ubhayor antaraṁ vyoma
ye rudra-pārṣadāṁ gaṇāḥ
tārtīyena—by excessive development of the third mode of material nature, the mode of ignorance; svabhāvena—by such nature; bhagavat-nābhim—the abdominal navel of the gigantic form of the Personality of Godhead; āśritāḥ—those who are so situated; ubhayoḥ—between the two; antaram—in between; vyoma—the sky; ye—all of whom; rudra-pārṣadām—associates of Rudra; gaṇāḥ—population.
Living entities who are associates of Rudra develop in the third mode of material nature, or ignorance. They are situated in the sky between the earthly planets and the heavenly planets.
This middle portion of the sky is called Bhuvarloka, as confirmed by both Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī and Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī. In Bhagavad-gītā it is stated that those who develop in the mode of passion are situated in the middle region. Those who are situated in the mode of goodness are promoted to the regions of the demigods, those who are situated in the mode of passion are placed in human society, and those who are situated in the mode of ignorance are placed in the society of animals or ghosts. There are no contradictions in this conclusion. Numerous living entities are distributed all over the universe in different planets and are so situated in terms of their own qualities in the modes of material nature.
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