yan-madhya-gato bhagavams tapatam patis tapana atapena tri-lokim pratapaty avabhasayaty atma-bhasa sa esa udagayana-daksinayana-vaisuvata-samjnabhir mandya-saighrya-samanabhir gatibhir arohanavarohana-samana-sthanesu yatha-savanam abhipadyamano makaradisu rasisv aho-ratrani dirgha-hrasva-samanani vidhatte.
yat—of which (the intermediate space); madhya-gatah—being situated in the middle; bhagavan—the most powerful; tapatam patih—the master of those that heat the whole universe; tapanah—the sun; atapena—by heat; tri-lokim—the three worlds; pratapati—heats; avabhasayati—lights; atma-bhasa—by its own illuminating rays; sah—that; esah—the sun globe; udagayana—of passing to the northern side of the equator; daksina-ayana—of passing to the southern side of the equator; vaisuvata—or of passing through the equator; samjnabhih—by different names; mandya—characterized by slowness; saighrya—swiftness; samanabhih—and by equality; gatibhih—by movement; arohana—of rising; avarohana—of going down; samana—or of staying in the middle; sthanesu—in positions; yatha-savanam—according to the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; abhipadyamanah—moving; makara-adisu—headed by the sign Makara (Capricorn); rasisu—in different signs; ahah-ratrani—the days and nights; dirgha—long; hrasva—short; samanani—equal; vidhatte—makes.
In the midst of that region of outer space [antariksa] is the most opulent sun, the king of all the planets that emanate heat, such as the moon. By the influence of its radiation, the sun heats the universe and maintains its proper order. It also gives light to help all living entities see. While passing toward the north, toward the south or through the equator, in accordance with the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, it is said to move slowly, swiftly or moderately. According to its movements in rising above, going beneath or passing through the equator—and correspondingly coming in touch with various signs of the zodiac, headed by Makara [Capricorn]—days and nights are short, long or equal to one another.
“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead under whose control even the sun, which is considered to be the eye of the Lord, rotates within the fixed orbit of eternal time. The sun is the king of all planetary systems and has unlimited potency in heat and light.” Although the sun is described as bhagavan, the most powerful, and although it is actually the most powerful planet within the universe, it nevertheless has to carry out the order of Govinda, Krsna. The sun-god cannot deviate even an inch from the orbit designated to him. Therefore in every sphere of life, the supreme order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is carried out. The entire material nature carries out His orders. However, we foolishly see the activities of material nature without understanding the supreme order and Supreme Person behind them. As confirmed in Bhagavad-gita, mayadhyaksena prakrtih: [Bg. 9.10] material nature carries out the orders of the Lord, and thus everything is maintained in an orderly way.
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