Introduction
[Originally delivered as five morning lectures on Caitanya-caritamrta-the authoritative biography of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, by Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami-before the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, New York City, April 10-14, 1967.]
The word caitanya means living force. As living entities, we can move, but a table cannot because it does not possess living force. Movement and activity may be considered to be signs or symptoms of the living force. Indeed, it may be said that there can be no activity without the living force. Although the living force is present in the material condition, it is not amrta, immortal. The words caitanya-caritamrta, then, may be translated as "the character of the living force in immortality."
But how is this living force displayed immortally? It is not displayed by man or any other creature in this material universe, for none of us are immortal in these bodies. We possess the living force, we perform activities, and we are immortal by our nature and constitution, but the material condition into which we have been put does not allow our immortality to be displayed. It is stated in the Katha Upanisad that eternality and the living force belong both to ourselves and God. Although this is true in that both God and ourselves are immortal, there is a difference. As living entities, we perform many activities, but we have a tendency to fall down into material nature. God has no such tendency. Being all-powerful, He never comes under the control of material nature. Indeed, material nature is but one display of His inconceivable energies.
On the ground we may see only clouds in the sky, but if we fly above the clouds we can see the sun shining. From the sky, skyscrapers and cities seem very tiny; similarly, from God's position this entire material creation is insignificant. The tendency of the conditioned living entity is to come down from the heights where everything can be seen in perspective. God, however, does not have this tendency. The Supreme Lord is not subject to fall down into illusion (maya) any more than the sun is subject to fall beneath the clouds. Because the Supreme Lord is not subject to illusion, He is unconditioned; because we, as finite living entities, are prone to fall into illusion, we are called conditioned. Impersonalist philosophers (Mayavadis) maintain that both the living entity and God Himself are under the control of maya when they come into this material world. This may be true of the living entity, but it is not true of God, for in all instances the material energy is working under His direction. Those who consider the Supreme Lord to be subject to material conditioning are called fools by Krsna Himself in Bhagavad-gita:
"Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be." (Bg. 9.11)
Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu should not be considered to be one of us. He is Krsna Himself, the supreme living entity, and as such He never comes under the cloud of maya. Krsna, His expansions, and even His higher devotees never fall into the clutches of illusion. Lord Caitanya came to earth simply to preach Krsna-bhakti, love of Krsna. In other words, He is Lord Krsna Himself teaching the living entities the proper way to approach Krsna. He is like a teacher who, seeing a student doing poorly, takes up a pencil and writes, saying, "Do it like this: A, B, C." By this, one must not foolishly think that the teacher is learning his ABC's. Although He appears in the guise of a devotee, we should always remember that Lord Caitanya is Krsna (God) Himself teaching us how to become Krsna conscious, and we must study Him in that light.
In Bhagavad-gita Lord Krsna sets forth the highest religious principle in this way:
"Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear." (Bg. 18.66)
This may seem to be a simple instruction to follow, but invariably our reaction is, "Oh, surrender? Give up? But I have so many responsibilities." And maya, illusion, says to us, "Don't do it, or you'll be out of my clutches. Just stay in my clutches, and I'll kick you." It is a fact that we are constantly being kicked by maya, just as the male ass is kicked in the face by the she-ass when he comes for sex. Similarly, cats and dogs are always fighting and whining when they have sex. These are the tricks of nature. Even an elephant in the jungle is caught by the use of a trained she-elephant who leads him into a pit. Maya has many activities, and in the material world her strongest shackle is the female. Of course in actuality we are neither male nor female-for these designations refer only to the outer dress, the body. We are all actually Krsna's servants. In conditioned life, however, we are shackled by the iron chains which take the form of beautiful women. Thus every male is bound by sex life, and therefore when one attempts to gain liberation from the material clutches, he must first learn to control the sex urge. Unrestricted sex puts one fully in the clutches of illusion. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu officially renounced this illusion at the age of twenty-four, although His wife was sixteen and His mother seventy, and He was the only male member of the family. Although He was a brahmana and was not rich, He took sannyasa, the renounced order of life, and thus extricated Himself from family entanglement.
If we wish to become fully Krsna conscious, we have to give up the shackles of maya, or, if we remain with maya, we should live in such a way that we will not be subject to illusion. It is not necessary for one to abandon his family, for there were many householders amongst Lord Caitanya's closest devotees. What must be renounced is the propensity for material enjoyment. Although Lord Caitanya approved of a householder having regulated sex in marriage, He was very strict with those in the renounced order, and He even banished junior Haridasa for glancing lustfully at a young woman. The point is that one must take up a particular path and stick to it, obeying all the rules and regulations necessary for success in spiritual life. It was Lord Caitanya's mission that He teach the path of Krsna consciousness to all men and thereby enable them to partake of the immortality of spiritual life.
From Caitanya-caritamrta we learn how Caitanya taught people to become immortal, and thus the title may be properly translated as "the immortal character of the living force." The supreme living force is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is also the supreme entity. There are innumerable living entities, and all of them are individual. This is very easy to understand: We are all individual in thought and desires, and the Supreme Lord is also an individual person. He is different, though, in that He is the leader, the one whom no one can excel. Amongst the created living entities, one being can excel another in one capacity or another. The Lord is an individual, just as the living entities are individual, but He is different in that He is the supreme individual. God is also infallible, and in Bhagavad-gita He is addressed as Acyuta, which means, "He who never falls down." This is indicated because in Bhagavad-gita Arjuna had fallen into delusion but Krsna had not. We often hear it said that God is infallible, and in Bhagavad-gita Krsna states:
nanyam gunebhyah kartaram
yada drastanupasyati
gunebhyas ca param vetti
mad-bhavam so 'dhigacchati
"When you see that there is nothing beyond these modes of nature in all activities and that the Supreme Lord is transcendental to all these modes, then you can know My spiritual nature." (Bg. 14.19)
Thus we should not think that Krsna is overpowered by the material potency when He is in the material world. Krsna and His incarnations are not under the control of material nature. They are totally free. Indeed, in Srimad-Bhagavatam one who has a godly nature is actually defined as one who is not affected by the modes of material nature, although in material nature. If even a devotee can attain this freedom, then what to speak of the Supreme?
The real question is how can we remain unpolluted by material contamination while in the material world. It was Rupa Gosvami who explained that we can remain uncontaminated while in the world if we simply make it our ambition to serve Krsna. One may then justifiably ask, "How can I serve?" Obviously this is not simply a matter of meditation, which is just an activity of the mind, but of practical work. Love of Krsna's service can only be attained by working for Krsna. In such work, we should leave no resource unused. Whatever is there, whatever we have, should be used for Krsna. We can use everything: typewriters, automobiles, airplanes, missiles-anything. If we simply speak to people about Krsna consciousness, we are also rendering service. If our minds, senses, speech, money and energies are thus engaged in the service of Krsna, we cannot be considered to be existing in material nature. By virtue of spiritual consciousness, or Krsna consciousness, we transcend the platform of material nature. It is a fact that Krsna, His expansions and His devotees-that is, those who work for Him-are not in material nature, although people with a poor fund of knowledge think that they are.
Caitanya-caritamrta teaches that the spirit soul is immortal and that our activities in the spiritual world are also immortal. The Mayavadis, who hold to the view that the Absolute is impersonal and formless, contend that a realized soul has no need to talk. However, the Vaisnavas, who are devotees of Krsna, contend that when one reaches the stage of realization, he really begins to talk. "Previously we only talked of nonsense," the Vaisnava says. "Now let us begin our real talks, talks of Krsna." The Mayavadis are also fond of using the example of the water pot, maintaining that when a pot is not filled with water it makes a sound, but that when it is filled it makes no sound. But are we waterpots? How can we be compared to them? A good analogy utilizes as many similarities between two objects as possible. A water pot is not an active living force, but we are. Ever silent meditation may be adequate for a waterpot, but not for us. Indeed, when one has has realized he has so much to say about Krsna, twenty-four hours in a day is not sufficient. It is the fool who is celebrated as long as he does not speak, for when he breaks his silence his lack of knowledge is exposed. Caitanya-caritamrta shows that there are many wonderful things to discover by glorifying the Supreme.
In the beginning of Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami writes: "I offer my respects to my spiritual masters." He uses the plural here to indicate the disciplic succession. It is not that he offers obeisances to his spiritual master alone but to the whole parampara, the chain of disciplic succession beginning with Lord Krsna Himself. Thus the guru is addressed in the plural to show the author's highest respect for all the Vaisnavas. After offering obeisances to the disciplic succession, the author pays obeisances to all the other devotees, God-brothers, the expansions of Godhead and the first manifestation of Krsna's energy. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu (sometimes called Krsna Caitanya) is the embodiment of all of these; He is God, guru, devotee and the expansion of God. As His associate, Nityananda, He is the first manifestation of energy; as Advaita, He is an incarnation; as Gadadhara, He is the internal potency; and as Srivasa, He is the marginal living entity. Thus Krsna should not be thought of as being alone but should be considered as eternally existing with all His manifestations, as described by Ramanujacarya. In visistadvaita philosophy, God's energies, expansions and incarnations are considered to be oneness in diversity. In other words, God is not separate from all these; everything together is God.
Actually Caitanya-caritamrta is not intended for the novice, for it is the post-graduate study of spiritual knowledge. Ideally, one begins with and advances through Srimad-Bhagavatam to the Caitanya-caritamrta. Although all these great scriptures are on the absolute level, for the sake of comparitive study Caitanya-caritamrta is considered to be on the highest platform. Every verse in it is perfectly composed. Indeed, Lord Caitanya and Nityananda are compared to the sun and moon in that They dissipate the darkness of
the material world. In this instance both the sun and moon have risen together, and it is proper to offer obeisances directly to Lord Caitanya and Nityananda.
In the Western world where the glories of Lord Caitanya are relatively unknown, one may inquire, "Who is Krsna Caitanya?" The scriptural conclusion in answer to that question is that He is the Supreme Personality of God head. Generally in the Upanisads the Supreme Absolute Truth is described in an impersonal way, but the personal aspect of the Absolute Truth is mentioned in the Isopanisad, where, after a description of the all-pervading, we find the following verse:
hiranmayena patrena
satyasyapihitam mukham
tat tvam pusann apavrnu
satya-dharmaya drstaye
"O my Lord, sustainer of all that lives, Your real face is covered by Your dazzling effulgence. Kindly remove that covering and exhibit Yourself to Your pure devotee." (Sri Isopanisad, Mantra 15)
The impersonalists do not have the power to go beyond the effulgence of God and arrive at the personality from whom this effulgence is emanating. At the end of Isopanisad, however, there is a hymn to the Personality of Godhead. It is not that the impersonal Brahman is denied; it is also described, but that Brahman is considered to be the glaring effulgence of the body of Caitanya. In other words, Krsna Caitanya is the basis of the impersonal Brahman. It is also stated by Krsna in Bhagavad-gita that the impersonal Brahman rests on Him (brahmano hi pratisthaham, Bg. 14.27). The Paramatma, or Supersoul, which is present within the heart of every living entity and within every atom of the universe, is but the partial representation of Caitanya. Krsna Caitanya is therefore the basis of Brahman and the Supreme Personality of Godhead as well. As the Supreme, He is full in six opulences: wealth, fame, strength, beauty, knowledge and renunciation. In short, we should know that He is Krsna, God, and nothing is equal to or greater than Him. There is no superior to be conceived. He is the Supreme Person.
It was Rupa Gosvami, a confidential devotee taught for more than ten days continuously by Lord Caitanya, who wrote:
[Cc. Madhya 19.53]
"I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya, who is more magnanimous than any other avatara, even Krsna Himself, because He is bestowing freely what no one else has ever given-pure love of Krsna."
It is not that Caitanya teaches a long and elaborate path to God realization. He is completely spiritual, and He begins from the point of surrender to Krsna. He does not pursue the paths of karma-yoga or jnana-yoga or hatha-yoga but begins at the end of material existence, at the point where one gives up all material attachment. In Bhagavad-gita Krsna began His teachings by distinguishing the soul from matter and in the Eighteenth Chapter concluded at the point where the soul surrenders to Him in devotion. The Mayavadis would have all talk cease there, but at that point the real discussion only begins. It is the Vedanta-sutra which begins: athato brahma jijnasa: "Now let us begin to inquire about the Supreme Absolute Truth." Rupa Gosvami thus praises Caitanya as the most munificent incarnation of all, for He gives the greatest gift by indicating the highest form of devotional service. In other words, He answers the most important inquiries that anyone can make.
There are different stages of devotional service and God realization. Strictly speaking, anyone who accepts the existence of God is situated in devotional service. To acknowledge that God is great is something, but not much. Caitanya, preaching as an acarya, a great teacher, taught that we can enter into a relationship with God and actually become God's friend. In Bhagavad-gita Krsna showed Arjuna His universal form because Arjuna was His "very dear friend." Upon seeing Krsna as the Lord of the universes, however, Arjuna actually asked Krsna to forgive the familiarity of his friendship. Caitanya goes beyond this point. Through Lord Caitanya we can become friends with Krsna, and there is no limit to this friendship. We can become friends of Krsna not in awe or adoration but in complete freedom. We can even relate to God as His father. This is not only the philosophy of Caitanya-caritamrta but of Srimad-Bhagavatam as well. There are no other literatures in the world in which God is treated as the son of a devotee. Usually God is seen as the almighty Father who supplies the demands of His sons. The great devotees, however, sometimes treat God as a son in their execution of devotional service. The son demands, and the father supplies, and in supplying Krsna the devotee becomes like a father. Instead of taking from God, we give to God. It was in this relationship that Krsna's mother, Yasoda, told the Lord, "Here, eat this or You'll die. Eat nicely." In this way Krsna, although the proprietor of everything, depends on the mercy of His devotee. This is a uniquely high level of friendship in which the devotee actually believes himself to be the father of Krsna.
However, Lord Caitanya's greatest gift was His teaching that Krsna can be actually treated as one's lover. In this relationship the Lord is so much attached that He expresses His inability to reciprocate. Krsna was so obliged to the gopis, the cowherd girls of Vrndavana, that He felt unable to return their love. "I cannot repay your love," He told them. "I have no more assets to return." Thus devotional service is performed on this excellent platform, and knowledge of the devotee's relationship to Krsna as lover and beloved was given by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It was never given by any previous incarnation or acarya. Thus Rupa Gosvami wrote of Caitanya: "Devotional service itself is the highest platform, the glorious platform which You have contributed. You are Krsna in a yellow complexion, and You are Sacinandana, the son of mother Saci. Those who hear Caitanya-caritamrta will keep You in their hearts. It will be easy to understand Krsna through You." Thus Caitanya Mahaprabhu came to deliver Krsna. His method of deliverance was not meditation, fruitive activities or scriptural study, but love.
We have often heard the phrase "love of Godhead." How far this love of Godhead can actually be developed can be learned from the Vaisnava philosophy. Theoretical knowledge of love of God can be found in many places and in many scriptures, but what that love of Godhead actually is and how it is developed can be found in Vaisnava literatures. It is the unique and highest development of love of God that is given by Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
Even in this material world we can have a little sense of love. How is this possible? It is due to the love which is found in the Godhead. Whatever we find within our experience within this conditional life is situated in the Supreme Lord, who is the ultimate source of everything. In our original relationship with the Supreme Lord there is real love, and that love is reflected pervertedly through material conditions. Our real love is continuous and unending, but because that love is reflected pervertedly in this material world, it lacks continuity and is inebriating. If we want real transcendental love, we have to transfer our love to the supreme lovable object-the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the basic principle of Krsna consciousness.
In material consciousness we are trying to love that which is not at all lovable. We give our love to dogs and cats, running the risk that at the time of death we may think of them and consequently take birth in a family of cats or dogs. Thus love that does not have Krsna as its object leads downward. It is not that Krsna or God is something obscure or something that only a few chosen people can attain. Caitanya Mahaprabhu informs us that in every country and in every scripture there is some hint of love of Godhead. Unfortunately no one knows what love of Godhead actually is. The Vedic scriptures, however, are different in that they can direct the individual in the proper way to love God. Other scriptures do not give information on how one can love God, nor do they actually define or describe what or who the Godhead actually is. Although they officially promote love of Godhead, they have no idea how to execute it. But Caitanya Mahaprabhu gives a practical demonstration of how to love God in a conjugal relationship. Taking the part of Radharani, Caitanya tries to love Krsna as Radharani loved Him. Krsna was always amazed by Radharani's love. "How does Radharani give Me such pleasure?" He would ask. In order to study Radharani, Krsna lived in Her role and tried to understand Himself. This is the secret of Lord Caitanya's incarnation. Caitanya is Krsna, but He has taken the mode or role of Radharani to show us how to love Krsna. Thus He is addressed: "I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Lord who is absorbed in Radharani's thoughts."
This brings up the question of who Radharani is and what Radha-Krsna is. Actually Radha-Krsna is the exchange of love. This is not ordinary love; Krsna has immense potencies, of which three are principal: internal, external and marginal. In the internal potency there are three divisions: samvit, hladini and sandhini. The hladini potency is the pleasure potency. All living entities have this pleasure-seeking potency, for all beings are trying to have pleasure. This is the very nature of the living entity. At present we are trying to enjoy our pleasure potency by means of the body in this material condition. By bodily contact we are attempting to derive pleasure from material sense objects. We should not think, however, that Krsna, who is always spiritual, tries to seek pleasure on this material plane like us. Krsna describes the material universe as a nonpermanent place full of miseries. Why, then, would He seek pleasure in the material form? He is the Supersoul, the supreme spirit, and His pleasure is beyond the material conception.
In order to learn how Krsna's pleasure can be obtained, we must read the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam in which Krsna's pleasure potency is displayed in His pastimes with Radharani and the damsels of Vraja. Unfortunately, unintelligent people turn at once to the sports of Krsna in the Dasama-skandha, the Tenth Canto. Krsna's embracing Radharani or His dancing with the cowherd girls in the rasa dance are generally not understood by ordinary men because they consider these pastimes in the light of mundane lust. They incorrectly think that Krsna is like themselves and that He embraces the gopis just as an ordinary man embraces a young girl. Some people thus become interested in Krsna because they think that His religion allows indulgence in sex. This is not Krsna-bhakti, love of Krsna, but prakrta-sahajiya- materialistic lust.
In order to avoid such errors, we should understand what Radha-Krsna actually is. Radha and Krsna display their pastimes through Krsna's internal energy. The pleasure potency of Krsna's internal energy is a most difficult subject matter, and unless one understands what Krsna is, he cannot understand it. Krsna does not take any pleasure in this material world, but He has a pleasure potency. Because we are part and parcel of Krsna, the pleasure potency is within us also, but we are trying to exhibit that pleasure potency in matter. Krsna, however, does not make such a vain attempt. The object of Krsna's pleasure potency is Radharani, and He exhibits His potency or His energy as Radharani and then engages in loving affairs with Her. In other words, Krsna does not take pleasure in this external energy but exhibits His internal energy, His pleasure potency, as Radharani. Thus Krsna manifests Himself as Radharani in order to exhibit His internal pleasure potency. Of the many extensions, expansions and incarnations of the Lord, this pleasure potency is the foremost and chief.
It is not that Radharani is separate from Krsna. Radharani is also Krsna, for there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Without energy, there is no meaning to the energetic, and without the energetic, there is no energy. Similarly, without Radha there is no meaning to Krsna, and without Krsna, there is no meaning to Radha. Because of this, the Vaisnava philosophy first of all pays obeisances to and worships the internal pleasure potency of the Supreme Lord. Thus the Lord and His potency are always referred to as Radha-Krsna. Similarly, those who worship the name of Narayana first of all utter the name of Laksmi, as Laksmi-Narayana. Similarly, those who worship Lord Rama first of all utter the name of Sita. In any case-Sita-Rama, Radha-Krsna, Laksmi-Narayana-the potency always comes first.
Radha and Krsna are one, and when Krsna desires to enjoy pleasure, He manifests Himself as Radharani. The spiritual exchange of love between Radha and Krsna is the actual display of the internal pleasure potency of Krsna. Although we speak of "when" Krsna desires, just when He did desire we cannot say. We only speak in this way because in conditional life we take it that everything has a beginning; however, in the absolute or spiritual life there is neither beginning nor end. Yet in order to understand that Radha and Krsna are one and that They also become divided, the question "When?" automatically comes to mind. When Krsna desired to enjoy His pleasure potency, He manifested Himself in the separate form of Radharani, and when He wanted to understand Himself through the agency of Radha, He united with Radharani, and that unification is called Lord Caitanya.
Why did Krsna assume the form of Caitanya Mahaprabhu? It is explained that Krsna desired to know the glory of Radha's love. "Why is She so much in love with Me?" Krsna asked. "What is My special qualification that attracts Her so? And what is the actual way in which She loves Me?" It seems strange that Krsna, as the Supreme, should be attracted by anyone's love. We search after the love of a woman or a man because we are imperfect and lack something. The love of a woman, that potency and pleasure, is absent in man, and therefore a man wants a woman, but this is not the case with Krsna, who is full in Himself. Thus Krsna expressed surprise: "Why am I attracted by Radharani? And when Radharani feels My love, what is She actually feeling?" In order to taste the essence of that loving affair, Krsna appeared just as the moon appears on the horizon of the sea. Just as the moon was produced by the churning of the sea, by the churning of spiritual love affairs the moon of Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared. Indeed, Caitanya's complexion was golden, just like the moon. Although this is figurative language, it conveys the meaning behind the appearance of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The full significance of His appearance will be explained in later chapters.
The manifestations of the Supreme are also explained in Caitanya-caritamrta. After offering respects to Lord Caitanya, Krsnadasa Kaviraja next offers them to Nityananda. He explains that Nityananda is a manifestation of Sankarsana, who is the origin of the Maha-Visnu. Krsna's first manifestation is as Balarama and then Sankarsana, and after Sankarsana He is manifest as Pradyumna. In this way so many expansions take place. Although there are many expansions, Lord Sri Krsna is the origin, as confirmed in Brahma-samhita. He is like the original candle from which many thousands and millions of candles are lit. Although any number of candles can be lighted, the original candle still retains its identity as the origin. In this way Krsna expands Himself into so many lights, and all these expansions are called Visnu-tattva. Visnu is a large light, and we are small lights, but all are expansions of Krsna.
When it is necessary to create the material universe, Visnu expands Himself as the Maha-Visnu. This Maha-Visnu lies down on the Causal Ocean and breathes all the universes from His nostrils. Thus from the Maha-Visnu and the Causal Ocean all the universes spring, and all these universes float in the Causal Ocean. In this regard there is the story of Vamana, who, when He took three steps, stuck His foot through the covering of the universe. Water from the Causal Ocean flowed through the hole which His foot made, and it is said that that flow of water became the River Ganges. Therefore the Ganges is accepted as the most sacred water of Visnu and is worshiped by all Hindus from the Himalayas down to the Bay of Bengal.
That Maha-Visnu who lies on the Causal Ocean is actually an expansion of Balarama, who is Krsna's first expansion, and, in the Vrndavana pastimes, is the brother of Krsna. In the maha-mantra Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare, the word Rama refers to Balarama. Since Nityananda is an expansion of Balarama, Rama also refers to Lord Nityananda. Thus Hare Krsna, Hare Rama addresses not only Krsna and Balarama but Lord Caitanya and Nityananda as well.
The subject matter of Caitanya-caritamrta primarily deals with what is beyond this material creation. The cosmic material expansion is called maya because it has no eternal existence. Because it is sometimes manifested and sometimes not manifested, it is regarded as illusory. But beyond this temporary manifestation there is a higher nature, as indicated in Bhagavad-gita:
paras tasmat tu bhavo 'nyo
'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanah
yah sa sarvesu bhutesu
nasyatsu na vinasyati
"Yet there is another nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is." (Bg. 8.20)
That supreme nature is beyond the manifested (vyaktah) and unmanifested (avyaktah). This superior nature which is beyond both creation and annihilation is the living force which is manifest in the bodies of all living entities. The body itself is composed of inferior nature, matter, but it is the superior nature that is moving the body. The symptom of that superior nature is consciousness. Thus in the spiritual world, where everything is composed of the superior nature, everything is conscious. In the material world inanimate objects are not conscious, but in the spiritual world this is not so. There a table is conscious, the land is conscious, the trees are conscious-everything is conscious.
It is not possible to imagine how far this material manifestation extends. In the material world everything is calculated by imagination or by some imperfect method, but Vedic literatures give information of what lies beyond the material universe. Those who believe in experimental knowledge may doubt the Vedic conclusions, for they cannot even calculate how far this universe is extended, nor can they reach far into the universe itself. It is not possible to obtain information of anything beyond this material nature by experimental means. That which is beyond our power of conception is called acintya, inconceivable. It is useless to argue or speculate about what is inconceivable. If it is truly inconceivable, it is not subject to speculation or experimentation. Our energy is limited, and our sense perception is limited; therefore we must rely on the Vedic conclusions regarding that subject matter which is inconceivable. Knowledge of the superior nature must simply be accepted without argument. How is it possible to argue about something to which we have no access? The method for understanding transcendental subject matter is given by Lord Krsna Himself in Bhagavad-gita, where Krsna tells Arjuna at the beginning of the Fourth Chapter:
"I instructed this imperishable science of yoga to the sun-god, Vivasvan, and Vivasvan instructed it to Manu, the father of mankind, and Manu in turn instructed it to Iksvaku." (Bg. 4.1)
This is the method of parampara, or disciplic succession. Similarly, in Srimad-Bhagavatam Krsna imparted knowledge into the heart of Brahma, the first created creature within the universe. Brahma imparted those lessons to his disciple, Narada, and Narada imparted that knowledge to his disciple, Vyasadeva. Vyasadeva imparted it to Madhvacarya, and from Madhvacarya the knowledge comes down to Madhavendra Puri, to Isvara Puri and from him to Caitanya Mahaprabhu.
One may ask that if Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Krsna Himself, then why did He need a spiritual master? Of course He did not need a spiritual master, but because He was playing the role of acarya (one who teaches by example), He accepted a spiritual master. Even Krsna Himself accepted a spiritual master, for that is the system. In this way the Lord sets the example for men. We should not think, however, that the Lord takes a spiritual master because He is in want of knowledge. He is simply stressing the importance of accepting the disciplic succession. The knowledge of that disciplic succession actually comes from the Lord Himself, and if the knowledge descends unbroken, it is perfect. Although we may not be in touch with the original personality who first imparted the knowledge, we may receive the same knowledge through this process of transmission. In Srimad-Bhagavatam, it is stated that Krsna, the Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, transmitted transcendental knowledge into the heart of Brahma. This then is one way knowledge is received-through the heart. Thus there are two processes by which one may receive knowledge: One depends upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is situated as the Supersoul within the heart of all living entities, and the other depends upon the guru or spiritual master, who is an expansion of Krsna. Thus Krsna transmits information both from within and from without. We simply have to receive it. If knowledge is received in this way, it doesn't matter whether it is inconceivable or not.
In Srimad-Bhagavatam there is a great deal of information given about the Vaikuntha planetary systems which are beyond the material universe. Similarly, a great deal of inconceivable information is given in Caitanya-caritamrta. Any attempt to arrive at this information through experimental knowledge is not possible. The knowledge simply has to be accepted. According to the Vedic method, sabda, or transcendental sound, is regarded as evidence. Sound is very important in Vedic understanding, for, if it is pure, it is accepted as authoritative. Even in the material world we accept a great deal of information which is sent thousands of miles by telephone or radio. In this way we also accept sound as evidence in our daily lives. Although we cannot see the informant, we accept his information as valid on the basis of sound. Sound vibration then is very important in the transmission of Vedic knowledge.
The Vedas inform us that beyond this cosmic manifestation there are extensive planets and the spiritual sky. This material manifestation is regarded as only a small portion of the total creation. The material manifestation includes not only this universe but innumerable others as well, but all the material universes combined comprise only one fraction of the total creation. The majority of the creation is situated in the spiritual sky. In that sky innumerable planets float, and these are called Vaikunthalokas. In every Vaikunthaloka Narayana presides in the form of His four-armed expansions: Sankarsana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Vasudeva.
As stated before, the material universes are manifested by the Lord in the form of Maha-Visnu. Just as a husband and wife combine to beget offspring, the Maha-Visnu combines with His wife Maya, or material nature. This is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita where Krsna states:
"It should be understood that all species of life, O son of Kunti, are made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed-giving father." (Bg. 14.4)
Visnu impregnated Maya or material nature simply by glancing at her. This is the spiritual method. Materially we are limited to impregnate by only one particular part of our body, but the Supreme Lord, Krsna or Maha-Visnu, can impregnate any part by any part. Simply by glancing the Lord can conceive countless living entities in the womb of material nature. The Brahma-samhita also confirms that the spiritual body of the Supreme Lord is so powerful that any part of that body can perform the functions of any other part. We can only touch with our hands or skin, but Krsna can touch just by glancing. We can only see with our eyes, we cannot touch or smell with them. Krsna, however, can smell and also eat with His eyes. When foodstuffs are offered to Krsna we don't see Him eating, but He eats simply by glancing at the food. We cannot imagine how things work in the spiritual world where everything is spiritual. It is not that Krsna does not eat or that we imagine that He eats; He actually eats, but His eating is different from ours. Our eating process will be similar to His when we are completely on the spiritual platform. On that platform every part of the body can act on behalf of any other part.
Visnu does not require anything in order to create. He does not require the goddess Laksmi in order to give birth to Brahma, for Brahma is born from a lotus flower which grows from the navel of Visnu. The goddess Laksmi sits at the feet of Visnu and serves Him. In this material world sex is required to produce children, but in the spiritual world one can produce as many children as he likes without having to take help from his wife. Because we have no experience with spiritual energy, we think that Brahma's birth from the navel of Visnu is simply a fictional story. We are not aware that spiritual energy is so powerful that it can do anything and everything. Material energy is dependent on certain laws, but spiritual energy is fully independent.
Brahma is born from the navel of Garbhodakasayi Visnu, who is but a partial manifestation of the Maha-Visnu. Countless universes reside like seeds within the skin pores of the Maha-Visnu, and when He exhales, they all are manifest. In the material world we have no experience of such a thing, but we do experience a perverted reflection in the phenomenon of perspiration. We cannot imagine, however, the duration of one breath of the Maha-Visnu, for within one breath all of the universes are created and annihilated. Lord Brahma only lives for the duration of one breath, and according to our time scale 4,320,000,000 years constitute only twelve hours of Brahma, and Brahma lives one hundred of his years. Yet the whole life of Brahma is contained within one breath of the Maha-Visnu. Thus it is not possible for us to imagine the breathing power of the Supreme Lord. That Maha-Visnu is but a partial manifestation of Krsna.
Thus Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami discusses Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu as Sri Krsna Himself, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Lord Nityananda as Balarama, the first expansion of Krsna. Advaitacarya, another principal disciple of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu's, is accepted as an expansion of the Maha-Visnu. Thus Advaitacarya is also the Lord, or, more precisely, an expansion of the Lord. The word advaita means nondual, and his name is such because he is nondifferent from the Supreme Lord. He is also called acarya, teacher, because he disseminated Krsna consciousness. In this way he is just like Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Although Caitanya is Sri Krsna Himself, He appears as a devotee to teach people in general how to love Krsna. Similarly, Advaitacarya appeared just to distribute the knowledge of Krsna consciousness. Thus he is also the Lord incarnated as a devotee. Krsna is manifested in five different expansions, and He and all of His associates appear as devotees of the Supreme Lord in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya, Nityananda, Advaitacarya, Gadadhara, Srivasa and others. In ali cases, Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the source of energy for ali His devotees. Since this is the case, if we take shelter of Caitanya Mahaprabhu for the successful execution of Krsna consciousness, we are sure to make progress. One devotional song by Narottama dasa Thakura states: "My dear Lord Caitanya, please have mercy upon me. There is no one who is as merciful as You. My plea is most urgent because Your mission is to deliver fallen souls, and no one is more fallen than l. I beg priority."
The author of Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, was an inhabitant of Vrndavana and a great devotee. He had been living with his family in Katwa, a small town in the district of Burdwan in Bengal. His family also worshiped Radha-Krsna, and once when there was some misunderstanding amongst his family about devotional service, Krsnadasa Kaviraja was advised by Nityananda Prabhu in a dream to leave home and go to Vrndavana. Although he was very old, he started out that very night and went to live in Vrndavana. While he was there, he met some of the Gosvamis, principal disciples of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He was requested to write Caitanya-caritamrta by the devotees of Vrndavana. Although he began this work at a very old age, by the grace of Lord Caitanya he finished it. Today it remains the most authoritative book on Caitanya's philosophy and life.
When Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami was living in Vrndavana, there were not very many temples. At that time Madana-mohana, Govindaji and Gopinatha were the three principal temples. As a resident of Vrndavana, he offered his respects to the Deities in these temples and requested God's favor: "My progress in spiritual life is very slow, so l'm asking Your help." In Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsnadasa first offers his obeisances to Madana-mohana vigraha, the Deity who can help us progress in Krsna consciousness. In the execution of Krsna consciousness, our first business is to know Krsna and our relationship with Him. To know Krsna is to know one's self, and to know one's self is to know one's relationship with Krsna. Since this relationship can be learned by worshiping Madana-mohana vigraha, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami first establishes his relationship with Him.
When this is established, Krsnadasa begins to worship the functional Deity, Govinda. Govinda resides eternally in Vrndavana. In the spiritual world of Vrndavana the buildings are made of touchstone, the cows are known as surabhi cows, givers of abundant milk, and the trees are known as wish-fulfilling trees, for they yield whatever one desires. In Vrndavana Krsna herds the surabhi cows, and He is worshiped by hundreds and thousands of gopis, cowherd girls, who are all goddesses of fortune. When Krsna descends to the material world, this same Vrndavana descends just as an entourage accompanies an important personage. Because when Krsna comes, His land also comes, Vrndavana is not considered to exist in the material world. Therefore devotees take shelter of the Vrndavana in India, for it is considered to be a replica of the original Vrndavana. Although one may complain that no kalpa-vrksa, wish-fulfilling trees, exist there, when the Gosvamis were there, the kalpa-vrksa were present. It is not that one can simply go to such a tree and make demands; one must first become a devotee. The Gosvamis would live under a tree for one night only, and the trees would satisfy all their desires. For the common man this may all seem very wonderful, but as one makes progress in devotional service, all this can be realized.
Vrndavana is actually experienced as it is by persons who have stopped trying to derive pleasure from material enjoyment. "When will my mind become cleansed of all hankering for material enjoyment so I will be able to see Vrndavana?" one great devotee asks. The more Krsna conscious we become and the more we advance, the more everything is revealed as spiritual. Thus Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami considered Vrndavana in India to be as good as the Vrndavana in the spiritual sky, and in Caitanya-caritamrta he describes Radharani and Krsna as seated beneath a wish-fulfilling tree in Vrndavana on a throne decorated with valuable jewels. There Krsna's dear friends, the cowherd boys and the gopis, serve Radha and Krsna by singing, dancing, offering betel nuts and refreshments and decorating Their Lordships with flowers. Even today in India people decorate thrones and recreate this scene during the month of July. Generally at that time people go to Vrndavana to offer their respects to the Deities there.
Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami maintains that the Radha and Krsna Deities show us how to serve Radha and Krsna. The Madana-mohana Deities simply establish that "I am Your eternal servant." With Govinda, however, there is actual acceptance of service, and therefore He is called the functional Deity. The Gopinatha Deity is Krsna as master and proprietor of the gopis. He attracted all the gopis, or cowherd girls, by the sound of His flute, and when they came, He danced with them. These activities are all described in the Tenth Canto of Srimad-Bhagavatam. These gopis were childhood friends of Krsna, and they were all married, for in India the girls are married by the age of twelve. The boys, however, are not married before eighteen so Krsna, who was fifteen or sixteen at the time, was not married. Nonetheless He called these girls from their homes and invited them to dance with Him. That dance is called the rasa-lila dance, and it is the most elevated of all the Vrndavana pastimes. Krsna is therefore called Gopinatha because He is the beloved master of the gopis.
Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami petitions the blessings of Lord Gopinatha. "May that Gopinatha, the master of the gopis, Krsna, bless you. May you become blessed by Gopinatha." Just as Krsna attracted the gopis by the sweet sound of His flute, the author of Caitanya-caritamrta prays that He will also attract the reader's mind by His transcendental vibration. It is the purpose of this book, Teachings of Lord Caitanya, to transmit the essence of that vibration in an easily readable summary study.

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