Chapter Forty-three
When ecstatic love develops into the relationship of parenthood and becomes steadily established, the relationship is called vatsalya-rasa. The exhibition of this vatsalya-rasa standard of devotional service can be found in the dealings of Krsna with His devotees who represent themselves as superior personalities like father, mother, teacher, etc.
Learned scholars have described the impetuses of parental love for Krsna, existing in the elderly personalities who are in relation with Him, as follows: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose bodily complexion is just like a bluish, new-grown lotus flower, whose body is very delicate and whose lotus eyes are surrounded by scattered hair as black as bees, was walking on the streets of Vrndavana when Mother Yasoda, the beloved wife of Nanda Maharaj, saw Him. Immediately the milk began to flow from her breasts, soaking her body." Some specific provocations for parental love of Krsna are listed as His blackish bodily hue, which is very attractive and pleasing to see, His all-auspicious bodily features, His mildness, His sweet words, His simplicity, His shyness, His humility, His constant readiness to offer respect to the elderly, and His charity. All of these qualities are considered ecstatic provocations for parental love.
In the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 8th Chapter, 35th verse, it is stated by Sukadeva Gosvami that Mother Yasoda accepted Lord Krsna as her son, although He is accepted in the Vedas as the King of heaven, in the Upanisads as the impersonal Brahman and in philosophy as the supreme male. By the yogis he is accepted as the supersoul and by the devotees as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Once Mother Yasoda addressed one of her friends in this way: "Nanda Maharaj, the leader of the cowherdsmen, worshiped Lord Visnu along with me, and as a result of this worshiping Krsna has been saved from the clutches of Putana and other demons. The twin arjuna trees were, of course, broken due to a strong wind, and although Krsna appeared to have lifted Govardhan Hill along with Balarama, I think that Nanda Maharaj actually held the mountain. Otherwise how could it have been possible for a little boy to lift such a great hill?" This is another example of ecstasy in parental love. This kind of parental love is generated in a devotee out of his conviction, in love, that he himself is superior to Krsna and that without being taken care of by such devotee Krsna could not possibly live. One devotee therefore prayed to the parents of Lord Krsna as follows: "Let me take shelter of the elderly parental devotees of Lord Krsna. They are always anxious to serve Krsna and to maintain Him, and they are always so kind to Him. Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto them for being so kind to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the parent of the whole universe!"
There is a similar prayer by a brahmana who says, "Let others worship the Vedas and the Upanisads, and let others worship the Mahabharata if they are afraid of material existence and want to become liberated from that condition. But as far as I am concerned, I wish only to worship Maharaj Nanda, because the supreme absolute Personality of Godhead, Krsna, is crawling in his courtyard as his own child."
Following is a list of respectful personalities who enjoy parental affection toward Krsna: 1) Mother Yasoda, the Queen of Braja, 2) Maharaj Nanda, the King of Braja, 3) Mother Rohini, the mother of Balarama, 4) all the elderly gopis whose sons were taken away by Lord Brahma, 5) Devaki, the wife of Vasudeva, 6) the other fifteen wives of Vasudeva, 7) Kunti, the mother of Arjuna, 8) Vasudeva, the real father of Krsna, and 9) Sandipani Muni, Krsna's teacher. All these are considered respectable elderly personalities with parental love for Krsna. This list is in order of superior importance, and thus we can see that Mother Yasoda and Maharaj Nanda are considered to be the supermost of all elderly personalities.
In Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 9th Chapter, 2nd verse, Sukadeva Gosvami gives Maharaj Pariksit a description of the form and beauty of Mother Yasoda. He says, "My dear King, the wide hips of Mother Yasoda were surrounded by silk and linen clothes, and her breasts were flowing with milk because of her affection. When she was churning butter and tightly holding the rope, the bangles on her hands and the earrings on her ears were moving, and from the nice decoration in her hair the flowers were slackening and falling down. Due to her excessive labor, there were drops of perspiration on her face."
There is another description of Mother Yasoda in a devotee's prayer: "Let me be given protection by Mother Yasoda, whose curly hairs are bound with thread, whose hair is very brightly beautified by the vermilion placed in the part and whose bodily frame derides all her ornaments. Her eyes are always engaged in seeing the face of Krsna, and thus they are always filled with tears. She has a complexion like the bluish lotus flower, which is enhanced in beauty by her dressing herself with many colorful garments. Let her merciful glance fall on all of us so that we may be protected from the clutches of maya and smoothly progress in our devotional service!"
There is the following description of Mother Yasoda's affection for Krsna: After rising early in the morning, Mother Yasoda first of all offered her breast milk to Krsna, and then she began to chant various mantras for His protection. Then she would decorate His forehead very nicely and bind His arms with protective talismans. By all of these activities, it is definitely understood that she is the emblem of all maternal affection for Krsna.
The description of Nanda Maharaj's bodily features is as follows. The hairs on his head are generally black, but some of them are gray. His garments are of greenish color, like the new-grown leaves of a banyan tree. His belly is fatty, his complexion is exactly like the full moon, and he has a beautiful moustache. When Krsna was a baby, one day He was walking in the courtyard, capturing the finger of His father, and because He could not walk steadily He appeared to be almost falling down. While Nanda Maharaj was giving protection to His transcendental son in this way, all of a sudden there were drops of tears in his eyes, and he became overwhelmed with joy. Let us all offer our respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of King Nanda!
Childhood age, childish dress, movements by the child, sweet words spoken by the child, nice smiling and various forms of childish play are considered provocations for increasing the parental love for Krsna. The childhood ages of Krsna are divided into three periods: the beginning of kaumara age, the middle of kaumara age and the end of kaumara age. During the beginning and middle of the kaumara age, Krsna's thighs are fatty, and the inner part of His eyes are whitish. There are signs of teeth coming out, and He is very mild and gentle. He is described as follows: "When Krsna had only three or four teeth coming out of His gums, His thighs were fatty, His body was very, very short, and He began to enhance the parental love of Nanda Maharaj and Mother Yasoda with the activities of His childish body. He was sometimes stepping with His legs again and again, sometimes crying, sometimes smiling, sometimes sucking His thumb and sometimes lying down flat. These are some of the different activities of the child Krsna. When Krsna was lying down flat, sometimes sucking the toes of His feet, sometimes throwing His legs upwards, sometimes crying and sometimes smiling, Mother Yasoda, seeing her son in such pastimes, did not show any sign of restricting Him, but rather began to watch her child with eagerness, enjoying these childhood pastimes." In the beginning of Krsna's kaumara age, there were the nails of tigers set in a golden necklace about His neck. There was protective tilaka on His forehead, black mascara around His eyes and silk thread around His waist. These are the descriptions of Krsna's dress at the beginning of the kaumara age.
When Nanda Maharaj saw the beauty of child Krsna with tiger nails on His chest, a complexion like the new-grown tamala tree, beautifully decorated tilaka made with cow's urine, arm decorations of nice silk thread and silk clothes tied around His waist-when Nanda Maharaj saw his child like this, he never became satiated by the child's beauty.
In the middle kaumara age, the upper portion of Krsna's hair falls around His eyes. Sometimes He is covered with cloth around the lower part of His body, and sometimes He is completely naked. Sometimes He tries to walk, taking step by step, and sometimes He talks very sweetly, in broken language. These were some of the symptoms of His middle kaumara age. He is thus described when Mother Yasoda once saw Him in His middle kaumara age: His scattered hairs were touching His eyebrows, and His eyes were restless, but He could not express His feelings with proper words; still, when He was talking, it was so nice and sweet to hear. When Mother Yasoda looked at His little ears and saw Him naked, trying to run very quickly with His little legs, she was merged into the ocean of nectar. Krsna's ornaments at this age are a pearl hanging from the septum of His nose, butter on His lotus-like palms, and some small bells hanging from His waist. It is stated that when Mother Yasoda saw that the child was moving, ringing the bells on His waist, smiling at her with a pearl between His nostrils and with butter on His hands, she became wonderfully pleased to see her little child in that fashion.
While Krsna was in the middle of His kaumara age, His waist became thinner, His chest became broader, and His head was decorated with His curly hairs, resembling the falling of the wings of a crow. These wonderful features of Krsna's body never failed to astonish Mother Yasoda. At the end of His kaumara age, Krsna carried a small stick in His hand, His clothing was a little longer, and He had a knot around His waist, resembling the hood of a snake. In that dress He used to take care of the calves near the house, and sometimes He played with cowherd boys of about the same age. He had a slender flute and a buffalo horn bugle, and sometimes He played on a flute made from the leaves of trees. These are some of the symptoms of the end of Krsna's kaumara age.
When Krsna was a little grown up and was taking care of the small calves, He would often go near the forest. And when He was a little bit late returning home, Nanda Maharaj would immediately get up on the candrasalika (a small shed built on the roof for getting a bird's-eye view all around), and he would watch for Him. Worrying about the late arrival of his little son, Nanda Maharaj would remain on the candrasalika until he could indicate to his wife that Krsna, surrounded by His little cowherd friends, was coming back with the calves. Nanda Maharaj would point out the peacock feather on his child's head and would inform his beloved wife how the child was pleasing his eyes.
Mother Yasoda then addressed Nanda Maharaj, "See my dear son, whose eyes are white, who has a turban on His head, a wrapper on His body and leg bells which tinkle very sweetly on His feet. He is coming near, along with His surabhi calves, and just see how He is wandering upon the sacred land of Vrndavana!"
Similarly, Maharaj Nanda addressed his wife, "My dear Yasoda, just look at your offspring, Krsna! See His blackish bodily luster, His eyes tinged with red color, His broad chest and His nice golden neck lace! How wonderful He looks, and how He is increasing my transcendental bliss more and more!"
When Krsna, the beloved son of Nanda Maharaj, steps into His kaisora age, although He becomes more beautiful, His parents still consider Him as being in the pauganda age-even though He is between the ages of ten and fifteen. When Krsna is in His pauganda age, some of His servants also accept Him as being in the kaisora age. When Krsna performs His childish pastimes, His general practice is to break the milk and yogurt pots, throw the yogurt in the courtyard and steal the cream from the milk. Sometimes He breaks the churning rod, and sometimes He throws butter on the fire. In this way, He increases the transcendental pleasure of His Mother Yasoda.
In this connection Mother Yasoda once told Mukhara, her maidservant,"Just look at Krsna looking stealthily toward all sides and slowly stepping forward from the bushes. It appears that He is coming just to steal the butter. Don't expose yourself or He may understand that we are looking towards Him. I want to enjoy the sight of His eyebrows moving in this cunning way, and I want to see His fearful eyes and beautiful face."
In enjoying Krsna's attitude of stealing butter very stealthily, Mother Yasoda experienced the ecstasy of maternal love by smelling His head, sometimes patting His body with her hand, sometimes offering blessings, sometimes ordering Him, sometimes gazing at Him, sometimes maintaining Him and sometimes giving Him good instructions not to become a thief. Such activities are in maternal ecstatic love. An important point to be observed in this connection is that the childish propensity of stealing is there even in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore this propensity is not artificial. However, in the spiritual relationship there is no inebriety to this stealing propensity, as there is in the material world.
In the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 13th Chapter, verse 39, Sukadeva Gosvami tells King Pariksit: "My dear King, as soon as the elderly gopis saw their sons coming, there was an inexpressible sign of parental love, and all of them became absorbed in affection. At first they were planning to chastise their sons for stealing butter, but as soon as the sons came before their eyes, they lost all of their angry attitudes and became overwhelmed with affection. They began to embrace their sons and smell their heads. While doing this, they became almost mad after their children." In their childhood pastimes, all these cowherd boys joined with Krsna in stealing butter. But rather than become angry, Mother Yasoda became wet from the milk flowing out of her breasts. Out of her affection for Krsna, she began to smell His head repeatedly.
The general activities of all the mothers of the cowherd boys were to kiss them, to embrace them, to call them by their names and sometimes to mildly chastise them for their stealing habits. These manifestations of parental love are called sattvika ecstasy, wherein manifestations of eight kinds of ecstatic symptoms are visible in full. In the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 13th Chapter, 19th verse, Sukadeva Gosvami tells King Pariksit: "All the mothers of the cowherd boys were illusioned by the covering influence of the yoga-maya potency of the Personality of Godhead, and as soon as they heard the flute- playing of their boys, they immediately stood up and mentally embraced their sons, who had been created by the direct internal potency of Krsna. Accepting them as their born sons, they lifted them into their arms and began to embrace them, resting the children's bodies upon their own. The emotions created by this incident were sweeter than nectar turned into a palatable intoxicant, and the milk flowing out of their breasts was immediately drunk up by the children."
In the Lalita-madhava, compiled by Rupa Gosvami, Krsna is addressed as follows: "My dear Krsna, when You are engaged in herding the animals, the dust caused by the hooves of the calves and cows covers Your nice face and artistic tilaka, and You appear very dusty. But when You return home, the milk flowing out of the breasts of Your mother washes Your face of its dust covering, and it appears that You are purified by this milk. It is just like when the Deity is washed during the performance of the abhiseka ceremony." It is the custom in the temples of Deities that if there have been some impure activities, the Deity has to be washed with milk. Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He was washed by the milk from the breast of Mother Yasoda, which purified Him from the dust covering.
Sometimes there are examples of Mother Yasoda's becoming stunned in ecstasy. This was exhibited when she saw her son lifting Govardhan Hill. When Krsna was standing, raising the hill, Mother Yasoda hesitated to embrace Him and became stunned. The dangerous position that Krsna had accepted by lifting the hill brought tears to her eyes. And with her eyes filled with tears she could not see Krsna anymore, and because her throat was choked up by anxiety she could not even instruct Krsna as to what He should do in that position. This is a symptom of becoming stunned in ecstatic love.
Mother Yasoda sometimes enjoyed transcendental ecstasy in happiness when her child was saved from a dangerous situation, such as being attacked by Putana or some other demon. In Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 17th Chapter, 15th verse Sukadeva Gosvami says that Mother Yasoda felt very, very fortunate when she got back her lost child. She immediately placed Him on her lap and began to embrace Him again and again. While she was thus embracing her son repeatedly, torrents of tears fell from her eyes, and she was unable to express her transcendental joy. It is stated in the Vidagdha-madhava of Srila Rupa Gosvami: "My dear Krsna, the touch of Your mother is so pleasing and cooling that it surpasses the cooling capacity of the pulp of sandalwood and of bright moonshine mixed with the pulp of usira root." (Usira is a kind of root which when soaked with water has a very, very cooling effect. It is especially used in the scorching heat of the sun.)
The parental love of Mother Yasoda for Krsna steadily increases, and her love and ecstasy are sometimes described as intense affection and sometimes as overwhelming attachment. An example of attachment for Krsna with overwhelming affection is given in the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 6th Chapter, 27th verse, where Sukadeva Gosvami addresses Maharaj Pariksit in this way: "My dear King, when magnanimous Nanda Maharaj returned from a tour, he began to smell the head of his son, and he was merged in the ecstasy of parental love." A similar statement is there in connection with Mother Yasoda when she was too anxious to hear the sound of Krsna's flute, expecting Him back from the pasturing ground. Because she thought that it was getting very late, her anxiety to hear the sound of Krsna's flute became doubled, and milk began to flow from her breast. In that condition she was sometimes going within the house, sometimes coming out of the house. She was constantly looking to see if Govinda was coming back along the road. When many very great sages were offering prayers to Lord Krsna, glorifying His activities, the Queen of Gokula, Mother Yasoda, entered the battlefield of Kuruksetra, wetting the lower part of her sari with the milk flowing from her breast. This entrance of Mother Yasoda at Kuruksetra was not during the Battle of Kuruksetra. At other times Krsna went to Kuruksetra from His paternal home (Dvaraka) during the solar eclipse, and at these times the residents of Vrndavana also went to see Him there.
When Krsna arrived at Kuruksetra in pilgrimage, all the people assembled there began to say that Krsna the son of Devaki had arrived. At that time Devaki, just like an affectionate mother, began to pat Krsna's face. And again when people cried that Krsna, the son of Vasudeva, had come, both King Nanda and Mother Yasoda became overwhelmed with affection and expressed their great pleasure.
When Mother Yasoda, the Queen of Gokula, was going to see her son Krsna at Kuruksetra, one of her friends began to address her thus: "My dear Queen, the milk flowing out of your breast-mountain has already whitened the River Ganges, and the tears from your eyes, mixed with black mascara, have already blackened the color of the Yamuna. And as you are standing just between the two rivers, I think that there is no need for your anxiety to see your son's face. Your parental affection has already been exhibited to Him by these two rivers!"
The same friend of Mother Yasoda addressed Krsna as follows: "My dear Mukunda, if Mother Yasoda, the Queen of Gokula, is forced to stand on fire, but is allowed to see Your lotus face, then this fire will appear to her as the Himalayan Mountains: full of ice. In the same way, if she is allowed to stay in the ocean of nectar but is not allowed to see the lotus face of Your Grace, then even this ocean of nectar will appear to her as an ocean of arsenic poison." Let the anxiety of Mother Yasoda of Braja, always expecting to see the lotus face of Krsna, be glorified all over the universe!
A similar statement was given by Kuntidevi to Akrura: "My dear brother Akrura, my nephew Mukunda is long absent from us. Will you kindly tell Him that His Aunt Kunti is sitting amongst the enemy and would like to know when she will be able to see His lotus face again?"
In the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Tenth Canto, 46th Chapter, 2nd verse, there is this statement: "When Uddhava was present at Vrndavana and was narrating the activities of Krsna in Dvaraka, Mother Yasoda, while hearing this narration, began to pour milk from her breasts and shed tears from her eyes." Another incident demonstrating Yasoda's extreme love for Krsna occurred when Krsna went to Mathura, the kingdom of Kamsa. In separation from Krsna, Mother Yasoda was looking at Krsna's makeup utensils, and she fell down on the ground almost unconscious, with a great sound. When she was rolling over on the ground, there were many scratches on her body, and in that piteous condition she began to cry, "O my dear son! My dear son!" And she slapped her breasts with her two hands. This activity of Mother Yasoda is explained by expert devotees as ecstatic love in separation. Sometimes there are many other symptoms, such as great anxiety, lamentation, frustration, being stunned, humility, restlessness, madness and illusion.
As far as Mother Yasoda's anxieties are concerned, when Krsna was out of the house in the pasturing ground, a devotee once told her, "Yasoda, I think your movements have been slackened, and I see that you are full of anxieties. Your two eyes appear to be without any movement, and I feel in your breathing a kind of warmth which is bringing your breast milk to the boiling point. All these conditions prove that out of separation from your son you have a severe headache." These are some of the symptoms of Mother Yasoda's anxiety for Krsna.
When Akrura was present in Vrndavana and was narrating the activities of Krsna in Dvaraka, Mother Yasoda was informed that Krsna had married so many queens and was very busy there in His householder affairs. Hearing this, Mother Yasoda lamented how unfortunate she was that she could not get her son married just after passing His kaisora age, and thus she could not receive both her son and daughter-in-law at her home. She exclaimed, "My dear Akrura, you are simply throwing thunderbolts on my head!" These are signs of lamentation on the part of Mother Yasoda in separation from Krsna.
Similarly, Mother Yasoda felt frustration when she thought, "Although I have millions of cows, the milk of these cows could not satisfy Krsna. Therefore let a curse be on this milk! And I also am condemned because although I am so opulent in material prosperity, I am now unable to smell the head of my child and feed Him with my breast milk as I used to do when He was here in Vrndavana." This is a sign of frustration on the part of Mother Yasoda in separation from Krsna.
One friend of Krsna's addressed Him thus: "My dear lotus-eyed one, when You were living in Gokula You were always bearing a stick in Your hand. That stick is now lying idle in the house of Mother Yasoda, and whenever she sees it she becomes motionless just like the stick." This is the sign of becoming stunned in separation from Krsna. In separation from Krsna Mother Yasoda became so humble that she prayed to the creator of the universe, Lord Brahma, with tears in her eyes: "My dear creator, won't you kindly bring my dear son Krsna back to me so that I can see Him at least for a moment?" Sometimes in restlessness like a madwoman Mother Yasoda used to accuse Nanda Maharaj, "What are you doing in the palace? You shameless man! Why do people call you the King of Braja? It is very astonishing that while being separated from your dear son Krsna, you are still living within Vrndavana as a hard-hearted father!"
Someone informed Krsna about the madness of Mother Yasoda in the following words: "In madness Mother Yasoda has addressed the kadamba trees and inquired from them, 'Where is my son?' Similarly, she has addressed the birds and the drones and inquired from them as to whether Krsna has passed before them, and she has inquired if they can say anything about You. In this way, Mother Yasoda in illusion was asking everybody about You, and she has been wandering all over Vrndavana." This is madness in separation from Krsna.
When Nanda Maharaj was accused by Mother Yasoda of being "hard-hearted," he replied, "My dear Yasoda, why are you becoming so agitated? Kindly look more carefully. Just see, your son Krsna is standing before you! Don't become a madwoman like this. Please keep my home peaceful." And Krsna was informed by some friend that His father Nanda was also in illusion in this way, in separation from Him.
When all the wives of Vasudeva were present in the arena of Kamsa, they saw the most pleasing bodily features of Krsna, and immediately, out of parental affection, milk began to flow from their breasts, and the lower parts of their saris became wet. This symptom of ecstatic love is an example of the result of fulfillment of desire.
In the First Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam, 11th Chapter, 25th verse, it is stated, "When Krsna entered Dvaraka after finishing the Battle of Kuruksetra, He first of all saw His mother and all His different stepmothers and offered His respectful obeisances unto their feet. The mothers immediately took Krsna upon their laps, and because of their parental affection, there was milk flowing out of their breasts. So their breast milk, mixed with the water of tears, became the first offering to Krsna." This is one of the examples of being satisfied after a great separation.
There is a similar statement in the Lalita-madhava: "How wonderful it is that Yasoda, the wife of King Nanda, out of her parental affection for Krsna, mixed her tears and the milk from her breasts and thus bathed her dear son Krsna." In Vidagdha-madhava, a devotee addresses Lord Krsna as follows: "My dear Mukunda, just after seeing Your face full with the flavor of the lotus flower, and being attracted by the moonlight of Your face, Mother Yasoda became so overjoyed in her affection that immediately from the nipples of her waterpot-like breasts, milk began to flow." She was thus constantly engaged in supplying milk to Krsna after wetting the covering cloth over the jug.
These are some of the signs of parental love for Krsna by His mother, father and elderly persons. Symptoms of ecstatic love in parental affection are expressed when Krsna is accepted as the son. These constant transcendental emotions for Krsna are called steady ecstasy in parental love.
Srila Rupa Gosvami states herein that according to some learned scholars, the three kinds of transcendental mellow so far described-namely, servitude, fraternity and parental affection-are sometimes mixed up. For example, the fraternal feelings of Balarama are mixed with servitude and parental affection. Similarly, King Yudhisthira's attraction for Krsna is also mixed with parental affection and servitude. Similarly, the transcendental mellow of Ugrasena, Krsna's grandfather, is mixed with servitude and parental affection. The affection of all the elderly gopis in Vrndavana is a mixture of parental love, servitude and fraternity. The affection of the sons of Madri, Nakula and Sahadeva, as well as the affection of sage Narada, is a mixture of friendship and servitude. The affection of Lord Siva, Garuda and Uddhava is a mixture of servitude and fraternity.

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