this. In corroboration of the Vedic injunction vidvamsam api karsati, Kasyapa Muni was attracted to his beautiful wife and promised to grant her any request. When, however, she requested a son who would kill Indra, he condemned himself, and he advised his wife Diti to follow the Vaisnava ritualistic ceremonies to purify herself. When Diti, following the instructions of Kasyapa, engaged in devotional service, Indra could understand her purpose, and he began observing all her activities. One day, Indra had the opportunity to see her deviating from devotional service. Thus he entered her womb and cut her son into forty-nine parts. In this way the forty-nine kinds of air known as the Maruts appeared, but because Diti had performed the Vaisnava ritualistic ceremonies, all the sons became Vaisnavas.

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