Chapter Eighteen
Diti Vows to Kill King Indra
This chapter gives the history of Diti, the wife of Kaśyapa, and how she followed a vow to have a son who would kill Indra. It also describes how Indra attempted to foil her plan by cutting to pieces the son within her womb.
In relation to Tvaṣṭā and his descendants, there is a description of the dynasty of the Ādityas (sons of Aditi) and other demigods. Pṛśni, the wife of Aditi’s fifth son named Savitā, had three daughters—Sāvitrī, Vyāhṛti and Trayī—and very exalted sons named Agnihotra, Paśu, Soma, Cāturmāsya and the five Mahāyajñas. Siddhi, the wife of Bhaga, had three sons, named Mahimā, Vibhu and Prabhu, and she also had one daughter, whose name was Āśī. Dhātā had four wives—Kuhū, Sinīvālī, Rākā and Anumati—who had four sons, named Sāyam, Darśa, Prātaḥ and Pūrṇamāsa respectively. Kriyā, the wife of Vidhātā, gave birth to the five Purīṣyas, who are representatives of five kinds of fire-gods. Bhṛgu, the mind-born son of Brahmā, took his birth again from Carṣaṇī, the wife of Varuṇa, and the great sage Vālmīki appeared from Varuṇa’s semen. Agastya and Vasiṣṭha were two sons of Varuṇa and Mitra. Upon seeing the beauty of Urvaśī, Mitra and Varuṇa discharged semen, which they kept in an earthen pot. From that pot, Agastya and Vasiṣṭha appeared. Mitra had a wife named Revatī, who gave birth to three sons—Utsarga, Ariṣṭa and Pippala. Aditi had twelve sons, of whom Indra was the eleventh. Indra’s wife was named Paulomī (Śacīdevī). She gave birth to three sons—Jayanta, Ṛṣabha and Mīḍhuṣa. By His own powers, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared as Vāmanadeva. From His wife, whose name was Kīrti, appeared a son named Bṛhatśloka. Bṛhatśloka’s first son was known as Saubhaga. This is a description of the sons of Aditi. A description of Āditya Urukrama, who is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will be offered in the Eighth Canto.
The demons born of Diti are also described in this chapter. In the dynasty of Diti appeared the great saintly devotee Prahlāda and also Bali, Prahlāda’s grandson. Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa were the first sons of Diti. Hiraṇyakaśipu and his wife, whose name was Kayādhu, had four sons—Saṁhlāda, Anuhlāda, Hlāda and Prahlāda. They also had one daughter, whose name was Siṁhikā. In association with the demon Vipracit, Siṁhikā bore a son named Rāhu, whose head was severed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Kṛti, the wife of Saṁhlāda, bore a son named Pañcajana. Hlāda’s wife, whose name was Dhamani, gave birth to two sons—Vātāpi and Ilvala. Ilvala put Vātāpi into the form of a ram and gave him to Agastya to eat. Anuhlāda, in the womb of his wife, Sūryā, begot two sons, named Bāṣkala and Mahiṣa. Prahlāda’s son was known as Virocana, and his grandson was known as Bali Mahārāja. Bali Mahārāja had one hundred sons, of whom Bāṇa was the eldest.
After describing the dynasty of the Ādityas and the other demigods, Śukadeva Gosvāmī describes Diti’s sons known as the Maruts and how they were elevated to the position of demigods. Just to help Indra, Lord Viṣṇu had killed Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu. Because of this, Diti was very envious, and she was eager to have a son who could kill Indra. By her service, she enchanted Kaśyapa Muni in order to beg from him a greater son to do this. In corroboration of the Vedic injunction vidvāṁsam api karṣati, Kaśyapa Muni was attracted to his beautiful wife and promised to grant her any request. When, however, she requested a son who would kill Indra, he condemned himself, and he advised his wife Diti to follow the Vaiṣṇava ritualistic ceremonies to purify herself. When Diti, following the instructions of Kaśyapa, engaged in devotional service, Indra could understand her purpose, and he began observing all her activities. One day, Indra had the opportunity to see her deviating from devotional service. Thus he entered her womb and cut her son into forty-nine parts. In this way the forty-nine kinds of air known as the Maruts appeared, but because Diti had performed the Vaiṣṇava ritualistic ceremonies, all the sons became Vaiṣṇavas.
TEXT 1
śrī-śuka uvāca
pṛśnis tu patnī savituḥ
sāvitrīṁ vyāhṛtiṁ trayīm
agnihotraṁ paśuṁ somaṁ
cāturmāsyaṁ mahā-makhān
SYNONYMS
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca—Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; pṛśniḥPṛśni; tu—then; patnī—wife; savituḥ—of Savitā; sāvitrīmSāvitrī; vyāhṛtim—Vyāhṛti; trayīmTrayī; agnihotram—Agnihotra; paśumPaśu; somamSoma; cāturmāsyamCāturmāsya; mahā-makhān—the five Mahāyajñas.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Pṛśni, who was the wife of Savitā, the fifth of the twelve sons of Aditi, gave birth to three daughters—Sāvitrī, Vyāhṛti and Trayī—and the sons named Agnihotra, Paśu, Soma, Cāturmāsya and the five Mahāyajñas.
TEXT 2
siddhir bhagasya bhāryāṅga
mahimānaṁ vibhuṁ prabhum
āśiṣaṁ ca varārohāṁ
kanyāṁ prāsūta suvratām
SYNONYMS
siddhiḥSiddhi; bhagasya—of Bhaga; bhāryā—the wife; aṅga—my dear King; mahimānamMahimā; vibhumVibhu; prabhumPrabhu; āśiṣam—Āśī; ca—and; varārohām—very beautiful; kanyām—daughter; prāsūta—bore; su-vratām—virtuous.
TRANSLATION
O King, Siddhi, who was the wife of Bhaga, the sixth son of Aditi, bore three sons, named Mahimā, Vibhu and Prabhu, and one extremely beautiful daughter, whose name was Āśī.
TEXTS 3–4
dhātuḥ kuhūḥ sinīvālī
rākā cānumatis tathā
sāyaṁ darśam atha prātaḥ
pūrṇamāsam anukramāt
agnīn purīṣyān ādhatta
kriyāyāṁ samanantaraḥ
carṣaṇī varuṇasyāsīd
yasyāṁ jāto bhṛguḥ punaḥ
SYNONYMS
dhātuḥ—of Dhātā; kuhūḥKuhū; sinīvālīSinīvālī; rākāRākā; ca—and; anumatiḥ—Anumati; tathā—also; sāyamSāyam; darśamDarśa; atha—also; prātaḥPrātaḥ; pūrṇamāsamPūrṇamāsa; anukramāt—respectively; agnīn—fire-gods; purīṣyān—called the Purīṣyas; ādhatta—begot; kriyāyām—in Kriyā; samanantaraḥ—the next son, Vidhātā; carṣaṇīCarṣaṇī; varuṇasya—of Varuṇa; āsīt—was; yasyām—in whom; jātaḥ—took birth; bhṛguḥBhṛgu; punaḥ—again.
TRANSLATION
Dhātā, the seventh son of Aditi, had four wives, named Kuhū, Sinīvālī, Rākā and Anumati. These wives begot four sons, named Sāyam, Darśa, Prātaḥ and Pūrṇamāsa respectively. The wife of Vidhātā, the eighth son of Aditi, was named Kriyā. In her Vidhātā begot the five fire-gods named the Purīṣyas. The wife of Varuṇa, the ninth son of Aditi, was named Carṣaṇī. Bhṛgu, the son of Brahmā, took birth again in her womb.
TEXT 5
vālmīkiś ca mahā-yogī
valmīkād abhavat kila
agastyaś ca vasiṣṭhaś ca
mitrā-varuṇayor ṛṣī
SYNONYMS
vālmīkiḥ—Vālmīki; ca—and; mahā-yogī—the great mystic; valmīkāt—from an anthill; abhavat—took birth; kila—indeed; agastyaḥAgastya; ca—and; vasiṣṭhaḥVasiṣṭha; ca—also; mitrā-varuṇayoḥ—of Mitra and Varuṇa; ṛṣī—the two sages.
TRANSLATION
By the semen of Varuṇa, the great mystic Vālmīki took birth from an anthill. Bhṛgu and Vālmīki were specific sons of Varuṇa, whereas Agastya and Vasiṣṭha Ṛṣis were the common sons of Varuṇa and Mitra, the tenth son of Aditi.
TEXT 6
retaḥ siṣicatuḥ kumbhe
urvaśyāḥ sannidhau drutam
revatyāṁ mitra utsargam
ariṣṭaṁ pippalaṁ vyadhāt
SYNONYMS
retaḥ—semen; siṣicatuḥ—discharged; kumbhe—in an earthen pot; urvaśyāḥ—of Urvaśī; sannidhau—in the presence; drutam—flown; revatyām—in Revatī; mitraḥMitra; utsargam—Utsarga; ariṣṭamAriṣṭa; pippalamPippala; vyadhāt—begot.
TRANSLATION
Upon seeing Urvaśī, the celestial society girl, both Mitra and Varuṇa discharged semen, which they preserved in an earthen pot. The two sons Agastya and Vasiṣṭha later appeared from that pot, and they are therefore the common sons of Mitra and Varuṇa. Mitra begot three sons in the womb of his wife, whose name was Revatī. Their names were Utsarga, Ariṣṭa and Pippala.
PURPORT
Modern science is trying to generate living entities in test tubes by processing semen, but even long, long ago it was possible for semen kept in a pot to develop into a child.
TEXT 7
paulomyām indra ādhatta
trīn putrān iti naḥ śrutam
jayantam ṛṣabhaṁ tāta
tṛtīyaṁ mīḍhuṣaṁ prabhuḥ
SYNONYMS
paulomyām—in Paulomī (Śacīdevī); indraḥIndra; ādhatta—begot; trīn—three; putrān—sons; iti—thus; naḥ—by us; śrutam—heard; jayantamJayanta; ṛṣabham—Ṛṣabha; tāta—my dear King; tṛtīyam—third; mīḍhuṣam—Mīḍhuṣa; prabhuḥ—the lord.
TRANSLATION
O King Parīkṣit, Indra, the King of the heavenly planets and eleventh son of Aditi, begot three sons, named Jayanta, Ṛṣabha and Mīḍhuṣa, in the womb of his wife, Paulomī. Thus we have heard.
TEXT 8
urukramasya devasya
māyā-vāmana-rūpiṇaḥ
kīrtau patnyāṁ bṛhacchlokas
tasyāsan saubhagādayaḥ
SYNONYMS
urukramasya—of Urukrama; devasya—the Lord; māyā—by His internal potency; vāmana-rūpiṇaḥ—having the form of a dwarf; kīrtau—in Kīrti; patnyām—His wife; bṛhacchlokaḥ—Bṛhatśloka; tasya—of him; āsan—were; saubhaga-ādayaḥ—sons beginning with Saubhaga.
TRANSLATION
By His own potency, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has multifarious potencies, appeared in the form of a dwarf as Urukrama, the twelfth son of Aditi. In the womb of His wife, whose name was Kīrti, He begot one son, named Bṛhatśloka, who had many sons, headed by Saubhaga.
PURPORT
As the Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā (4.6):
ajo ’pi sann avyayātmā
bhūtānām īśvaro ’pi san
prakṛtiṁ svām adhiṣṭhāya
sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā
“Although I am unborn and My transcendental body never deteriorates, and although I am the Lord of all sentient beings, I still appear in every millennium in My original transcendental form.” When the Supreme Personality of Godhead incarnates, He does not need any help from the external energy, for He appears as He is by His own potency. The spiritual potency is also called māyā. It is said, ato māyāmayaṁ viṣṇuṁ pravadanti manīṣiṇaḥ: the body accepted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead is called māyāmaya. This does not mean that He is formed of the external energy; this māyā refers to His internal potency.
TEXT 9
tat-karma-guṇa-vīryāṇi
kāśyapasya mahātmanaḥ
paścād vakṣyāmahe ’dityāṁ
yathaivāvatatāra ha
SYNONYMS
tat—His; karma—activities; guṇa—qualities; vīryāṇi—and power; kāśyapasya—of the son of Kaśyapa; mahā-ātmanaḥ—the great soul; paścāt—later; vakṣyāmahe—I shall describe; adityām—in Aditi; yathā—how; eva—certainly; avatatāra—descended; ha—indeed.
TRANSLATION
Later [in the Eighth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam] I shall describe how Urukrama, Lord Vāmanadeva, appeared as the son of the great sage Kaśyapa and how He covered the three worlds with three steps. I shall describe the uncommon activities He performed, His qualities, His power and how He took birth from the womb of Aditi.
TEXT 10
atha kaśyapa-dāyādān
daiteyān kīrtayāmi te
yatra bhāgavataḥ śrīmān
prahrādo balir eva ca
SYNONYMS
atha—now; kaśyapa-dāyādān—the sons of Kaśyapa; daiteyān—born of Diti; kīrtayāmi—I shall describe; te—to you; yatra—where; bhāgavataḥ—the great devotee; śrī-mān—glorious; prahrādaḥPrahlāda; baliḥBali; eva—certainly; ca—also.
TRANSLATION
Now let me describe the sons of Diti, who were begotten by Kaśyapa but who became demons. In this demoniac family the great devotee Prahlāda Mahārāja appeared, and Bali Mahārāja also appeared in that family. The demons are technically known as Daityas because they proceeded from the womb of Diti.
TEXT 11
diter dvāv eva dāyādau
daitya-dānava-vanditau
hiraṇyakaśipur nāma
hiraṇyākṣaś ca kīrtitau
SYNONYMS
diteḥ—of Diti; dvau—two; eva—certainly; dāyādau—sons; daitya-dānava—by the Daityas and Dānavas; vanditau—worshiped; hiraṇyakaśipuḥ—Hiraṇyakaśipu; nāma—named; hiraṇyākṣaḥHiraṇyākṣa; ca—also; kīrtitau—known.
TRANSLATION
First the two sons named Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa took birth from Diti’s womb. Both of them were very powerful and were worshiped by the Daityas and Dānavas.
TEXTS 12–13
hiraṇyakaśipor bhāryā
kayādhur nāma dānavī
jambhasya tanayā sā tu
suṣuve caturaḥ sutān
saṁhrādaṁ prāg anuhrādaṁ
hrādaṁ prahrādam eva ca
tat-svasā siṁhikā nāma
rāhuṁ vipracito ’grahīt
SYNONYMS
hiraṇyakaśipoḥ—of Hiraṇyakaśipu; bhāryā—the wife; kayādhuḥ—Kayādhu; nāma—named; dānavī—descendant of Danu; jambhasya—of Jambha; tanayā—daughter; —she; tu—indeed; suṣuve—gave birth to; caturaḥ—four; sutān—sons; saṁhrādam—Saṁhlāda; prāk—first; anuhrādam—Anuhlāda; hrādamHlāda; prahrādamPrahlāda; eva—also; ca—and; tat-svasā—his sister; siṁhikāSiṁhikā; nāma—named; rāhumRāhu; vipracitaḥ—from Vipracit; agrahīt—received.
TRANSLATION
The wife of Hiraṇyakaśipu was known as Kayādhu. She was the daughter of Jambha and a descendant of Danu. She gave birth to four consecutive sons, known as Saṁhlāda, Anuhlāda, Hlāda and Prahlāda. The sister of these four sons was known as Siṁhikā. She married the demon named Vipracit and gave birth to another demon, named Rāhu.
TEXT 14
śiro ’harad yasya hariś
cakreṇa pibato ’mṛtam
saṁhrādasya kṛtir bhāryā-
sūta pañcajanaṁ tataḥ
SYNONYMS
śiraḥ—the head; aharat—cut off; yasya—of whom; hariḥHari; cakreṇa—with the disc; pibataḥ—drinking; amṛtam—nectar; saṁhrādasya—of Saṁhlāda; kṛtiḥKṛti; bhāryā—the wife; asūta—gave birth to; pañcajanam—Pañcajana; tataḥ—from him.
TRANSLATION
While Rāhu, in disguise, was drinking nectar among the demigods, the Supreme Personality of Godhead severed his head. The wife of Saṁhlāda was named Kṛti. By union with Saṁhlāda, Kṛti gave birth to a son named Pañcajana.
TEXT 15
hrādasya dhamanir bhāryā-
sūta vātāpim ilvalam
yo ’gastyāya tv atithaye
pece vātāpim ilvalaḥ
SYNONYMS
hrādasya—of Hlāda; dhamaniḥDhamani; bhāryā—the wife; asūta—gave birth to; vātāpim—Vātāpi; ilvalamIlvala; yaḥ—he who; agastyāya—to Agastya; tu—but; atithaye—his guest; pece—cooked; vātāpim—Vātāpi; ilvalaḥIlvala.
TRANSLATION
The wife of Hlāda was named Dhamani. She gave birth to two sons, named Vātāpi and Ilvala. When Agastya Muni became Ilvala’s guest, Ilvala served him a feast by cooking Vātāpi, who was in the shape of a ram.
TEXT 16
anuhrādasya sūryāyāṁ
bāṣkalo mahiṣas tathā
virocanas tu prāhrādir
devyāṁ tasyābhavad baliḥ
SYNONYMS
anuhrādasya—of Anuhlāda; sūryāyām—through Sūryā; bāṣkalaḥ—Bāṣkala; mahiṣaḥMahiṣa; tathā—also; virocanaḥVirocana; tu—indeed; prāhrādiḥ—the son of Prahlāda; devyām—through his wife; tasya—of him; abhavat—was; baliḥBali.
TRANSLATION
The wife of Anuhlāda was named Sūryā. She gave birth to two sons, named Bāṣkala and Mahiṣa. Prahlāda had one son, Virocana, whose wife gave birth to Bali Mahārāja.
TEXT 17
bāṇa-jyeṣṭhaṁ putra-śatam
aśanāyāṁ tato ’bhavat
tasyānubhāvaṁ suślokyaṁ
paścād evābhidhāsyate
SYNONYMS
bāṇa-jyeṣṭham—having Bāṇa as the eldest; putra-śatam—one hundred sons; aśanāyām—through Aśanā; tataḥ—from him; abhavat—there were; tasya—his; anubhāvam—character; su-ślokyam—laudable; paścāt—later; eva—certainly; abhidhāsyate—will be described.
TRANSLATION
Thereafter, Bali Mahārāja begot one hundred sons in the womb of Aśanā. Of these one hundred sons, King Bāṇa was the eldest. The activities of Bali Mahārāja, which are very laudable, will be described later [in the Eighth Canto].
TEXT 18
bāṇa ārādhya giriśaṁ
lebhe tad-gaṇa-mukhyatām
yat-pārśve bhagavān āste
hy adyāpi pura-pālakaḥ
SYNONYMS
bāṇaḥBāṇa; ārādhya—having worshiped; giriśam—Lord Śiva; lebhe—obtained; tat—of him (Lord Śiva); gaṇa-mukhyatām—the platform of being one of the chief associates; yat-pārśve—beside whom; bhagavān—Lord Śiva; āste—remains; hi—because of which; adya—now; api—even; pura-pālakaḥ—the protector of the capital.
TRANSLATION
Since King Bāṇa was a great worshiper of Lord Śiva, he became one of Lord Śiva’s most celebrated associates. Even now, Lord Śiva protects King Bāṇa’s capital and always stands beside him.
TEXT 19
marutaś ca diteḥ putrāś
catvāriṁśan navādhikāḥ
ta āsann aprajāḥ sarve
nītā indreṇa sātmatām
SYNONYMS
marutaḥ—the Maruts; ca—and; diteḥ—of Diti; putrāḥ—sons; catvāriṁśat—forty; nava-adhikāḥ—plus nine; te—they; āsan—were; aprajāḥ—without sons; sarve—all; nītāḥ—were brought; indreṇa—by Indra; sa-ātmatām—to the position of demigods.
TRANSLATION
The forty-nine Marut demigods were also born from the womb of Diti. None of them had sons. Although they were born of Diti, King Indra gave them a position as demigods.
PURPORT
Apparently even demons can be elevated to positions as demigods when their atheistic character is reformed. There are two kinds of men throughout the universe. Those who are devotees of Lord Viṣṇu are called demigods, and those who are just the opposite are called demons. Even the demons can be transformed into demigods, as the statement of this verse proves.
TEXT 20
śrī-rājovāca
kathaṁ ta āsuraṁ bhāvam
apohyautpattikaṁ guro
indreṇa prāpitāḥ sātmyaṁ
kiṁ tat sādhu kṛtaṁ hi taiḥ
SYNONYMS
śrī-rājā uvāca—King Parīkṣit said; katham—why; te—they; āsuram—demoniac; bhāvam—mentality; apohya—giving up; autpattikam—due to birth; guro—my dear lord; indreṇa—by Indra; prāpitāḥ—were converted; sa-ātmyam—to demigods; kim—whether; tat—therefore; sādhu—pious activities; kṛtam—performed; hi—indeed; taiḥ—by them.
TRANSLATION
King Parīkṣit inquired: My dear lord, due to their birth, the forty-nine Maruts must have been obsessed with a demoniac mentality. Why did Indra, the King of heaven, convert them into demigods? Did they perform any rituals or pious activities?
TEXT 21
ime śraddadhate brahmann
ṛṣayo hi mayā saha
parijñānāya bhagavaṁs
tan no vyākhyātum arhasi
SYNONYMS
ime—these; śraddadhate—are eager; brahman—O brāhmaṇa; ṛṣayaḥ—sages; hi—indeed; mayā saha—with me; parijñānāya—to know; bhagavan—O great soul; tat—therefore; naḥ—to us; vyākhyātum arhasi—please explain.
TRANSLATION
My dear brāhmaṇa, I and all the sages present with me are eager to know about this. Therefore, O great soul, kindly explain to us the reason.
TEXT 22
śrī-sūta uvāca
tad viṣṇurātasya sa bādarāyaṇir
vaco niśamyādṛtam alpam arthavat
sabhājayan san nibhṛtena cetasā
jagāda satrāyaṇa sarva-darśanaḥ
SYNONYMS
śrī-sūtaḥ uvāca—Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī said; tat—those; viṣṇurātasya—of Mahārāja Parīkṣit; saḥ—he; bādarāyaṇiḥ—Śukadeva Gosvāmī; vacaḥ—words; niśamya—hearing; ādṛtam—respectful; alpam—brief; artha-vat—meaningful; sabhājayan san—praising; nibhṛtena cetasā—with great pleasure; jagāda—replied; satrāyaṇa—O Śaunaka; sarva-darśanaḥ—who is aware of everything.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī said: O great sage Śaunaka, after hearing Mahārāja Parīkṣit speak respectfully and briefly on topics essential to hear, Śukadeva Gosvāmī, who was well aware of everything, praised his endeavor with great pleasure and replied.
PURPORT
Mahārāja Parīkṣit’s question was very much appreciated by Śukadeva Gosvāmī because although it was composed of a small number of words, it contained meaningful inquiries about how the sons of Diti, although born as demons, became demigods. Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura stresses that even though Diti was very envious, her heart was purified because of a devotional attitude. Another significant topic is that although Kaśyapa Muni was a learned scholar and was advanced in spiritual consciousness, he nonetheless fell a victim to the inducement of his beautiful wife. All these questions were posed in a small number of words, and therefore Śukadeva Gosvāmī very much appreciated Mahārāja Parīkṣit’s inquiry.
TEXT 23
śrī-śuka uvāca
hata-putrā ditiḥ śakra-
pārṣṇi-grāheṇa viṣṇunā
manyunā śoka-dīptena
jvalantī paryacintayat
SYNONYMS
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca—Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; hata-putrā—whose sons were killed; ditiḥDiti; śakra-pārṣṇi-grāheṇa—who was helping Lord Indra; viṣṇunā—by Lord Viṣṇu; manyunā—with anger; śoka-dīptena—kindled by lamentation; jvalantī—burning; paryacintayat—thought.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Just to help Indra, Lord Viṣṇu killed the two brothers Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu. Because of their being killed, their mother, Diti, overwhelmed with lamentation and anger, contemplated as follows.
TEXT 24
kadā nu bhrātṛ-hantāram
indriyārāmam ulbaṇam
aklinna-hṛdayaṁ pāpaṁ
ghātayitvā śaye sukham
SYNONYMS
kadā—when; nu—indeed; bhrātṛ-hantāram—the killer of the brothers; indriya-ārāmam—very fond of sense gratification; ulbaṇam—cruel; aklinna-hṛdayam—hard hearted; pāpam—sinful; ghātayitvā—having caused to be killed; śaye—shall I rest; sukham—happily.
TRANSLATION
Lord Indra, who is very much fond of sense gratification, has killed the two brothers Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu by means of Lord Viṣṇu. Therefore Indra is cruel, hardhearted and sinful. When will I, having killed him, rest with a pacified mind?
TEXT 25
kṛmi-viḍ-bhasma-saṁjñāsīd
yasyeśābhihitasya ca
bhūta-dhruk tat-kṛte svārthaṁ
kiṁ veda nirayo yataḥ
SYNONYMS
kṛmi—worms; viṭ—stool; bhasma—ashes; saṁjñā—name; āsīt—becomes; yasya—of which (body); īśa-abhihitasya—although designated as king; ca—also; bhūta-dhruk—he who harms others; tat-kṛte—for the sake of that; sva-artham—his self-interest; kim veda—does he know; nirayaḥ—punishment in hell; yataḥ—from which.
TRANSLATION
When dead, the bodies of all the rulers known as kings and great leaders will be transformed into worms, stool or ashes. If one enviously kills others for the protection of such a body, does he actually know the true interest of life? Certainly he does not, for if one is envious of other entities, he surely goes to hell.
PURPORT
The material body, even if possessed by a great king, is ultimately transformed into stool, worms or ashes. When one is too attached to the bodily conception of life, he is certainly not very intelligent.
TEXT 26
āśāsānasya tasyedaṁ
dhruvam unnaddha-cetasaḥ
mada-śoṣaka indrasya
bhūyād yena suto hi me
SYNONYMS
āśāsānasya—thinking; tasya—of him; idam—this (body); dhruvam—eternal; unnaddha-cetasaḥ—whose mind is unrestrained; mada-śoṣakaḥ—who can remove the madness; indrasya—of Indra; bhūyāt—may there be; yena—by which; sutaḥ—a son; hi—certainly; me—of me.
TRANSLATION
Diti thought: Indra considers his body eternal, and thus he has become unrestrained. I therefore wish to have a son who can remove Indra’s madness. Let me adopt some means to help me in this.
PURPORT
One who is in the bodily conception of life is compared in the śāstras to animals like cows and asses. Diti wanted to punish Indra, who had become like a lower animal.
TEXTS 27–28
iti bhāvena sā bhartur
ācacārāsakṛt priyam
śuśrūṣayānurāgeṇa
praśrayeṇa damena ca
bhaktyā paramayā rājan
manojñair valgu-bhāṣitaiḥ
mano jagrāha bhāva-jñā
sasmitāpāṅga-vīkṣaṇaiḥ
SYNONYMS
iti—thus; bhāvena—with the intention; —she; bhartuḥ—of the husband; ācacāra—performed; asakṛt—constantly; priyam—pleasing activities; śuśrūṣayā—with service; anurāgeṇa—with love; praśrayeṇa—with humility; damena—with self-control; ca—also; bhaktyā—with devotion; paramayā—great; rājan—O King; manojñaiḥ—charming; valgu-bhāṣitaiḥ—with sweet words; manaḥ—his mind; jagrāha—brought under her control; bhāva-jñā—knowing his nature; sa-smita—with smiling; apāṅga-vīkṣaṇaiḥ—by glancing.
TRANSLATION
Thinking in this way [with a desire for a son to kill Indra], Diti began constantly acting to satisfy Kaśyapa by her pleasing behavior. O King, Diti always carried out Kaśyapa’s orders very faithfully, as he desired. With service, love, humility and control, with words spoken very sweetly to satisfy her husband, and with smiles and glances at him, Diti attracted his mind and brought it under her control.
PURPORT
When a woman wants to endear herself to her husband and make him very faithful, she must try to please him in all respects. When the husband is pleased with his wife, the wife can receive all necessities, ornaments and full satisfaction for her senses. Herein this is indicated by the behavior of Diti.
TEXT 29
evaṁ striyā jaḍībhūto
vidvān api manojñayā
bāḍham ity āha vivaśo
na tac citraṁ hi yoṣiti
SYNONYMS
evam—thus; striyā—by the woman; jaḍībhūtaḥ—enchanted; vidvān—very learned; api—although; manojñayā—very expert; bāḍham—yes; iti—thus; āha—said; vivaśaḥ—under her control; na—not; tat—that; citram—astonishing; hi—indeed; yoṣiti—in the matter of women.
TRANSLATION
Although Kaśyapa Muni was a learned scholar, he was captivated by Diti’s artificial behavior, which brought him under her control. Therefore he assured his wife that he would fulfill her desires. Such a promise by a husband is not at all astonishing.
TEXT 30
vilokyaikānta-bhūtāni
bhūtāny ādau prajāpatiḥ
striyaṁ cakre sva-dehārdhaṁ
yayā puṁsāṁ matir hṛtā
SYNONYMS
vilokya—seeing; ekānta-bhūtāni—detached; bhūtāni—the living entities; ādau—in the beginning; prajāpatiḥ—Lord Brahmā; striyam—the woman; cakre—created; sva-deha—of his body; ardham—half; yayā—by whom; puṁsām—of men; matiḥ—the mind; hṛtā—carried away.
TRANSLATION
In the beginning of creation, Lord Brahmā, the father of the living entities of the universe, saw that all the living entities were unattached. To increase population, he then created woman from the better half of man’s body, for woman’s behavior carries away a man’s mind.
PURPORT
This entire universe is going on under the spell of sexual attachment, which was created by Lord Brahmā to increase the population of the entire universe, not only in human society but also in other species. As stated by Ṛṣabhadeva in the Fifth Canto, puṁsaḥ striyā mithunī-bhāvam etam: the entire world is going on under the spell of sexual attraction and desire between man and woman. When man and woman unite, the hard knot of this attraction becomes increasingly tight, and thus a man is implicated in the materialistic way of life. This is the illusion of the material world. This illusion acted upon Kaśyapa Muni, although he was very learned and advanced in spiritual knowledge. As stated in the Manu-saṁhitā (2.215) and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (9.19.17) :
“A man should not associate with a woman in a solitary place, not even with his mother, sister or daughter, for the senses are so strong that they lead astray even a person advanced in knowledge.” When a man remains in a solitary place with a woman, his sexual desires undoubtedly increase. Therefore the words ekānta-bhūtāni, which are used here, indicate that to avoid sexual desires one should avoid the company of women as far as possible. Sexual desire is so powerful that one is saturated with it if he stays in a solitary place with any woman, even his mother, sister or daughter.
TEXT 31
evaṁ śuśrūṣitas tāta
bhagavān kaśyapaḥ striyā
prahasya parama-prīto
ditim āhābhinandya ca
SYNONYMS
evam—thus; śuśrūṣitaḥ—being served; tāta—O dear one; bhagavān—the powerful; kaśyapaḥKaśyapa; striyā—by the woman; prahasya—smiling; parama-prītaḥ—being very pleased; ditim—to Diti; āha—said; abhinandya—approving; ca—also.
TRANSLATION
O my dear one, the most powerful sage Kaśyapa, being extremely pleased by the mild behavior of his wife Diti, smiled and spoke to her as follows.
TEXT 32
śrī-kaśyapa uvāca
varaṁ varaya vāmoru
prītas te ’ham anindite
striyā bhartari suprīte
kaḥ kāma iha cāgamaḥ
SYNONYMS
śrī-kaśyapaḥ uvācaKaśyapa Muni said; varam—benediction; varaya—ask; vāmoru—O beautiful woman; prītaḥ—pleased; te—with you; aham—I; anindite—O irreproachable lady; striyāḥ—for the woman; bhartari—when the husband; su-prīte—pleased; kaḥ—what; kāmaḥ—desire; iha—here; ca—and; agamaḥ—difficult to obtain.
TRANSLATION
Kaśyapa Muni said: O beautiful woman, O irreproachable lady, since I am very much pleased by your behavior, you may ask me for any benediction you want. If a husband is pleased, what desires are difficult for his wife to obtain, either in this world or in the next?
TEXTS 33–34
patir eva hi nārīṇāṁ
daivataṁ paramaṁ smṛtam
mānasaḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ
vāsudevaḥ śriyaḥ patiḥ
sa eva devatā-liṅgair
nāma-rūpa-vikalpitaiḥ
ijyate bhagavān pumbhiḥ
strībhiś ca pati-rūpa-dhṛk
SYNONYMS
patiḥ—the husband; eva—indeed; hi—certainly; nārīṇām—of women; daivatam—demigod; paramam—supreme; smṛtam—is considered; mānasaḥ—situated in the heart; sarva-bhūtānām—of all living entities; vāsudevaḥVāsudeva; śriyaḥ—of the goddess of fortune; patiḥ—the husband; saḥ—He; eva—certainly; devatā-liṅgaiḥ—by the forms of the demigods; nāma—names; rūpa—forms; vikalpitaiḥ—conceived; ijyate—is worshiped; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pumbhiḥ—by men; strībhiḥ—by women; ca—also; pati-rūpa-dhṛk—in the form of the husband.
TRANSLATION
A husband is the supreme demigod for a woman. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Vāsudeva, the husband of the goddess of fortune, is situated in everyone’s heart and is worshiped through the various names and forms of the demigods by fruitive workers. Similarly, a husband represents the Lord as the object of worship for a woman.
PURPORT
The Lord says in Bhagavad-gītā (9.23):
ye ’py anya-devatā-bhaktā
yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ
te ’pi mām eva kaunteya
yajanty avidhi-pūrvakam
“Whatever a man may sacrifice to other gods, O son of Kuntī, is really meant for Me alone, but it is offered without true understanding.” The demigods are various assistants who act like the hands and legs of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One who is not in direct touch with the Supreme Lord and cannot conceive of the exalted position of the Lord is sometimes advised to worship the demigods as various parts of the Lord. If women, who are usually very much attached to their husbands, worship their husbands as representatives of Vāsudeva, the women benefit, just as Ajāmila benefited by calling for Nārāyaṇa, his son. Ajāmila was concerned with his son, but because of his attachment to the name of Nārāyaṇa, he attained salvation simply by chanting that name. In India a husband is still called pati-guru, the husband spiritual master. If husband and wife are attached to one another for advancement in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, their relationship of cooperation is very effective for such advancement. Although the names of Indra and Agni are sometimes uttered in the Vedic mantras (indrāya svāhā, agnaye svāhā), the Vedic sacrifices are actually performed for the satisfaction of Lord Viṣṇu. As long as one is very much attached to material sense gratification, the worship of the demigods or the worship of one’s husband is recommended.
TEXT 35
tasmāt pati-vratā nāryaḥ
śreyas-kāmāḥ sumadhyame
yajante ’nanya-bhāvena
patim ātmānam īśvaram
SYNONYMS
tasmāt—therefore; pati-vratāḥ—devoted to the husband; nāryaḥ—women; śreyaḥ-kāmāḥ—conscientious; su-madhyame—O thin-waisted woman; yajante—worship; ananya-bhāvena—with devotion; patim—the husband; ātmānam—the Supersoul; īśvaram—representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
My dear wife, whose body is so beautiful, your waist being thin, a conscientious wife should be chaste and should abide by the orders of her husband. She should very devoutly worship her husband as a representative of Vāsudeva.
TEXT 36
so ’haṁ tvayārcito bhadre
īdṛg-bhāvena bhaktitaḥ
taṁ te sampādaye kāmam
asatīnāṁ sudurlabham
SYNONYMS
saḥ—such a person; aham—I; tvayā—by you; arcitaḥ—worshiped; bhadre—O gentle woman; īdṛk-bhāvena—in such a way; bhaktitaḥ—with devotion; tam—that; te—your; sampādaye—shall fulfill; kāmam—desire; asatīnām—for unchaste women; su-durlabham—not obtainable.
TRANSLATION
My dear gentle wife, because you have worshiped me with great devotion, considering me a representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I shall reward you by fulfilling your desires, which are unobtainable for an unchaste wife.
TEXT 37
ditir uvāca
varado yadi me brahman
putram indra-haṇaṁ vṛṇe
amṛtyuṁ mṛta-putrāhaṁ
yena me ghātitau sutau
SYNONYMS
ditiḥ uvācaDiti said; vara-daḥ—the giver of benedictions; yadi—if; me—to me; brahman—O great soul; putram—a son; indra-haṇam—who can kill Indra; vṛṇe—I am asking for; amṛtyum—immortal; mṛta-putrā—whose sons are dead; aham—I; yena—by whom; me—my; ghātitau—were caused to be killed; sutau—two sons.
TRANSLATION
Diti replied: O my husband, O great soul, I have now lost my sons. If you want to give me a benediction, I ask you for an immortal son who can kill Indra. I pray for this because Indra, with the help of Viṣṇu, has killed my two sons Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu.
PURPORT
The word indra-haṇam means “one who can kill Indra,” but it also means “one who follows Indra.” The word amṛtyum refers to the demigods, who do not die like ordinary human beings because they have extremely long durations of life. For example, the duration of Lord Brahmā’s life is stated in Bhagavad-gītā: sahasra-yuga-paryantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ [Bg. 8.17]. Even the duration of one day, or twelve hours, of Brahmā is 4,300,000 years multiplied by one thousand. Thus the duration of his life is inconceivable for an ordinary human being. The demigods are therefore sometimes called amara, which means “one who has no death.” In this material world, however, everyone has to die. Therefore the word amṛtyum indicates that Diti wanted a son who would be equal in status to the demigods.
TEXT 38
niśamya tad-vaco vipro
vimanāḥ paryatapyata
aho adharmaḥ sumahān
adya me samupasthitaḥ
SYNONYMS
niśamya—hearing; tat-vacaḥ—her words; vipraḥ—the brāhmaṇa; vimanāḥ—aggrieved; paryatapyata—lamented; aho—alas; adharmaḥ—impiety; su-mahān—very great; adya—today; me—upon me; samupasthitaḥ—has come.
TRANSLATION
Upon hearing Diti’s request, Kaśyapa Muni was very much aggrieved. “Alas,” he lamented, “now I face the danger of the impious act of killing Indra.”
PURPORT
Although Kaśyapa Muni was eager to fulfill the desire of his wife Diti, when he heard that she wanted a son to kill Indra his jubilation was immediately reduced to nothing because he was averse to the idea.
TEXT 39
aho arthendriyārāmo
yoṣin-mayyeha māyayā
gṛhīta-cetāḥ kṛpaṇaḥ
patiṣye narake dhruvam
SYNONYMS
aho—alas; artha-indriya-ārāmaḥ—too attached to material enjoyment; yoṣit-mayyā—in the form of a woman; iha—here; māyayā—by the illusory energy; gṛhīta-cetāḥ—my mind being captivated; kṛpaṇaḥ—wretched; patiṣye—I shall fall; narake—to hell; dhruvam—surely.
TRANSLATION
Kaśyapa Muni thought: Alas, I have now become too attached to material enjoyment. Taking advantage of this, my mind has been attracted by the illusory energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of a woman [my wife]. Therefore I am surely a wretched person who will glide down toward hell.
TEXT 40
ko ’tikramo ’nuvartantyāḥ
svabhāvam iha yoṣitaḥ
dhiṅ māṁ batābudhaṁ svārthe
yad ahaṁ tv ajitendriyaḥ
SYNONYMS
kaḥ—what; atikramaḥ—offense; anuvartantyāḥ—following; sva-bhāvam—her nature; iha—here; yoṣitaḥ—of the woman; dhik—condemnation; mām—unto me; bata—alas; abudham—not conversant; sva-arthe—in what is good for me; yat—because; aham—I; tu—indeed; ajita-indriyaḥ—unable to control my senses.
TRANSLATION
This woman, my wife, has adopted a means that follows her nature, and therefore she is not to be blamed. But I am a man. Therefore, all condemnation upon me! I am not at all conversant with what is good for me, since I could not control my senses.
PURPORT
The natural instinct of a woman is to enjoy the material world. She induces her husband to enjoy this world by satisfying his tongue, belly and genitals, which are called jihvā, udara and upastha. A woman is expert in cooking palatable dishes so that she can easily satisfy her husband in eating. When one eats nicely, his belly is satisfied, and as soon as the belly is satisfied the genitals become strong. Especially when a man is accustomed to eating meat and drinking wine and similar passionate things, he certainly becomes sexually inclined. It should be understood that sexual inclinations are meant not for spiritual progress but for gliding down to hell. Thus Kaśyapa Muni considered his situation and lamented. In other words, to be a householder is very risky unless one is trained and the wife is a follower of her husband. A husband should be trained at the very beginning of his life. Kaumāra ācaret prājño dharmān bhāgavatān iha (Bhāg. 7.6.1). During the time of brahmacarya, or student life, a brahmacārī should be taught to be expert in bhāgavata-dharma, devotional service. Then when he marries, if his wife is faithful to her husband and follows him in such life, the relationship between husband and wife is very desirable. However, a relationship between husband and wife without spiritual consciousness but strictly for sense gratification is not at all good. It is said in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (12.2.3) that especially in this age, Kali-yuga, dām-patye ’bhirucir hetuḥ: the relationship between husband and wife will be based on sexual power. Therefore householder life in this Kali-yuga is extremely dangerous unless both the wife and husband take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
TEXT 41
śarat-padmotsavaṁ vaktraṁ
vacaś ca śravaṇāmṛtam
hṛdayaṁ kṣura-dhārābhaṁ
strīṇāṁ ko veda ceṣṭitam
SYNONYMS
śarat—in the autumn; padma—a lotus flower; utsavam—blossoming; vaktram—face; vacaḥ—words; ca—and; śravaṇa—to the ear; amṛtam—giving pleasure; hṛdayam—heart; kṣura-dhārā—the blade of a razor; ābham—like; strīṇām—of women; kaḥ—who; veda—knows; ceṣṭitam—the dealings.
TRANSLATION
A woman’s face is as attractive and beautiful as a blossoming lotus flower during autumn. Her words are very sweet, and they give pleasure to the ear, but if we study a woman’s heart, we can understand it to be extremely sharp, like the blade of a razor. In these circumstances, who could understand the dealings of a woman?
PURPORT
Woman is now depicted very well from the materialistic point of view by Kaśyapa Muni. Women are generally known as the fair sex, and especially in youth, at the age of sixteen or seventeen, women are very attractive to men. Therefore a woman’s face is compared to a blooming lotus flower in autumn. Just as a lotus is extremely beautiful in autumn, a woman at the threshold of youthful beauty is extremely attractive. In Sanskrit a woman’s voice is called nārī-svara because women generally sing and their singing is very attractive. At the present moment, cinema artists, especially female singers, are especially welcome. Some of them earn fabulous amounts of money simply by singing. Therefore, as taught by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, a woman’s singing is dangerous because it can make a sannyāsī fall a victim to the woman. Sannyāsa means giving up the company of women, but if a sannyāsī hears the voice of a woman and sees her beautiful face, he certainly becomes attracted and is sure to fall down. There have been many examples. Even the great sage Viśvāmitra fell a victim to Menakā. Therefore a person desiring to advance in spiritual consciousness must be especially careful not to see a woman’s face or hear a woman’s voice. To see a woman’s face and appreciate its beauty or to hear a woman’s voice and appreciate her singing as very nice is a subtle falldown for a brahmacārī or sannyāsī. Thus the description of a woman’s features by Kaśyapa Muni is very instructive.
When a woman’s bodily features are attractive, when her face is beautiful and when her voice is sweet, she is naturally a trap for a man. The śāstras advise that when such a woman comes to serve a man, she should be considered to be like a dark well covered by grass. In the fields there are many such wells, and a man who does not know about them drops through the grass and falls down. Thus there are many such instructions. Since the attraction of the material world is based on attraction for women, Kaśyapa Muni thought, “Under the circumstances, who can understand the heart of a woman?” Cāṇakya Paṇḍita has also advised, viśvāso naiva kartavyaḥ strīṣu rāja-kuleṣu ca: “There are two persons one should not trust—a politician and a woman.” These, of course, are authoritative śāstric injunctions, and we should therefore be very careful in our dealings with women.
Sometimes our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is criticized for mingling men and women, but Kṛṣṇa consciousness is meant for anyone. Whether one is a man or woman does not matter. Lord Kṛṣṇa personally says, striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās te ’pi yānti parāṁ gatim: whether one is a woman, śūdra or vaiśya, not to speak of being a brāhmaṇa or kṣatriya, everyone is fit to return home, back to Godhead, if he strictly follows the instructions of the spiritual master and śāstra. We therefore request all the members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement—both men and women—not to be attracted by bodily features but only to be attracted by Kṛṣṇa. Then everything will be all right. Otherwise there will be danger.
TEXT 42
na hi kaścit priyaḥ strīṇām
añjasā svāśiṣātmanām
patiṁ putraṁ bhrātaraṁ vā
ghnanty arthe ghātayanti ca
SYNONYMS
na—not; hi—certainly; kaścit—anyone; priyaḥ—dear; strīṇām—to women; añjasā—actually; sva-āśiṣā—for their own interests; ātmanām—most dear; patim—husband; putram—son; bhrātaram—brother; —or; ghnanti—they kill; arthe—for their own interests; ghātayanti—cause to be killed; ca—also.
TRANSLATION
To satisfy their own interests, women deal with men as if the men were most dear to them, but no one is actually dear to them. Women are supposed to be very saintly, but for their own interests they can kill even their husbands, sons or brothers, or cause them to be killed by others.
PURPORT
A woman’s nature has been particularly well studied by Kaśyapa Muni. Women are self-interested by nature, and therefore they should be protected by all means so that their natural inclination to be too self-interested will not be manifested. Women need to be protected by men. A woman should be cared for by her father in her childhood, by her husband in her youth and by her grown sons in her old age. This is the injunction of Manu, who says that a woman should not be given independence at any stage. Women must be cared for so that they will not be free to manifest their natural tendency for gross selfishness. There have been many cases, even in the present day, in which women have killed their husbands to take advantage of their insurance policies. This is not a criticism of women but a practical study of their nature. Such natural instincts of a woman or a man are manifested only in the bodily conception of life. When either a man or a woman is advanced in spiritual consciousness, the bodily conception of life practically vanishes. We should see all women as spiritual units (), whose only duty is to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. Then the influences of the different modes of material nature, which result from one’s possessing a material body, will not act.
The Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is so beneficial that it can very easily counteract the contamination of material nature, which results from one’s possessing a material body. Bhagavad-gītā therefore teaches, in the very beginning, that whether one is a man or a woman, one must know that he or she is not the body but a spiritual soul. Everyone should be interested in the activities of the spirit soul, not the body. As long as one is activated by the bodily conception of life, there is always the danger of being misled, whether one is a man or a woman. The soul is sometimes described as puruṣa because whether one is dressed as a man or a woman, one is inclined to enjoy this material world. One who has this spirit of enjoyment is described as puruṣa. Whether one is a man or a woman, he is not interested in serving others; everyone is interested in satisfying his or her own senses. Kṛṣṇa consciousness, however, provides first-class training for a man or a woman. A man should be trained to be a first-class devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and a woman should be trained to be a very chaste follower of her husband. That will make the lives of both of them happy.
TEXT 43
pratiśrutaṁ dadāmīti
vacas tan na mṛṣā bhavet
vadhaṁ nārhati cendro ’pi
tatredam upakalpate
SYNONYMS
pratiśrutam—promised; dadāmi—I shall give; iti—thus; vacaḥ—statement; tat—that; na—not; mṛṣā—false; bhavet—can be; vadham—killing; na—not; arhati—is suitable; ca—and; indraḥIndra; api—also; tatra—in that connection; idam—this; upakalpate—is suitable.
TRANSLATION
I promised to give her a benediction, and this promise cannot be violated, but Indra does not deserve to be killed. In these circumstances, the solution I have is quite suitable.
PURPORT
Kaśyapa Muni concluded, “Diti is eager to have a son who can kill Indra, since she is a woman, after all, and is not very intelligent. I shall train her in such a way that instead of always thinking of how to kill Indra, she will become a Vaiṣṇava, a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. If she agrees to follow the rules and regulations of the Vaiṣṇava principles, the unclean core of her heart will certainly be cleansed.” Ceto-darpaṇa-mārjanam [Cc. Antya 20.12]. This is the process of devotional service. Anyone can be purified by following the principles of devotional service in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, for Kṛṣṇa consciousness is so powerful that it can purify even the dirtiest class of men and transform them into the topmost Vaiṣṇavas. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s movement aims at this purpose. Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura says:
The appearance of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in this Kali-yuga is especially meant to deliver the fallen souls, who are always planning something for material enjoyment. He gave the people of this age the advantage of being able to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra and thus become fully pure, free from all material contamination. Once one becomes a pure Vaiṣṇava, he transcends all material conceptions of life. Thus Kaśyapa Muni tried to transform his wife into a Vaiṣṇavī so that she might give up the idea of killing Indra. He wanted both her and her sons to be purified so that they would be fit to become pure Vaiṣṇavas. Of course, sometimes a practitioner deviates from the Vaiṣṇava principles, and there is a chance that he may fall down, but Kaśyapa Muni thought that even if one falls while practicing the Vaiṣṇava principles, he is still not a loser. Even a fallen Vaiṣṇava is eligible for better results, as confirmed in Bhagavad-gītā. Svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt: even practicing the Vaiṣṇava principles to a small extent can save one from the greatest danger of material existence. Thus Kaśyapa Muni planned to instruct his wife Diti to become a Vaiṣṇava because he wanted to save the life of Indra.
TEXT 44
iti sañcintya bhagavān
mārīcaḥ kurunandana
uvāca kiñcit kupita
ātmānaṁ ca vigarhayan
SYNONYMS
iti—thus; sañcintya—thinking; bhagavān—the powerful; mārīcaḥKaśyapa Muni; kuru-nandana—O descendant of Kuru; uvāca—spoke; kiñcit—somewhat; kupitaḥ—angry; ātmānam—himself; ca—and; vigarhayan—condemning.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Kaśyapa Muni, thinking in this way, became somewhat angry. Condemning himself, O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, descendant of Kuru, he spoke to Diti as follows.
TEXT 45
śrī-kaśyapa uvāca
putras te bhavitā bhadre
indra-hādeva-bāndhavaḥ
saṁvatsaraṁ vratam idaṁ
yady añjo dhārayiṣyasi
SYNONYMS
śrī-kaśyapaḥ uvācaKaśyapa Muni said; putraḥ—son; te—your; bhavitā—will be; bhadre—O gentle woman; indra-—killer of Indra, or follower of Indra; adeva-bāndhavaḥ—friend of the demons (or deva-bāndhavaḥ—friend of the demigods); saṁvatsaram—for a year; vratam—vow; idam—this; yadi—if; añjaḥ—properly; dhārayiṣyasi—you will execute.
TRANSLATION
Kaśyapa Muni said: My dear gentle wife, if you follow my instructions regarding this vow for at least one year, you will surely get a son who will be able to kill Indra. However, if you deviate from this vow of following the Vaiṣṇava principles, you will get a son who will be favorable to Indra.
PURPORT
The word indra- refers to an asura who is always eager to kill Indra. An enemy of Indra is naturally a friend to the asuras, but the word indra- also refers to one who follows Indra or who is obedient to him. When one becomes a devotee of Indra, he is certainly a friend to the demigods. Thus the words indra-hādeva-bāndhavaḥ are equivocal, for they say, “Your son will kill Indra, but he will be very friendly to the demigods.” If a person actually became a friend of the demigods, he certainly would not be able to kill Indra.
TEXT 46
ditir uvāca
dhārayiṣye vrataṁ brahman
brūhi kāryāṇi yāni me
yāni ceha niṣiddhāni
na vrataṁ ghnanti yāny uta
SYNONYMS
ditiḥ uvācaDiti said; dhārayiṣye—I shall accept; vratam—vow; brahman—my dear brāhmaṇa; brūhi—please state; kāryāṇi—must be done; yāni—what; me—to me; yāni—what; ca—and; iha—here; niṣiddhāni—is forbidden; na—not; vratam—the vow; ghnanti—break; yāni—what; uta—also.
TRANSLATION
Diti replied: My dear brāhmaṇa, I must accept your advice and follow the vow. Now let me understand what I have to do, what is forbidden and what will not break the vow. Please clearly state all this to me.
PURPORT
As stated above, a woman is generally inclined to serve her own purposes. Kaśyapa Muni proposed to train Diti to fulfill her desires within one year, and since she was eager to kill Indra, she immediately agreed, saying, “Please let me know what the vow is and how I have to follow it. I promise that I shall do the needful and not break the vow.” This is another side of a woman’s psychology. Even though a woman is very fond of fulfilling her own plans, when someone instructs her, especially her husband, she innocently follows, and thus she can be trained for better purposes. By nature a woman wants to be a follower of a man; therefore if the man is good the woman can be trained for a good purpose.
TEXT 47
śrī-kaśyapa uvāca
na hiṁsyād bhūta-jātāni
na śapen nānṛtaṁ vadet
na chindyān nakha-romāṇi
na spṛśed yad amaṅgalam
SYNONYMS
śrī-kaśyapaḥ uvācaKaśyapa Muni said; na hiṁsyāt—must not harm; bhūta-jātāni—the living entities; na śapet—must not curse; na—not; anṛtam—a lie; vadet—must speak; na chindyāt—must not cut; nakha-romāṇi—the nails and hair; na spṛśet—must not touch; yat—that which; amaṅgalam—impure.
TRANSLATION
Kaśyapa Muni said: My dear wife, to follow this vow, do not be violent or cause harm to anyone. Do not curse anyone, and do not speak lies. Do not cut your nails and hair, and do not touch impure things like skulls and bones.
PURPORT
Kaśyapa Muni’s first instruction to his wife was not to be envious. The general tendency of anyone within this material world is to be envious, and therefore, to become a Kṛṣṇa conscious person, one must curb this tendency, as stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (paramo nirmatsarāṇām). A Kṛṣṇa conscious person is always nonenvious, whereas others are always envious. Thus Kaśyapa Muni’s instruction that his wife not be envious indicates that this is the first stage of advancement in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Kaśyapa Muni desired to train his wife to be a Kṛṣṇa conscious person, for this would suffice to protect both her and Indra.
TEXT 48
nāpsu snāyān na kupyeta
na sambhāṣeta durjanaiḥ
na vasītādhauta-vāsaḥ
srajaṁ ca vidhṛtāṁ kvacit
SYNONYMS
na—not; apsu—in water; snāyāt—must bathe; na kupyeta—must not become angry; na sambhāṣeta—must not speak; durjanaiḥ—with wicked persons; na vasīta—must not wear; adhauta-vāsaḥ—unwashed clothes; srajam—flower garland; ca—and; vidhṛtām—which was already worn; kvacit—ever.
TRANSLATION
Kaśyapa Muni continued: My dear gentle wife, never enter the water while bathing, never be angry, and do not even speak or associate with wicked people. Never wear clothes that have not been properly washed, and do not put on a garland that has already been worn.
TEXT 49
nocchiṣṭaṁ caṇḍikānnaṁ ca
sāmiṣaṁ vṛṣalāhṛtam
bhuñjītodakyayā dṛṣṭaṁ
piben nāñjalinā tv apaḥ
SYNONYMS
na—not; ucchiṣṭam—leftover food; caṇḍikā-annam—food offered to the goddess Kālī; ca—and; sa-āmiṣam—mixed with flesh; vṛṣala-āhṛtam—brought by a śūdra; bhuñjīta—must eat; udakyayā—by a woman in her menstrual period; dṛṣṭam—seen; pibet na—must not drink; añjalinā—by joining and cupping the two palms; tu—also; apaḥ—water.
TRANSLATION
Never eat leftover food, never eat prasāda offered to the goddess Kālī [Durgā], and do not eat anything contaminated by flesh or fish. Do not eat anything brought or touched by a śūdra nor anything seen by a woman in her menstrual period. Do not drink water by joining your palms.
PURPORT
Generally the goddess Kālī is offered food containing meat and fish, and therefore Kaśyapa Muni strictly forbade his wife to take the remnants of such food. Actually a Vaiṣṇava is not allowed to take any food offered to the demigods. A Vaiṣṇava is always fixed in accepting prasāda offered to Lord Viṣṇu. Through all these instructions, Kaśyapa Muni, in a negative way, instructed his wife Diti how to become a Vaiṣṇavī.
TEXT 50
nocchiṣṭāspṛṣṭa-salilā
sandhyāyāṁ mukta-mūrdhajā
anarcitāsaṁyata-vāk
nāsaṁvītā bahiś caret
SYNONYMS
na—not; ucchiṣṭā—after eating; aspṛṣṭa-salilā—without washing; sandhyāyām—in the evening; mukta-mūrdhajā—with the hair loose; anarcitā—without ornaments; asaṁyata-vāk—without being grave; na—not; asaṁvītā—without being covered; bahiḥ—outside; caret—should go.
TRANSLATION
After eating, you should not go out to the street without having washed your mouth, hands and feet. You should not go out in the evening or with your hair loose, nor should you go out unless you are properly decorated with ornaments. You should not leave the house unless you are very grave and are sufficiently covered.
PURPORT
Kaśyapa Muni advised his wife not to go out onto the street unless she was well decorated and well dressed. He did not encourage the miniskirts that have now become fashionable. In Oriental civilization, when a woman goes out onto the street, she must be fully covered so that no man will recognize who she is. All these methods are to be accepted for purification. If one takes to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one is fully purified, and thus one remains always transcendental to the contamination of the material world.
TEXT 51
nādhauta-pādāprayatā
nārdra-pādā udak-śirāḥ
śayīta nāparāṅ nānyair
na nagnā na ca sandhyayoḥ
SYNONYMS
na—not; adhauta-pādā—without washing the feet; aprayatā—without being purified; na—not; ardra-pādā—with wet feet; udak-śirāḥ—with the head toward the north; śayīta—should lie down; na—not; aparāk—with the head pointed west; na—not; anyaiḥ—with other women; na—not; nagnā—naked; na—not; ca—an d; sandhyayoḥ—at sunrise and sunset.
TRANSLATION
You should not lie down without having washed both of your feet or without being purified, nor with wet feet or with your head pointed west or north. You should not lie naked, or with other women, or during the sunrise or sunset.
TEXT 52
dhauta-vāsā śucir nityaṁ
sarva-maṅgala-saṁyutā
pūjayet prātarāśāt prāg
go-viprāñ śriyam acyutam
SYNONYMS
dhauta-vāsā—wearing washed cloth; śuciḥ—being purified; nityam—always; sarva-maṅgala—with all auspicious items; saṁyutā—adorned; pūjayet—one should worship; prātaḥ-āśāt prāk—before breakfast; go-viprān—the cows and brāhmaṇas; śriyam—the goddess of fortune; acyutam—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TRANSLATION
Putting on washed clothing, being always pure and being adorned with turmeric, sandalwood pulp and other auspicious items, before breakfast one should worship the cows, the brāhmaṇas, the goddess of fortune and the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
PURPORT
If one is trained to honor and worship the cows and brāhmaṇas, he is actually civilized. The worship of the Supreme Lord is recommended, and the Lord is very fond of the cows and brāhmaṇas (namo brahmaṇya-devāya go-brāhmaṇa-hitāya ca). In other words, a civilization in which there is no respect for the cows and brāhmaṇas is condemned. One cannot become spiritually advanced without acquiring the brahminical qualifications and giving protection to cows. Cow protection insures sufficient food prepared with milk, which is needed for an advanced civilization. One should not pollute civilization by eating the flesh of cows. A civilization must do something progressive, and then it is an Āryan civilization. Instead of killing the cow to eat flesh, civilized men must prepare various milk products that will enhance the condition of society. If one follows the brahminical culture, he will become competent in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
TEXT 53
striyo vīravatīś cārcet
srag-gandha-bali-maṇḍanaiḥ
patiṁ cārcyopatiṣṭheta
dhyāyet koṣṭha-gataṁ ca tam
SYNONYMS
striyaḥ—women; vīra-vatīḥ—possessing husbands and sons; ca—and; arcet—she should worship; srak—with garlands; gandha—sandalwood; bali—presentations; maṇḍanaiḥ—and with ornaments; patim—the husband; ca—and; ārcya—worshiping; upatiṣṭheta—should offer prayers; dhyāyet—should meditate; koṣṭha-gatam—situated in the womb; ca—also; tam—upon him.
TRANSLATION
With flower garlands, sandalwood pulp, ornaments and other paraphernalia, a woman following this vow should worship women who have sons and whose husbands are living. The pregnant wife should worship her husband and offer him prayers. She should meditate upon him, thinking that he is situated in her womb.
PURPORT
The child in the womb is a part of the husband’s body. Therefore the husband, through his representative, indirectly remains within the womb of his pregnant wife.
TEXT 54
sāṁvatsaraṁ puṁsavanaṁ
vratam etad aviplutam
dhārayiṣyasi cet tubhyaṁ
śakra-hā bhavitā sutaḥ
SYNONYMS
sāṁvatsaram—for one year; puṁsavanam—called puṁsavana; vratam—vow; etat—this; aviplutam—without violation; dhārayiṣyasi—you will perform; cet—if; tubhyam—for you; śakra-—the killer of Indra; bhavitā—will be; sutaḥ—a son.
TRANSLATION
Kaśyapa Muni continued: If you perform this ceremony called puṁsavana, adhering to the vow with faith for at least one year, you will give birth to a son destined to kill Indra. But if there is any discrepancy in the discharge of this vow, the son will be a friend to Indra.
TEXT 55
bāḍham ity abhyupetyātha
ditī rājan mahā-manāḥ
kaśyapād garbham ādhatta
vrataṁ cāñjo dadhāra sā
SYNONYMS
bāḍham—yes; iti—thus; abhyupetya—accepting; atha—then; ditiḥDiti; rājan—O King; mahā-manāḥ—jubilant; kaśyapāt—from Kaśyapa; garbham—semen; ādhatta—obtained; vratam—the vow; ca—and; añjaḥ—properly; dadhāra—discharged; —she.
TRANSLATION
O King Parīkṣit, Diti, the wife of Kaśyapa, agreed to undergo the purificatory process known as puṁsavana. “Yes,” she said, “I shall do everything according to your instructions.” With great jubilation she became pregnant, having taken semen from Kaśyapa, and faithfully began discharging the vow.
TEXT 56
mātṛ-ṣvasur abhiprāyam
indra ājñāya mānada
śuśrūṣaṇenāśrama-sthāṁ
ditiṁ paryacarat kaviḥ
SYNONYMS
mātṛ-svasuḥ—of his mother’s sister; abhiprāyam—the intention; indraḥIndra; ājñāya—understanding; māna-da—O King Parīkṣit, who give respect to everyone; śuśrūṣaṇena—with service; āśrama-sthām—residing in an āśrama; ditimDiti; paryacarat—attended upon; kaviḥ—seeing his own interest.
TRANSLATION
O King, who are respectful to everyone, Indra understood Diti’s purpose, and thus he contrived to fulfill his own interests. Following the logic that self-preservation is the first law of nature, he wanted to break Diti’s promise. Thus he engaged himself in the service of Diti, his aunt, who was residing in an āśrama.
TEXT 57
nityaṁ vanāt sumanasaḥ
phala-mūla-samit-kuśān
patrāṅkura-mṛdo ’paś ca
kāle kāla upāharat
SYNONYMS
nityam—daily; vanāt—from the forest; sumanasaḥ—flowers; phala—fruits; mūla—roots; samit—wood for the sacrificial fire; kuśān—and kuśa grass; patra—leaves; aṅkura—sprouts; mṛdaḥ—and earth; apaḥ—water; ca—also; kāle kāle—at the proper time; upāharat—brought.
TRANSLATION
Indra served his aunt daily by bringing flowers, fruits, roots and wood for yajñas from the forest. He also brought kuśa grass, leaves, sprouts, earth and water exactly at the proper time.
TEXT 58
evaṁ tasyā vrata-sthāyā
vrata-cchidraṁ harir nṛpa
prepsuḥ paryacaraj jihmo
mṛga-heva mṛgākṛtiḥ
SYNONYMS
evam—thus; tasyāḥ—of her; vrata-sthāyāḥ—who was faithfully discharging her vow; vrata-chidram—a fault in the execution of the vow; hariḥIndra; nṛpa—O King; prepsuḥ—desiring to find; paryacarat—served; jihmaḥ—deceitful; mṛga-—a hunter; iva—like; mṛga-ākṛtiḥ—in the form of a deer.
TRANSLATION
O King Parīkṣit, as the hunter of a deer becomes like a deer by covering his body with deerskin and serving the deer, so Indra, although at heart the enemy of the sons of Diti, became outwardly friendly and served Diti in a faithful way. Indra’s purpose was to cheat Diti as soon as he could find some fault in the way she discharged the vows of the ritualistic ceremony. However, he wanted to be undetected, and therefore he served her very carefully.
TEXT 59
nādhyagacchad vrata-cchidraṁ
tat-paro ’tha mahī-pate
cintāṁ tīvrāṁ gataḥ śakraḥ
kena me syāc chivaṁ tv iha
SYNONYMS
na—not; adhyagacchat—could find; vrata-chidram—a fault in the execution of the vow; tat-paraḥ—intent upon that; atha—thereupon; mahī-pate—O master of the world; cintām—anxiety; tīvrām—intense; gataḥ—obtained; śakraḥIndra; kena—how; me—my; syāt—can there be; śivam—well-being; tu—then; iha—here.
TRANSLATION
O master of the entire world, when Indra could find no faults, he thought, “How will there be good fortune for me?” Thus he was full of deep anxiety.
TEXT 60
ekadā sā tu sandhyāyām
ucchiṣṭā vrata-karśitā
aspṛṣṭa-vāry-adhautāṅghriḥ
suṣvāpa vidhi-mohitā
SYNONYMS
ekadā—once; —she; tu—but; sandhyāyām—during the evening twilight; ucchiṣṭā—just after eating; vrata—from the vow; karśitā—weak and thin; aspṛṣṭa—not touched; vāri—water; adhauta—not washed; aṅghriḥ—her feet; suṣvāpa—went to sleep; vidhi—by fate; mohitā—bewildered.
TRANSLATION
Having grown weak and thin because of strictly following the principles of the vow, Diti once unfortunately neglected to wash her mouth, hands and feet after eating and went to sleep during the evening twilight.
TEXT 61
labdhvā tad-antaraṁ śakro
nidrāpahṛta-cetasaḥ
diteḥ praviṣṭa udaraṁ
yogeśo yoga-māyayā
SYNONYMS
labdhvā—finding; tat-antaram—after that; śakraḥIndra; nidrā—by sleep; apahṛta-cetasaḥ—unconscious; diteḥ—of Diti; praviṣṭaḥ—entered; udaram—the womb; yoga-īśaḥ—the master of yoga; yoga—of yogic perfections; māyayā—by the power.
TRANSLATION
Finding this fault, Indra, who has all the mystic powers [the yoga-siddhis such as aṇimā and laghimā], entered Diti’s womb while she was unconscious, being fast asleep.
PURPORT
A perfectly successful yogī is expert in eight kinds of perfection. By one of them, called aṇimā-siddhi, he can become smaller than an atom, and in that state he can enter anywhere. With this yogic power, Indra entered the womb of Diti while she was pregnant.
TEXT 62
cakarta saptadhā garbhaṁ
vajreṇa kanaka-prabham
rudantaṁ saptadhaikaikaṁ
mā rodīr iti tān punaḥ
SYNONYMS
cakarta—he cut; sapta-dhā—into seven pieces; garbham—the embryo; vajreṇa—by his thunderbolt; kanaka—of gold; prabham—which had the appearance; rudantam—crying; sapta-dhā—into seven pieces; eka-ekam—each one; rodīḥ—do not cry; iti—thus; tān—them; punaḥ—again.
TRANSLATION
After entering Diti’s womb, Indra, with the help of his thunderbolt, cut into seven pieces her embryo, which appeared like glowing gold. In seven places, seven different living beings began crying. Indra told them, “Do not cry,” and then he cut each of them into seven pieces again.
PURPORT
Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura remarks that Indra, by his yogic power, first expanded the body of the one Marut into seven, and then when he cut each of the seven parts of the original body into pieces, there were forty-nine. When each body was cut into seven, other living entities entered the new bodies, and thus they were like plants, which become separate entities when cut into various parts and planted on a hill. The first body was one, and when it was cut into many pieces, many other living entities entered the new bodies.
TEXT 63
tam ūcuḥ pāṭyamānās te
sarve prāñjalayo nṛpa
kiṁ na indra jighāṁsasi
bhrātaro marutas tava
SYNONYMS
tam—to him; ūcuḥ—said; pāṭyamānāḥ—being aggrieved; te—they; sarve—all; prāñjalayaḥ—with folded hands; nṛpa—O King; kim—why; naḥ—us; indra—O Indra; jighāṁsasi—do you want to kill; bhrātaraḥ—brothers; marutaḥ—Maruts; tava—your.
TRANSLATION
O King, being very much aggrieved, they pleaded to Indra with folded hands, saying, “Dear Indra, we are the Maruts, your brothers. Why are you trying to kill us?”
TEXT 64
mā bhaiṣṭa bhrātaro mahyaṁ
yūyam ity āha kauśikaḥ
ananya-bhāvān pārṣadān
ātmano marutāṁ gaṇān
SYNONYMS
bhaiṣṭa—do not fear; bhrātaraḥ—brothers; mahyam—my; yūyam—you; iti—thus; āha—said; kauśikaḥIndra; ananya-bhāvān—devoted; pārṣadān—followers; ātmanaḥ—his; marutām gaṇān—the Maruts.
TRANSLATION
When Indra saw that actually they were his devoted followers, he said to them: If you are all my brothers, you have nothing more to fear from me.
TEXT 65
na mamāra diter garbhaḥ
śrīnivāsānukampayā
bahudhā kuliśa-kṣuṇṇo
drauṇy-astreṇa yathā bhavān
SYNONYMS
na—not; mamāra—died; diteḥ—of Diti; garbhaḥ—the embryo; śrīnivāsa—of Lord Viṣṇu, the resting place of the goddess of fortune; anukampayā—by the mercy; bahu-dhā—into many pieces; kuliśa—by the thunderbolt; kṣuṇṇaḥ—cut; drauṇi—of Aśvatthāmā; astreṇa—by the weapon; yathā—just as; bhavān—you.
TRANSLATION
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King Parīkṣit, you were burned by the brahmāstra of Aśvatthāmā, but when Lord Kṛṣṇa entered the womb of your mother, you were saved. Similarly, although the one embryo was cut into forty-nine pieces by the thunderbolt of Indra, they were all saved by the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TEXTS 66–67
sakṛd iṣṭvādi-puruṣaṁ
puruṣo yāti sāmyatām
saṁvatsaraṁ kiñcid ūnaṁ
dityā yad dharir arcitaḥ
sajūr indreṇa pañcāśad
devās te maruto ’bhavan
vyapohya mātṛ-doṣaṁ te
hariṇā soma-pāḥ kṛtāḥ
SYNONYMS
sakṛt—once; iṣṭvā—worshiping; ādi-puruṣam—the original person; puruṣaḥ—a person; yāti—goes to; sāmyatām—possessing the same bodily feature as the Lord; saṁvatsaram—a year; kiñcit ūnam—a little less than; dityā—by Diti; yat—because; hariḥ—Lord Hari; arcitaḥ—was worshiped; sajūḥ—with; indreṇaIndra; pañcāśat—fifty; devāḥ—demigods; te—they; marutaḥ—the Maruts; abhavan—became; vyapohya—removing; mātṛ-doṣam—the fault of their mother; te—they; hariṇā—by Lord Hari; soma-pāḥ—drinkers of soma-rasa; kṛtāḥ—were made.
TRANSLATION
If one worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the original person, even once, he receives the benefit of being promoted to the spiritual world and possessing the same bodily features as Viṣṇu. Diti worshiped Lord Viṣṇu for almost one year, adhering to a great vow. Because of such strength in spiritual life, the forty-nine Maruts were born. How, then, is it wonderful that the Maruts, although born from the womb of Diti, became equal to the demigods by the mercy of the Supreme Lord ?
TEXT 68
ditir utthāya dadṛśe
kumārān anala-prabhān
indreṇa sahitān devī
paryatuṣyad aninditā
SYNONYMS
ditiḥDiti; utthāya—getting up; dadṛśe—saw; kumārān—children; anala-prabhān—as brilliant as fire; indreṇa sahitān—with Indra; devī—the goddess; paryatuṣyat—was pleased; aninditā—being purified.
TRANSLATION
Because of worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Diti was completely purified. When she got up from bed, she saw her forty-nine sons along with Indra. These forty-nine sons were all as brilliant as fire and were in friendship with Indra, and therefore she was very pleased.
TEXT 69
athendram āha tātāham
ādityānāṁ bhayāvaham
apatyam icchanty acaraṁ
vratam etat suduṣkaram
SYNONYMS
atha—thereafter; indram—to Indra; āha—spoke; tāta—dear one; aham—I; ādityānām—to the Ādityas; bhaya-āvaham—fearful; apatyam—a son; icchantī—desiring; acaram—executed; vratam—vow; etat—this; su-duṣkaram—very difficult to perform.
TRANSLATION
Thereafter, Diti said to Indra: My dear son, I adhered to this difficult vow just to get a son to kill you twelve Ādityas.
TEXT 70
ekaḥ saṅkalpitaḥ putraḥ
sapta saptābhavan katham
yadi te viditaṁ putra
satyaṁ kathaya mā mṛṣā
SYNONYMS
ekaḥ—one; saṅkalpitaḥ—was prayed for; putraḥ—son; sapta sapta—forty-nine; abhavan—came to be; katham—how; yadi—if; te—by you; viditam—known; putra—my dear son; satyam—the truth; kathaya—speak; —do not (speak); mṛṣā—lies.
TRANSLATION
I prayed for only one son, but now I see that there are forty-nine. How has this happened? My dear son Indra, if you know, please tell me the truth. Do not try to speak lies.
TEXT 71
indra uvāca
amba te ’haṁ vyavasitam
upadhāryāgato ’ntikam
labdhāntaro ’cchidaṁ garbham
artha-buddhir na dharma-dṛk
SYNONYMS
indraḥ uvācaIndra said; amba—O mother; te—your; aham—I; vyavasitam—vow; upadhārya—understanding; āgataḥ—came; antikam—nearby; labdha—having found; antaraḥ—a fault; acchidam—I cut; garbham—the embryo; artha-buddhiḥ—being self-interested; na—not; dharma-dṛk—possessing vision of religion.
TRANSLATION
Indra replied: My dear mother, because I was grossly blinded by selfish interests, I lost sight of religion. When I understood that you were observing a great vow in spiritual life, I wanted to find some fault in you. When I found such a fault, I entered your womb and cut the embryo to pieces.
PURPORT
When Diti, Indra’s aunt, explained to Indra without reservations what she had wanted to do, Indra explained his intentions to her. Thus both of them, instead of being enemies, freely spoke the truth. This is the qualification that results from contact with Viṣṇu. As stated in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (5.18.12):
yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiñcanā
sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ
If one develops a devotional attitude and becomes purified by worshiping the Supreme Lord, all the good qualities are certainly manifested in his body. Because of being touched by worship of Viṣṇu, both Diti and Indra were purified.
TEXT 72
kṛtto me saptadhā garbha
āsan sapta kumārakāḥ
te ’pi caikaikaśo vṛkṇāḥ
saptadhā nāpi mamrire
SYNONYMS
kṛttaḥ—cut; me—by me; sapta-dhā—into seven; garbhaḥ—the embryo; āsan—there came to be; sapta—seven; kumārakāḥ—babies; te—they; api—although; ca—also; eka-ekaśaḥ—each one; vṛkṇāḥ—cut; sapta-dhā—into seven; na—not; api—still; mamrire—died.
TRANSLATION
First I cut the child in the womb into seven pieces, which became seven children. Then I cut each of the children into seven pieces again. By the grace of the Supreme Lord, however, none of them died.
TEXT 73
tatas tat paramāścaryaṁ
vīkṣya vyavasitaṁ mayā
mahāpuruṣa-pūjāyāḥ
siddhiḥ kāpy ānuṣaṅgiṇī
SYNONYMS
tataḥ—then; tat—that; parama-āścaryam—great wonder; vīkṣya—seeing; vyavasitam—it was decided; mayā—by me; mahā-puruṣa—of Lord Viṣṇu; pūjāyāḥ—of worship; siddhiḥ—result; kāpi—some; ānuṣaṅgiṇī—secondary.
TRANSLATION
My dear mother, when I saw that all forty-nine sons were alive, I was certainly struck with wonder. I decided that this was a secondary result of your having regularly executed devotional service in worship of Lord Viṣṇu.
PURPORT
For one who engages in worshiping Lord Viṣṇu, nothing is very wonderful. This is a fact. In Bhagavad-gītā (18.78) it is said:
yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo
yatra pārtho dhanur-dharaḥ
tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir
dhruvā nītir matir mama
“Wherever there is Kṛṣṇa, the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory, extraordinary power, and morality. That is my opinion.” Yogeśvara is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all mystic yoga, who can do anything and everything He likes. This is the omnipotence of the Supreme Lord. For one who pleases the Supreme Lord, no achievement is wonderful. Everything is possible for him.
TEXT 74
ārādhanaṁ bhagavata
īhamānā nirāśiṣaḥ
ye tu necchanty api paraṁ
te svārtha-kuśalāḥ smṛtāḥ
SYNONYMS
ārādhanam—the worship; bhagavataḥ—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; īhamānāḥ—being interested in; nirāśiṣaḥ—without material desires; ye—those who; tu—indeed; na icchanti—do not desire; api—even; param—liberation; te—they; sva-artha—in their own interest; kuśalāḥ—expert; smṛtāḥ—are considered.
TRANSLATION
Although those who are interested only in worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead do not desire anything material from the Lord and do not even want liberation, Lord Kṛṣṇa fulfills all their desires.
PURPORT
When Dhruva Mahārāja saw Lord Viṣṇu, he declined to take any benedictions from Him, for he was fully satisfied by seeing the Lord. Nonetheless, the Lord is so kind that because Dhruva Mahārāja, in the beginning, had desired a kingdom greater than his father’s, he was promoted to Dhruvaloka, the best planet in the universe. Therefore in the śāstra it is said:
“A person who has broader intelligence, whether he is full of material desires, free from material desires, or desiring liberation, must by all means worship the supreme whole, the Personality of Godhead.” (Bhāg. 2.3.10) One should engage in full devotional service. Then, even though he has no desires, whatever desires he previously had can all be fulfilled simply by his worship of the Lord. The actual devotee does not desire even liberation (anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam [Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu
anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ
jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam
ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā
One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service.Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.1.111.1.11]). The Lord, however, fulfills the desire of the devotee by awarding him opulence that will never be destroyed. A karmī’s opulence is destroyed, but the opulence of a devotee is never destroyed. A devotee becomes more and more opulent as he increases his devotional service to the Lord.
TEXT 75
ārādhyātma-pradaṁ devaṁ
svātmānaṁ jagad-īśvaram
ko vṛṇīta guṇa-sparśaṁ
budhaḥ syān narake ’pi yat
SYNONYMS
ārādhya—after worshiping; ātma-pradam—who gives Himself; devam—the Lord; sva-ātmānam—the most dear; jagat-īśvaram—the Lord of the universe; kaḥ—what; vṛṇīta—would choose; guṇa-sparśam—material happiness; budhaḥ—intelligent person; syāt—is; narake—in hell; api—even; yat—which.
TRANSLATION
The ultimate goal of all ambitions is to become a servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If an intelligent man serves the most dear Lord, who gives Himself to His devotees, how can he desire material happiness, which is available even in hell?
PURPORT
An intelligent man will never aspire to become a devotee to achieve material happiness. That is the test of a devotee. As Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu teaches:
“O almighty Lord, I have no desire to accumulate wealth, nor do I desire beautiful women, nor do I want any number of followers. I only want Your causeless devotional service birth after birth.” A pure devotee never begs the Lord for material happiness in the shape of riches, followers, a good wife or even mukti. The Lord promises, however, yoga-kṣemaṁ vahāmy aham: [Bg. 9.22] “I voluntarily bring everything necessary for My service.”
TEXT 76
tad idaṁ mama daurjanyaṁ
bāliśasya mahīyasi
kṣantum arhasi mātas tvaṁ
diṣṭyā garbho mṛtotthitaḥ
SYNONYMS
tat—that; idam—this; mama—of me; daurjanyam—evil deed; bāliśasya—a fool; mahīyasi—O best of women; kṣantum arhasi—please excuse; mātaḥ—O mother; tvam—you; diṣṭyā—by fortune; garbhaḥ—the child within the womb; mṛta—killed; utthitaḥ—became alive.
TRANSLATION
O my mother, O best of all women, I am a fool. Kindly excuse me for whatever offenses I have committed. Your forty-nine sons have been born unhurt because of your devotional service. As an enemy, I cut them to pieces, but because of your great devotional service they did not die.
TEXT 77
śrī-śuka uvāca
indras tayābhyanujñātaḥ
śuddha-bhāvena tuṣṭayā
marudbhiḥ saha tāṁ natvā
jagāma tri-divaṁ prabhuḥ
SYNONYMS
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca—Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; indraḥIndra; tayā—by her; abhyanujñātaḥ—being permitted; śuddha-bhāvena—by the good behavior; tuṣṭayā—satisfied; marudbhiḥ saha—with the Maruts; tām—to her; natvā—having offered obeisances; jagāma—he went; tri-divam—to the heavenly planets; prabhuḥ—the Lord.
TRANSLATION
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: Diti was extremely satisfied by Indra’s good behavior. Then Indra offered his respects to his aunt with profuse obeisances, and with her permission he went away to the heavenly planets with his brothers the Maruts.
TEXT 78
evaṁ te sarvam ākhyātaṁ
yan māṁ tvaṁ paripṛcchasi
maṅgalaṁ marutāṁ janma
kiṁ bhūyaḥ kathayāmi te
SYNONYMS
evam—thus; te—to you; sarvam—all; ākhyātam—narrated; yat—which; mām—me; tvam—you; paripṛcchasi—asked; maṅgalam—auspicious; marutām—of the Maruts; janma—the birth; kim—what; bhūyaḥ—further; kathayāmi—shall I speak; te—to you.
TRANSLATION
My dear King Parīkṣit, I have replied as far as possible to the questions you have asked me, especially in regard to this pure, auspicious narration about the Maruts. Now you may inquire further, and I shall explain more.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to the Sixth Canto, Eighteenth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “Diti Vows to Kill King Indra.”

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