Jakarta, February 28, 1973
This verse (I have) partially explained last night. This is very important subject matter. Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead... Bhagavad-gita is spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore the knowledge is perfect. We are conditioned soul under the rules and regulation of the material nature, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not under the rules and regulation of the material world. That is the difference. Both of us, we are living entities, as I explained. Nityo nityanam cetanas cetananam (Katha Upanisad 2.2.13). God is also one of us. So far we are living entities, are concerned, we are the same. Just like I explained last night that we are samples of God, but He's complete, He's the whole; we are part and parcel. As part and parcel, there is tendency of being covered by maya. The example we can cite that the sun and the sunshine... Sunshine means accumulation of shining particles. They are also individual shining material, molecular parts. The cloud can cover the sunshine partial, not all. The sunshine is expanding millions and millions of miles. Out of that, hundred, two hundred miles may be covered by the cloud. So that portion of sunshine is called material world. Just try to understand. The God is just like sun, krsna surya-sama, and the sunshine, light, is the brahmajyoti. Impersonal brahmajyoti is just like the sunshine, and Paramatma is just like the sun globe. To understand the Absolute Truth we have to make progress from impersonal Brahman to localized Paramatma and then, from Paramatma, to this Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the statement of Srimad-Bhagavatam:
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvam yaj jnanam advayam
bhagavan iti sabdyate
The Srimad-Bhagavatam, when Sukadeva Gosvami was explaining that duty of the human being... Duty of the human being is explained that first beginning is dharma. Dharmena hina pasubhih samanah. Unless we come to the platform of understanding what is dharma, or religion... "Religion" is not the exact translation of the word dharma. Religion is understood in English dictionary as a kind of faith. But dharma does not mean that. Dharma means your characteristic which you cannot change. Just like water... Water is liquid. That is the characteristic of water. It cannot be changed. Stone-hardness is the characteristic of the stone. It cannot be changed. If you say that water has now changed its characteristic, it has become now hard, stonelike, that is not actually the fact. Although water sometimes becomes hard like stone by the influence of atmosphere, it immediately begins to melt. That means it is going to its own characteristic, liquidity. So when we speak of dharma, according to Vedic understanding, dharma means your characteristic which you cannot change. Therefore, in other words, sometimes dharma is explained as sanatana-dharma, sanatana-dharma. Sanatana means eternal. You cannot change it.
So you are eternal, as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gita, Second Chapter, text number 12:
Krsna says that "Both Arjuna, you, Me and all these persons, the soldiers and the kings who are assembled in this Battlefield of Kuruksetra, don't think that they did not exist in the past nor they will not exist in the future." That means present, you can see. Just like we are sitting together. Present we can see that you are there, I am here. Similarly, in the past also we are existing, and in the future also we shall exist in the same way. As you are individual souls, we are assembled together for understanding something. Similarly, every individual soul is different from one another. We can understand by our present experiment. You are individual soul, I am individual soul. I do not agree with you in every respect, neither you agree with me in every respect. All of us, we have got our individuality. That is our characteristic. That we cannot change. We have got our individuality. We cannot change it. This is our characteristic. And that individuality also meant for giving service. Just like you are all sitting here. Every one of us, we are giving service. Nobody can say... I challenge anybody in this meeting if he can say that he's not serving anybody. No. Everyone is serving. Somebody is serving his family, somebody is serving his boss, somebody is serving his country, his community, his nation—must be serving, must render some service. This is explained by Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu, that the characteristic of individual living entity is to remain eternal servant of Krsna, jivera svarupa haya nitya krsna dasa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109]. Krsna dasa. We do not become Krsna. This is a false theory. We never become Krsna. We cannot become even equal to Krsna. Asama. In the Bhagavad-gita it is stated that God is not only great but nobody is equal to Him. Asama. Asama means not equal. Everybody is below. Eko bahunam yo vidadhati kamam. That is the statement in the Katha Upanisad:
This is the distinction between God and others. He's also living entity, just... Krsna comes just like ordinary human being, and He works also with us, but that does not mean that Krsna is like us. No. That is a mistake. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gita: avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritah, param bhavam ajanantah [Bg. 9.11]. This is stated, that "Those who are mudha"—mudha means rascal or asses—"they think that I am also equal to them or they're equal to..." Avajananti mam mudha. They deride, they think "Krsna is as good as I am." This term(?), thinking like this, is meant for the asses, mudha. Mudha means asses, who has no knowledge. Avajananti mam mudha manusim tanum asritah, param bhavam ajananto [Bg. 9.11]. "He does not know what is the background of My existence, personality." That is known by the devotees.
So this is the statement of Bhagavad-gita, and we should try to understand this verse very nicely. Krsna says, "I existed." That means Krsna existed as the Supreme Lord, not like us. Similarly, we existed also in the past as His servants. That is the explanation of this verse. Because we are eternal servant of God, and that service attitude, being misplaced, we have divided our service spirit in so many ways. Everyone is trying to render service. Big, big leaders, they also want to give some service. So this is our service attitude. It is our eternal attitude. It cannot be changed. Just like faith. Today I am Muslim and tomorrow I may become Hindu. Today I am Christian and tomorrow I may become Muslim. Faith can be changed, but my character is still that I am servant. That cannot be changed. It does not mean... Suppose you are working in office. Now today you are Hindu or tomorrow you become Muslim. Does it mean in the office you be, become master? No. The service is there. Either you change your faith or don't change your faith, your character is still to serve, will continue. That is the reality. That is sanatana. Sanatana means eternal. Try to understand.
So sanatana, this word has been used in three or four places in the Bhagavad-gita. Mamaivamso jiva-bhuta jiva-loka sanatana [Bg. 15.7]. Sanatana. These living entities, they are sanatana. And another place in the Eighth Chapter in Bhagavad-gita this sanatana word is used: paras tasmat tu bhava 'nya 'vyakto 'vyaktat sanatanah [Bg. 8.20]. There is another sky. Just like we are seeing this sky. This is called material sky, and we are seeing the sky in one universe. We, according to our Vedic information, the sky which you are seeing, this is the sky of one of the universes. And there are millions of universes. We get this information from Vedic literature, Brahma-samhita: yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti [Bs. 5.40]. Jagad-anda means universe and koti means millions. So the sky which we're seeing before us, this is one of the sky of the universe. There are millions. And all these universes combined together is one part creation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That we find in the Bhagavad-gita.
"This material world is being maintained by one of My plenary portions. He is known as Paramatma." Vistabhya aham. "I enter by one of My plenary portions, and this whole material world is maintained in that." This material world is one-fourth manifestation of God's creation, and the spiritual world is three-fourth manifestation of... [break] ...which is known as brahmajyoti. There are millions and trillions of Vaikuntha planets. Vaikuntha planets... Vaikuntha, Vaikuntha means vigata-kuntha yasmad. Kuntha means anxiety. Just like within this material world we are full of anxieties. Similarly, when you..., when we go to the spiritual world there is also planet like this, but there is no kuntha, there is no anxieties. Here anyone, up to Brahma, a-brahma bhuvanal lokan punar avartino 'rjuna, even if you go to the highest planetary system within this universe, still your anxiety will go with you. Your anxiety for what? Janma-mrtyu-jara-vyadhi duhkha-dosanudarsanam [Bg. 13.9]. The anxiety for death, anxiety for birth, anxiety for disease—these are the sum and substance of all our anxieties. Anxiety must be there. Therefore when Prahlada Maharaja was asked by his father, "My dear son, what nice things you have learned? Will you kindly explain? You're going to school," Prahlada Maharaja said,
tat sadhu manye 'sura-varya dehinam
sada samudvigna-dhiyam asad-grahat
hitvatma-patam grham andha-kupam
vanam gato yad dharim asrayeta
The father was atheist, and the son, by nature—not by nature; he was instructed by Narada Muni about devotional service, so he became perfect. That was the quarrel between the father and the son. The son was a great devotee and the father was a great atheist. The father did not like that his son should be devotee, and father..., son did not like that his father should remain an atheist. So there was misunderstanding. The son was right, but the father will not change his atheistic view. So anyway, after all, father and son, the relation is very affectionate, filial affection. So father asked that whether his son has changed his views. "My dear son, will you kindly explain what you have learned best." So he said, tat sadhu manye-asura-varya. He's addressing his father, asura-varya. Asura means demon, and varya means the top, varyam, the first-class asura. He did not address his father as "father." Asura-varya: "My dear first-class demon, I think you are asking me what is the best thing. So, in my opinion, everyone is very, very anxious." Tat sadhu manye 'sura-varya dehinam. Dehinam. Dehinam means one who has accepted this material body. He's called dehi. Practically we do not require this material body, but we have accepted this material body for enjoying in this material world. In the spiritual world we can simply remain as servant. We cannot become master. Because in the spiritual world the master is one—Krsna, or God—and everyone is servant. Jivera svarupa haya nitya krsna dasa [Cc. Madhya 20.108-109]. That is, that is our real position. Our real position is to serve. Now in the material world we have come here to enjoy, but we are serving. This is called maya. Actually we are not enjoying; we are serving. Suppose I become president of a certain state. What is my position? My position is to serve the country there. But I am thinking, "Now I am president." Similarly, in family life the head of the family, he's thinking that he's master, but actually he's serving his wife, his children, his servant. So our actual position is servitude. We serve. Either I become president or minister or head of the family, head of the community, society—whatever I may be, my position is servant, but I'm thinking that I have become master. This is called illusion. And sometimes when I become exasperated by becoming such master, false master, I give up this world. I say brahma satyam jagan mithya, "This world is false. Now I shall become Brahman, the Supreme Brahman. I shall merge into Brahman." This is... Just like the grapes are sour. The jackal and the orchard... You have knowledge of this story. This jackal wanted to capture the grapes, and when he could not capture, he gives it up: "Oh, the grapes are sour. It is no use." Similarly, first of all we try to become master—master of family, master of society, master of community, master of nation, master of international figure—and when you're baffled, then you give up this world. So-called give up. We cannot give up. But we say brahma satyam jagan mithya, "This world is false, and now brahma is satya; therefore I shall become Brahman." You are already Brahman. Why you shall become? You're already Brahman, because you are part and parcel of God. God is Brahman, Parabrahman, and you are Brahman also. Just like your part and parcel of the body, finger, that is of the same material as your whole body, the same blood, same skin, same bone. Similarly, we are already all Brahman. There is no mistake. Actually you want to be situated in His position. He knows that "I'm Brahman." Aham brahmasmi. So 'ham. So 'ham means "I'm as good as Krsna and God." That we know. Simply by our material understanding we cannot realize it. Actually we are Brahman. Therefore this Brahman realization is being explained by Krsna. This is Brahman. Brahman means sanatana, eternal. "My dear Arjuna, you also existed, I also existed in the past, because we are Brahman." Otherwise matter does not exist eternally. Any matter, any material thing you take, it does not exist. It has got a beginning and it has got an end, and in the middle there are so many disturbances—six kinds of changes in the matter, sad-vikara. But spirit, soul, Brahman, it has no change. Avinasi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idam tatam. This is explained in the Bhagavad-gita. Avinasi, na hanyate, na jayate na mriyate va kadacit na hanyate hanyamane sarire [Bg. 2.20]. These statements are there.
So this is Brahman realization, that "I have no death. I have no birth." This is Brahman realization. The birth and death is concerned with this body, and I am not this body.
Just like I, living entity, I am all existing in this body. I'm changing bodies so many times. I was a baby; I changed that body. I became a boy or a child. Then I became a boy; I changed my body. Then I became a young man; I changed my body. Then I became an old man; I changed my body. All those bodies, different types of body—babyhood, childhood, boyhood, youthhood—they are now gone, and now I'm existing in this old body. So it will also go. But that does not mean that I'll be finished. No. I'll accept another body. As I am changing different types of bodies, I am existing. Similarly, when I shall change this body, I shall exist in another body. Tatha dehantara-praptir dhiras tatra na muhyati [Bg. 2.13]. Dhira means those who are sober. He's not bewildered. Adhira. There are two kinds of men—dhira and adhira. Adhira means senseless, crazy, and dhira means with sense. He's not bewildered. He's called dhira. So when somebody dies, one who is dhira, he understands, "My father, my brother, or my relative, or somebody else, he has simply changed this body." Tatha dehantaram praptir. "So what is the cause of lamenting?" These things are discussed in the Bhagavad-gita. But even if you have got affection for that body, still Krsna says,
matra-sparsas tu kaunteya
tams titiksasva bharata
"My dear Arjuna, even if you are very much affected when the body of your son or your relative is finished, these things are temporary," agamapayina anitya. This death is also temporary because he'll accept immediately another body. So because we are accustomed to think that "This body is my son," or "my father," "my this, that," there is some pain, causes of pain. But Krsna says, "These are temporary." You'll not forever cry for your father, for son. Say one day, two days, three days, that's all. So it is just like temporary seasonal change, agamapayino 'nitya, matra-sparsas tu kaunteya sitosna-sukha-duhkha-dah [Bg. 2.14]. Just like we are feeling now very warm; therefore we require fan. This is due to change of season. Again, sometimes it will come that we have to cover with warm. So the body is the same, the world is the same, but something comes and goes. It makes some changes in the order. So we have to simply tolerate, tams titiksasva bharata. You should not be overwhelmed. This is knowledge.
This human form of life is meant for this knowledge. Therefore Krsna is teaching. This is brahma-jnana. This Bhagavad-gita is actually brahma-jnana. To make one brahma-bhuta by understanding the Bhagavad-gita, teachings of Bhagavad-gita, one realizes that he's Brahman. That is called Brahman. And as soon as one realizes—brahma-bhuta [SB 4.30.20]. Now we are jiva-bhuta, jiva-bhuta. We have accepted this body as "I am." "I am American," "I am Indian," "I am Indonesian," "I'm a Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I'm black," "I'm white." This is bodily. Yasyatma-buddhih kunape tri-dhatuke [SB 10.84.13]. One who is in bodily concept of life... Yasyatma-buddhih kunape tri-dhatuke sva-dhih kalatradisu bhauma ijya-dhih. Bhauma ijya-dhih. Now everyone is mad after bhauma. Bhauma means the land. Because my body, by accident, my body is produced in certain land, therefore I take this land as worshipable. Now it is going on, nationalism. [break] ...bhutva bhutva praliyate [Bg. 8.19]. (End)
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