The Sixty-One Explanations of the Ātmārāma Verse
The following summary of this chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. According to Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī's request, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained the well-known Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam verse beginning ātmārāmāś ca munayo. He explained this verse in sixty-one different ways. He analyzed all the words and described each word with its different connotations. Adding the words ca and api, He described all the different meanings of the verse. He then concluded that all classes of transcendentalists (jñānīs, karmīs, yogīs) utilize this verse according to their own interpretation, but if they gave up this process and surrendered to Kṛṣṇa, as indicated by the verse itself, they would be able to comprehend the real meaning of the verse. In this regard, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu narrated a story about how the great sage Nārada converted a hunter into a great Vaiṣṇava, and how this was appreciated by Nārada's friend Parvata Muni. Sanātana Gosvāmī then offered a prayer to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained the glory of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. After this, the Lord gave Sanātana Gosvāmī a synopsis of Hari-bhakti-vilāsa, which Sanātana Gosvāmī later developed into the guiding principle of all Vaiṣṇavas.
ārthāṁśūn yaḥ prakāśayan
ātmārāma-iti—beginning with the word ātmārāma; padya—verse; arkasya—of the sunlike; artha-aṁśūn—the shining rays of different meanings; yaḥ—who; prakāśayan—manifesting; jagat-tamaḥ—the darkness of the material world; jahāra—eradicated; avyāt—may protect; saḥ—He; caitanya-udaya-acalaḥ—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is like the eastern horizon, where the sun rises.
May Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu be glorified. It was He who acted as the eastern horizon where the sun of the ātmārāma verse rises and manifests its rays in the form of different meanings and thus eradicates the darkness of the material world. May He protect the universe.
jaya jaya śrī-caitanya jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
jaya jaya—all glories; śrī-caitanya—to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya—all glories; nityānanda—to Lord Nityānanda; jaya—all glories; advaita-candra—to Advaita Ācārya; jaya—all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda—to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
All glories to Lord Caitanya! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaitacandra! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya!
tabe sanātana prabhura caraṇe dhariyā
punarapi kahe kichu vinaya kariyā
tabe—thereafter; sanātana—Sanātana Gosvāmī; prabhura caraṇe dhariyā—catching the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; punarapi—again; kahe—says; kichu—something; vinaya kariyā—with great humility.
Thereafter, Sanātana Gosvāmī clasped the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and humbly submitted the following petition.
'pūrve śuniyāchoṅ, tumi sārvabhauma-sthāne
eka śloke āṭhāra artha kairācha vyākhyāne
pūrve—formerly; śuniyāchoṅ—I heard; tumi—You; sārvabhauma-sthāne—at the place of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; eka śloke—in one verse; āṭhāra artha—eighteen meanings; kairācha vyākhyāne—have explained.
Sanātana Gosvāmī said, "My Lord, I have heard that previously, at the home of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, You explained the ātmārāma verse in eighteen different ways.
ātmārāmāś ca munayo
nirgranthā apy urukrame
kurvanty ahaitukīṁ bhaktim
ātma-ārāmāḥ—persons who take pleasure in being transcendentally situated in the service of the Lord; ca—also; munayaḥ—great saintly persons who have completely rejected material aspirations, fruitive activities and so forth; nirgranthāḥ—without interest in any material desire; api—certainly; urukrame—unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, whose activities are wonderful; kurvanti—do; ahaitukīm—causeless, or without material desires; bhaktim—devotional service; ittham-bhūta—so wonderful as to attract the attention of the self-satisfied; guṇaḥ—who has transcendental qualities; hariḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
" 'Those who are self-satisfied and unattracted by external material desires are also attracted to the loving service of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, whose qualities are transcendental and whose activities are wonderful. Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is called Kṛṣṇa because He has such transcendentally attractive features.'
āścarya śuniyā mora utkaṇṭhita mana
kṛpā kari' kaha yadi, juḍāya śravaṇa'
āścarya—wonderful; śuniyā—hearing; mora—my; utkaṇṭhita—desirous; mana—mind; kṛpā kari'-showing Your causeless mercy; kaha yadi—if You speak; juḍāya—pleases; śravaṇa—the ear.
"I have heard this wonderful story and am therefore very inquisitive to hear it again. If You would kindly repeat it, I would be very pleased to hear."
prabhu kahe,--"āmi vātula, āmāra vacane
sārvabhauma vātula tāhā satya kari' māne
prabhu kahe—Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said; āmi—I; vātula—a madman; āmāra vacane—in My words; sārvabhauma—Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; vātula—another madman; tāhā—that (My explanation); satya kari' māne—took as truth.
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, "I am one madman, and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya is another. Therefore he took My words to be the truth.
kibā pralāpilāṅa, kichu nāhika smaraṇe
tomāra saṅga-bale yadi kichu haya mane
kibā—what; pralāpilāṅa—I have said; kichu—anything; nāhika—there is not; smaraṇe—in memory; tomāra—of you; saṅga-bale—by the strength of association; yadi—if; kichu—something; haya—there is; mane—in My mind.
"I do not recall what I spoke in that connection, but if something comes to My mind due to association with you, I shall explain it.
sahaje āmāra kichu artha nāhi bhāse
tomā-sabāra saṅga-bale ye kichu prakāśe
sahaje—generally; āmāra—My; kichu—any; artha—meaning; nāhi bhāse—does not manifest; tomā-sabāra saṅga-bale—by the strength of your association; ye—which; kichu—something; prakāśe—manifests.
"Generally by Myself I cannot give an explanation, but by the strength of your association something may manifest itself.
ekādaśa pada ei śloke sunirmala
pṛthak nānā artha pade kare jhalamala
ekādaśa pada—eleven words; ei—this; śloke—in the verse; su-nirmala—very clear; pṛthak—separately; nānā—various; artha—meanings; pade—in each word; kare jhalamala—are glittering.
"There are eleven clear words in this verse, but when they are studied separately, various meanings glitter from each word.
'ātmā'-śabde brahma, deha, mana, yatna, dhṛti
buddhi, svabhāva,--ei sāta artha-prāpti
ātmā-śabde—by the word ātmā; brahma—the Absolute Truth; deha—the body; mana—the mind; yatna—endeavor; dhṛti—firmness; buddhi—intelligence; sva-bhāva—nature; ei sāta—these seven; artha-prāpti—obtainment of meanings.
"The seven different meanings of the word ātmā are the Absolute Truth, the body, the mind, endeavor, firmness, intelligence and nature.
prayatne ca" iti xxx
ātmā—the word ātmā; deha—the body; manaḥ—the mind; brahma—the Absolute Truth; sva-bhāva—nature; dhṛti—firmness; buddhiṣu—in the sense of intelligence; prayatne—in endeavor; ca—and; iti—thus.
" 'The following are synonyms of the word ātmā: the body, mind, Absolute Truth, natural characteristics, firmness, intelligence and endeavor.'
ei sāte rame yei, sei ātmārāma-gaṇa
ātmārāma-gaṇera āge kariba gaṇana
ei sāte—in these seven items; rame—enjoy; yei—those who; sei—they; ātmārāma-gaṇa—ātmārāmas; ātmārāma-gaṇera—of the ātmārāmas; āge—later; kariba gaṇana—shall make a count.
"The word ātmārāma refers to one who enjoys these seven items [the Absolute Truth, body, mind, and so on]. Later, I shall enumerate the ātmārāmas.
'muni'-ādi śabdera artha śuna, sanātana
pṛthak pṛthak artha pāche kariba milana
muni—the word muni; ādi—and the other; śabdera—of the words; artha—the meaning; śuna—hear; sanātana—My dear Sanātana; pṛthak pṛthak—separately; artha—meaning; pāche—after; kariba milana—I shall combine.
"My dear Sanātana, first hear the meanings of the other words, beginning with the word muni. I shall first explain their separate meanings, then combine them.
'muni'-śabde manana-śīla, āra kahe maunī
tapasvī vratī, yati, āra ṛṣi, muni
muni-śabde—by the word muni; manana-śīla—who is thoughtful; āra—also; kahe—it means; maunī—one who is silent; tapasvī—an ascetic; vratī—one who keeps great vows; yati—one in the renounced order of life; āra—and; ṛṣi—a saintly person; muni—they are called muni.
"The word muni refers to one who is thoughtful, one who is grave or silent, an ascetic, one who keeps great vows, one in the renounced order, a saint. These are the different meanings of the word muni.
'nirgrantha'-śabde kahe, avidyā-granthi-hīna
nirgrantha—nirgrantha; śabde-by the word; kahe—one means; avidyā—of ignorance; granthi-hīna—without any knot; vidhi-niṣedha—regulative principles of rules and restrictions; veda-śāstra—the Vedic literature; jñāna-ādi—knowledge, and so on; vihīna—without.
"The word nirgrantha refers to one who is liberated from the material knots of ignorance. It also refers to one who is devoid of all regulative principles enjoined in the Vedic literature. It also refers to one who does not have knowledge.
mūrkha, nīca, mleccha ādi śāstra-rikta-gaṇa
dhana-sañcayī--nirgrantha, āra ye nirdhana
mūrkha—foolish, illiterate persons; nīca—lowborn; mleccha—unclean persons with no principles; ādi—and others; śāstra-rikta-gaṇa—persons devoid of all regulative principles stated in śāstra; dhana-sañcayī—capitalist (one who gathers wealth); nirgrantha—called nirgrantha; āra—also; ye—anyone who; nirdhana—without riches.
"Nirgrantha also refers to one who is illiterate, lowborn, misbehaved, unregulated and devoid of respect for Vedic literature. The word also refers to one who is a capitalist and to one who has no riches.
nir niścaye niṣ kramārthe
grantho dhane 'tha sandarbhe
varṇa-saṅgrathane 'pi ca
niḥ—the prefix niḥ; niścaye—in the sense of ascertainment; niḥ—the prefix niḥ; krama-arthe—in the meaning of succession; niḥ—the prefix niḥ; nirmāṇa—in the sense of forming; niṣedhayoḥ—in the sense of forbidding; granthaḥ—the word grantha; dhane—in the sense of wealth; atha—also; sandarbhe—thesis; varṇa-saṅgrathane—in the sense of tying together words; api—also; ca—and.
" 'The prefix niḥ may be used for a sense of ascertainment, gradation, construction or forbidding. The word grantha means riches, thesis and composition.'
'urukrama'-śabde kahe, baḍa yāṅra krama
'krama'-śabde kahe ei pāda-vikṣepaṇa
urukrama—urukrama; śabde-by this word; kahe—one means; baḍa—great; yāṅra—whose; krama—step; krama-śabde—in this word krama; kahe—one means; ei—this; pāda-vikṣepaṇa—throwing forth of the foot.
"The word urukrama refers to one whose krama [step] is great. The word krama means 'throwing the foot forward,' that is, 'step.'
śakti, kampa, paripāṭī, yukti, śaktye ākramaṇa
caraṇa-cālane kāṅpāila tribhuvana
śakti—power; kampa—trembling; paripāṭī—method; yukti—argument; śaktye—with great force; ākramaṇa—attacking; caraṇa-cālane—by moving the foot; kāṅpāila—caused to tremble; tri-bhuvana—the three worlds.
"Krama also means power, trembling, a systematic method, argument, and a forcible attack by stepping forward. Thus Vāmana caused the three worlds to tremble.
viṣṇor nu vīrya-gaṇanāṁ katamo 'rhatīha
yaḥ pārthivāny api kavir vimame rajāṁsi
caskambha yaḥ sva-raṁhasāskhalatā tripṛṣṭhaṁ
yasmāt trisāmya-sadanād urukampayānam
viṣṇoḥ—of Lord Viṣṇu; nu—certainly; vīrya-gaṇanām—a counting of the different potencies; katamaḥ—who; arhati—is able to do; iha—in this world; yaḥ—who; pārthivāni—of the element earth; api—although; kaviḥ—a learned person; vimame—has counted; rajāṁsi—the atoms; caskambha—captured; yaḥ—who; sva—His own; raṁhasā—by potency; askhalatā—without hindrances; tri-pṛṣṭham—the topmost planet (Satyaloka); yasmāt—from some cause; tri-sāmya—where there is equilibrium of the three guṇas; sadanāt—from the place (from the root of the material world); urukampayānam—trembling greatly.
" 'Even if a learned man is able to count all the minute atoms in this material world, he still cannot count the potencies of Lord Viṣṇu. In the form of the Vāmana incarnation, Lord Viṣṇu, without hindrance, captured all the planets, beginning from the root of the material world up to Satyaloka. Indeed, He caused every planetary system to tremble by the force of His steps.'
oṁ viṣṇor nu vīryāṇi kaṁ prāvocaṁ
yaḥ pārthivāni vimame rajāṁsi
yo 'skambhayad uttaraṁ sadhasthaṁ
vibhu-rūpe vyāpe, śaktye dhāraṇa-poṣaṇa
mādhurya-śaktye goloka, aiśvarye paravyoma
vibhu-rūpe—in His all-pervasive feature; vyāpe—expands; śaktye—by His potency; dhāraṇa-poṣaṇa—maintaining and nourishing; mādhurya-śaktye—by His potency of conjugal love; goloka—the planetary system Goloka Vṛndāvana; aiśvarye—and by opulence; para-vyoma—the spiritual world.
"Through His all-pervasive feature, the Supreme Personality of Godhead expanded the entire creation. He is holding and maintaining this creation by His extraordinary potency. By His conjugal potency, He maintains the planetary system known as Goloka Vṛndāvana. Through His six opulences, He maintains many Vaikuṇṭha planets.
In His gigantic form, Lord Kṛṣṇa has covered the creation. He holds all the planetary systems and maintains them by His inconceivable potencies. Similarly, He is maintaining His personal abode, Goloka Vṛndāvana, through His conjugal love, and He is maintaining the spiritual world containing the Vaikuṇṭha planets by His opulences.
'urukrama'-śabdera ei artha nirūpaṇa
māyā-śaktye—by His external potency; brahmāṇḍa-ādi—of material universes and so on; paripāṭī—an orderly arrangement; sṛjana—creating; urukrama-śabdera—of the word urukrama; ei—this; artha—of the meaning; nirūpaṇa—ascertainment.
"The word urukrama indicates the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who, by His external potency, has perfectly created innumerable universes.
"kramaḥ śaktau paripāṭyāṁ kramaś cālana-kampayoḥ"
kramaḥ—the word krama; śaktau—in the meaning of potency; paripāṭyām—in the meaning of systematic arrangement; kramaḥ—the word krama; cālana—in moving; kampayoḥ—or in trembling.
" 'These are the different meanings of the word krama. It is used in the sense of potency, systematic arrangement, step, moving or trembling.'
This is a quotation from the Viśva-prakāśa dictionary. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is all-pervasive. Not only does He carry the three worlds by His inconceivable energy, but He maintains them also. He is also maintaining His spiritual planet, Goloka Vṛndāvana, by His conjugal love, and He is maintaining the Vaikuṇṭhalokas by His opulences. He maintains these material universes through the external energy. Material universes are perfectly situated because they are created by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
'kurvanti'-pada ei parasmaipada haya
kṛṣṇa-sukha-nimitta bhajane tātparya kahaya
kurvanti—they do (for others); pada—the word; ei—this; parasmaipada—a verb form indicating things done for others; haya—is; kṛṣṇa-sukha-nimitta—to satisfy Kṛṣṇa; bhajane—in devotional service; tātparya—the purport; kahaya—is said.
"The word kurvanti, which means 'they do something for others,' is a form of the verb 'things done for others.' It is used in connection with devotional service, which must be executed for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa. That is the purport of the word kurvanti.
In Sanskrit the verb "to do" has two forms, technically called parasmaipada and ātmanepada. When things are done for one's personal satisfaction, the form is called ātmanepada. In that case, the word "do" in English is kurvante in Sanskrit. When things are done for others, the verb form changes to kurvanti. Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu informed Sanātana Gosvāmī that in the ātmārāma verse the verb kurvanti means that things should be done only for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa. This is supported by the grammarian Pāṇini. The verb is formed as ātmanepada when the work is to be done for one's own benefit, and when it is done for others, it is called parasmaipada. Thus the verb is formed according to whether something is done for one's self-satisfaction or for another's satisfaction.
"svaritañitaḥ kartrabhiprāye kriyā-phale"
svarita-ñitaḥ—of verbs having an indicatory ñ or a svarita accent; kartṛ-abhiprāye—is meant for the agent; kriyā-phale—when the fruit of the action.
" 'The terminations of the ātmanepada are employed when the fruit of the action accrues to the agent of verbs having an indicatory ñ or a svarita accent.'
This is a quotation from Pāṇini's sūtras (1.3.72).
'hetu'-śabde kahe--bhukti-ādi vāñchāntare
bhukti, siddhi, mukti--mukhya ei tina prakāre
hetu—cause; śabde—by the word; kahe—it is said; bhukti—enjoying the result by oneself; ādi—and so on; vāñchā-antare—because of a different ambition; bhukti—enjoying the result of action; siddhi—the perfection of doing something; mukti—liberation; mukhya—chief; ei—these; tina prakāre—in three ways.
"The word hetu [cause] means that a thing is done for some motive. There can be three motives. One may act to enjoy the result personally, to achieve some material perfection, or to act in such a way that one may be liberated.
eka bhukti kahe, bhoga--ananta-prakāra
eka—first; bhukti—material enjoyment by doing something; kahe—is known; bhoga—enjoyment; ananta-prakāra—unlimited varieties; siddhi—the yogic perfections; aṣṭādaśa—eighteen in number; mukti—liberation; pañca-vidhā-ākāra—five varieties.
"First we take the word bhukti [material enjoyment], which is of unlimited variety. We may also take the word siddhi [perfection], which has eighteen varieties. Similarly, the word mukti has five varieties.
ei yāṅhā nāhi, tāhā bhakti--'ahaitukī'
yāhā haite vaśa haya śrī-kṛṣṇa kautukī
ei—these; yāṅhā—where; nāhi—not existing; tāhā—that; bhakti—the platform of devotional service; ahaitukī—unmotivated; yāhā haite—by which; vaśa haya—comes under control; śrī-kṛṣṇa—Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; kautukī—the most funny.
"Causeless devotional service is unmotivated by sense enjoyment, perfection or liberation. When one is freed from all these contaminations, he can bring Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is very funny, under control.
'bhakti'-śabdera artha haya daśa-vidhākāra
eka--'sādhana', 'prema-bhakti'--nava prakāra
bhakti—bhakti; śabdera-of this word; artha—meanings; haya—are; daśa-vidhā-ākāra—ten varieties; eka—one; sādhana—the execution of regulative devotional service; prema-bhakti—ecstatic love; nava prakāra—nine kinds.
"There are ten meanings to the word bhakti, devotional service. One is execution of devotional service according to the regulative principles, and the other, called prema-bhakti [ecstatic love] has nine varieties.
The nine varieties are rati, prema, sneha, māna, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga, bhāva and mahābhāva-attraction, love, affection, adverse feelings, intimacy, attachment, subattachment, ecstatic love and sublime ecstatic love. For the execution of devotional service according to regulative principles, there is only one meaning.
'rati'-lakṣaṇā, 'prema'-lakṣaṇā, ityādi pracāra
bhāva-rūpā, mahābhāva-lakṣaṇa-rūpā āra
rati—of attraction; lakṣaṇā—the symptoms; prema—of love; lakṣaṇā—the symptoms; iti-ādi—and so on; pracāra—are known; bhāva-rūpā—in the form of ecstatic love; mahā-bhāva—of higher ecstatic love; lakṣaṇa-rūpā—there are many symptoms; āra—other.
"Next are explained the symptoms of love of Godhead, which can be divided into nine varieties, beginning with attraction up to ecstatic love and finally up to the topmost ecstatic love [mahābhāva].
śānta-bhaktera rati bāḍe 'prema'-paryanta
dāsya-bhaktera rati haya 'rāga'-daśā-anta
śānta-bhaktera—of devotees on the platform of neutrality; rati—attraction; bāḍe—increases; prema-paryanta—up to love of Godhead; dāsya-bhaktera—of devotees on the platform of servitude; rati—attraction; haya—increases; rāga-daśā-anta—up to the point of spontaneous attachment.
"The attraction to Kṛṣṇa of devotees on the platform of neutrality increases up to love of Godhead [prema], and the attraction of devotees on the platform of servitorship increases to spontaneous attachment [rāga].
sakhā-gaṇera rati haya 'anurāga' paryanta
pitṛ-mātṛ-sneha ādi 'anurāga'-anta
sakhā-gaṇera—of the friends; rati—the attraction; haya—becomes; anurāga paryanta—up to subecstatic love; pitṛ-mātṛ-sneha—paternal love; ādi—and so on; anurāga-anta—up to the end of subecstatic love.
"Devotees in Vṛndāvana who are friends of the Lord can increase their ecstatic love to the point of anurāga. Paternal affectionate lovers, Kṛṣṇa's father and mother, can increase their love of Godhead up to the anurāga point also.
kāntā-gaṇera rati pāya 'mahābhāva'-sīmā
'bhakti'-śabdera ei saba arthera mahimā
kāntā-gaṇera—of the devotees in conjugal love; rati—the attraction; pāya—attain; mahā-bhāva-sīmā—the limit of mahābhāva; bhakti—devotional service; śabdera—of the word; ei saba—all these; arthera—of the meanings; mahimā—of the glories.
"The gopīs of Vṛndāvana who are attached to Kṛṣṇa in conjugal love can increase their ecstatic love up to the point of mahābhāva [the greatest ecstatic love]. These are some of the glorious meanings of the word bhakti, devotional service.
'ittham-bhūta-guṇaḥ'-śabdera śunaha vyākhyāna
'itthaṁ'-śabdera bhinna artha, 'guṇa'-śabdera āna
ittham-bhūta-guṇaḥ—having qualities like this; śabdera—of the word; śunaha—please hear; vyākhyāna—the explanation; ittham—ittham; śabdera—of the word; bhinna artha—different meanings; guṇa—guṇa; śabdera—of the word; āna—other.
"Please hear the meaning of the word ittham-bhūta-guṇa, which is found in the ātmārāma verse. Ittham-bhūta has different meanings, and guṇa has other meanings.
yāṅra āge brahmānanda tṛṇa-prāya haya
ittham-bhūta-śabdera artha—the meaning or import of the word ittham-bhūta; pūrṇa-ānanda-maya—full of transcendental bliss; yāṅra āge—in front of which; brahma-ānanda—the transcendental bliss derived from impersonalism; tṛṇa-prāya—just like straw; haya—is.
"The word ittham-bhūta is transcendentally exalted because it means 'full of transcendental bliss.' Before this transcendental bliss, the bliss derived from merging into the existence of the Absolute [brahmānanda] becomes like a piece of straw in comparison.
brāhmāṇy api jagad-guro
tvat—Your; sākṣāt—meeting; karaṇa—such action; āhlāda—pleasure; vi-śuddha—spiritually purified; abdhi—ocean; sthitasya—being situated; me—by me; sukhāni—happiness; goṣpadāyante—a small hole created by the hoof of a calf; brāhmāṇi—the pleasure derived from impersonal Brahman understanding; api—also; jagat-guro—O master of the universe.
" 'My dear Lord, O master of the universe, since I have directly seen You, my transcendental bliss has taken the shape of a great ocean. Being situated in that ocean, I now realize all other so-called happiness to be like the water contained in the hoofprint of a calf.'
sarvākarṣaka, sarvāhlādaka, mahā-rasāyana
āpanāra bale kare sarva-vismāraṇa
sarva-ākarṣaka—all-attractive; sarva-āhlādaka—all-pleasing; mahā-rasa-ayana—the complete abode of transcendental mellow; āpanāra bale—by His own strength; kare—causes; sarva-vismāraṇa—forgetfulness of all other bliss.
"Lord Kṛṣṇa is so exalted that He is more attractive than anything else and more pleasing than anything else. He is the most sublime abode of bliss. By His own strength, He causes one to forget all other ecstasies.
bhukti-mukti-siddhi-sukha chāḍaya yāra gandhe
alaukika śakti-guṇe kṛṣṇa-kṛpāya bāndhe
bhukti—material happiness; mukti—liberation from material suffering; siddhi—the perfection of mystic yoga; sukha—the happiness derived from these things; chāḍaya—one gives up; yāra—of which; gandhe—simply by the slight fragrance; alaukika—uncommon, transcendental; śakti-guṇe—by the power and quality; kṛṣṇa-kṛpāya—by the mercy of Lord Kṛṣṇa; bāndhe—one becomes bound.
"Pure devotional service is so sublime that one can very easily forget the happiness derived from material happiness, material liberation and mystic or yogic perfection. Thus the devotee is bound by Kṛṣṇa's mercy and His uncommon power and qualifications.
śāstra-yukti nāhi ihāṅ siddhānta-vicāra
ei svabhāva-guṇe, yāte mādhuryera sāra
śāstra-yukti—logic on the basis of revealed scripture; nāhi—there is not; ihāṅ—here; siddhānta-vicāra—consideration of logical conclusions; ei—this; svabhāva-guṇe—a natural quality; yāte—in which; mādhuryera sāra—the essence of all transcendental bliss.
"When one is attracted to Kṛṣṇa on the transcendental platform, there is no longer any logical argument on the basis of revealed scripture, nor are there considerations of such conclusions. This is His transcendental quality that is the essence of all transcendental sweetness.
'guṇa' śabdera artha--kṛṣṇera guṇa ananta
sac-cid-rūpa-guṇa sarva pūrṇānanda
guṇa śabdera artha—the meaning of the word guṇa; kṛṣṇera guṇa ananta—Kṛṣṇa has unlimited qualities; sat-cit-rūpa-guṇa—such qualities are spiritual and eternal; sarva pūrṇa-ānanda—full of all transcendental bliss.
"The word guṇa means 'quality.' The qualities of Kṛṣṇa are transcendentally situated and are unlimited in quantity. All of the spiritual qualities are full of transcendental bliss.
bhakta-vātsalya, ātma-paryanta vadānyatā
aiśvarya—opulence; mādhurya—transcendental sweetness; kāruṇye—mercy; svarūpa-pūrṇatā—fullness of spiritual value; bhakta-vātsalya—affection for the devotee; ātma-paryanta—up to the point of His personal self; vadānyatā—magnanimity.
"Kṛṣṇa's transcendental qualities such as opulence, sweetness and mercy are perfect and full. As far as Kṛṣṇa's affectionate leaning toward His devotees is concerned, He is so magnanimous that He can give Himself to His devotees.
alaukika rūpa, rasa, saurabhādi guṇa
kāro mana kona guṇe kare ākarṣaṇa
alaukika rūpa—uncommon beauty; rasa—mellows; saurabha-ādi guṇa—qualities like transcendental fragrance; kāro mana—the mind of a devotee; kona guṇe—by some particular quality; kare—does; ākarṣaṇa—attracting.
"Kṛṣṇa has unlimited qualities. The devotees are attracted by His uncommon beauty, mellows and fragrance. Thus they are differently situated in the different transcendental mellows. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is called all-attractive.
sanakādira mana harila saurabhādi guṇe
sanaka-ādira mana—the minds of saintly sages like Sanaka and Sanātana; harila—attracted; saurabha-ādi—such as the transcendental aroma of His lotus feet; guṇe—by the quality.
"The minds of the four boy sages [Sanaka, Sanātana, Sanandana and Sanat-kumāra] were attracted to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa by the aroma of the tulasī that had been offered to the Lord.
antargataḥ svavivareṇa cakāra teṣāṁ
saṅkṣobham akṣara-juṣām api citta-tanvoḥ
tasya—of Him; aravinda-nayanasya—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are like the petals of a lotus; pada-aravinda—of the lotus feet; kiñjalka—with saffron; miśra—mixed; tulasī—of tulasī leaves; makaranda—with the aroma; vāyuḥ—the air; antargataḥ—entered; sva-vivareṇa—through the nostrils; cakāra—created; teṣām—of them; saṅkṣobham—strong agitation; akṣara-juṣām—of the impersonally self-realized (Kumāras); api—also; citta-tanvoḥ—of the mind and body.
" 'When the breeze carrying the aroma of tulasī leaves and saffron from the lotus feet of the lotus-eyed Personality of Godhead entered through the nostrils into the hearts of those sages [the Kumāras], they experienced a change in both body and mind, even though they were attached to impersonal Brahman understanding.'
śukadevera mana harila līlā-śravaṇe
śukadevera—of Śukadeva Gosvāmī; mana—the mind; harila—carried away; līlā-śravaṇe—by remembering the pastimes of the Lord.
"Śukadeva's mind was carried away by remembering the pastimes of the Lord.
pariniṣṭhito 'pi nairguṇye
ākhyānaṁ yad adhītavān
pariniṣṭhitaḥ—situated; api—although; nairguṇye—in the transcendental position, freed from the material modes of nature; uttamaḥ-śloka-līlayā—by the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Uttamaḥśloka; gṛhīta-ceta—the mind became fully taken over; rājarṣe—O great King; ākhyānam—the narration; yat—which; adhītavān—studied.
" 'Śukadeva Gosvāmī addressed Parīkṣit Mahārāja, "My dear King, although I was fully situated in the transcendental position, I was nonetheless attracted to the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Therefore I studied Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from my father.' "
'py ajita-rucira-līlākṛṣṭa-sāras tadīyam
vyatanuta kṛpayā yas tattva-dīpaṁ purāṇaṁ
tam akhila-vṛjina-ghnaṁ vyāsa-sūnuṁ nato 'smi
sva-sukha-nirbhṛta-cetāḥ—whose mind was always fully absorbed in the happiness of self-realization; tat—by that; vyudasta-anya-bhāvaḥ—being freed from all other attractions; api—although; ajita-rucira-līlā—by the most attractive pastimes of Ajita, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ākṛṣṭa—attracted; sāraḥ—whose heart; tadīyam—in relation to the Lord; vyatanuta—described and spread; kṛpayā—out of mercy; yaḥ—he who; tattva-dīpam—which is the light of the Absolute Truth; purāṇam—the supplementary Vedic literature Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; tam—to him; akhila-vṛjina-ghnam—who can destroy all kinds of material misery; vyāsa-sūnum—Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the son of Vyāsadeva; nataḥ asmi—I offer my respectful obeisances.
" 'I offer my respectful obeisances unto Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the son of Vyāsadeva. He is the destroyer of all sinful reactions and is full in self-realization and bliss. Because of this, he has no other desire. Still, he was attracted by the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and out of compassion for the people, he described the transcendental historical literature called Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. This is compared to the light of the Absolute Truth.'
This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (12.12.68).
śrī-aṅga-rūpe hare gopikāra mana
śrī-aṅga—of His transcendental body; rūpe—by the beauty; hare—attracts; gopikāra mana—the minds of the gopīs.
"Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa attracts the minds of all the gopīs with His beautiful transcendental bodily features.
vīkṣyālakāvṛta-mukhaṁ tava kuṇḍala-śrī-
dattābhayaṁ ca bhuja-daṇḍa-yugaṁ vilokya
vakṣaḥ śriyaika-ramaṇaṁ ca bhavāma dāsyaḥ
vīkṣya—seeing; alaka-āvṛta-mukham—face decorated with curling tresses of hair; tava—Your; kuṇḍala-śrī—beauty of earrings; gaṇḍa-sthala—falling on Your cheeks; adhara-sudham—and the nectar from Your lips; hasita-avalokam—Your smiling glance; datta-abhayam—which assure fearlessness; ca—and; bhuja-daṇḍa-yugam—the two arms; vilokya—by seeing; vakṣaḥ—chest; śriyā—by the beauty; eka-ramaṇam—chiefly producing conjugal attraction; ca—and; bhavāma—we have become; dāsyaḥ—Your maidservants.
" 'Dear Kṛṣṇa, we have simply surrendered ourselves as Your maidservants, for we have seen Your beautiful face decorated with tresses of hair, Your earrings falling upon Your cheeks and the nectar of Your lips. We have also seen the beauty of Your smile and have been embraced by Your arms, which give us courage. Because we have seen Your chest, which is beautiful and broad, we have surrendered ourselves.'
rūpa-guṇa-śravaṇe rukmiṇy-ādira ākarṣaṇa
rūpa—beauty; guṇa—qualities; śravaṇe—by hearing; rukmiṇī-ādira—of the queens, headed by Rukmiṇī; ākarṣaṇa—attracting.
"The queens in Dvārakā, who are headed by Rukmiṇī, are also attracted to Kṛṣṇa simply by hearing about His transcendental beauty and qualities.
śrutvā guṇān bhuvana-sundara śṛṇvatāṁ te
nirviśya karṇa-vivarair harato 'ṅga-tāpam
rūpaṁ dṛśāṁ dṛśimatām akhilārtha-lābhaṁ
tvayy acyutāviśati cittam apatrapaṁ me
śrutvā—hearing; guṇān—the transcendental qualities; bhuvana-sundara—O most beautiful in the whole creation; śṛṇvatām—of those hearing; te—Your; nirviśya—entering; karṇa-vivaraiḥ—by the holes of the ears; harataḥ aṅga-tāpam—decreasing all the miserable conditions of the body; rūpam—the beauty; dṛśām—of the eyes; dṛśimatām—of those who can see; akhila-artha-lābham—the achievement of all kinds of gains; tvayi—unto You; acyuta—O infallible one; āviśati—enters; cittam—the consciousness; apatrapam—without shame; me—my.
" 'O most beautiful Kṛṣṇa, I have heard about Your transcendental qualities from others, and therefore all my bodily miseries are relieved. If one sees Your transcendental beauty, his eyes have attained everything profitable in life. O infallible one, I have become shameless after hearing of Your qualities, and I have become attracted to You.'
This verse (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 10.52.37) was written by Rukmiṇīdevī in a letter to Kṛṣṇa inviting Him to kidnap her. Śukadeva Gosvāmī described this to Mahārāja Parīkṣit when the King asked him how Rukmiṇī had been kidnapped. Rukmiṇī had heard about Kṛṣṇa's qualities from different people, and after she heard about them, she decided to accept Kṛṣṇa as her husband. Everything had been arranged for her marriage to Śiśupāla; therefore she wrote a letter to Kṛṣṇa, which she sent through a brāhmaṇa, and invited Him to kidnap her.
vaṁśī-gīte hare kṛṣṇa lakṣmy-ādira mana
vaṁśī-gīte—by the vibration of His flute; hare—attracts; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; laksmī-ādira—of the goddess of fortune and others; mana—the mind.
"Lord Kṛṣṇa even attracts the mind of the goddess of fortune simply by vibrating His transcendental flute.
kasyānubhāvo 'sya na deva vidmahe
yad-vāñchayā śrīr lalanācarat tapo
vihāya kāmān suciraṁ dhṛta-vratā
kasya—of what; anubhāvaḥ—a result; asya—of the serpent (Kāliya); na—not; deva—O Lord; vidmahe—we know; tava-aṅghri—of Your lotus feet; reṇu—of the dust; sparaśa—for touching; adhikāraḥ—qualification; yat—which; vāñchayā—by desiring; śrīḥ—the goddess of fortune; lalanā—the topmost woman; acarat—performed; tapaḥ—austerity; vihāya—giving up; kāmān—all desires; suciram—for a long time; dhṛta—a law upheld; vratā—as a vow.
" 'O Lord, we do not know how the serpent Kāliya attained such an opportunity to be touched by the dust of Your lotus feet. For this end, the goddess of fortune performed austerities for centuries, giving up all other desires and taking austere vows. Indeed, we do not know how this serpent Kāliya got such an opportunity.'
yogya-bhāve jagate yata yuvatīra gaṇa
yogya-bhāve—by proper behavior; jagate—within the three worlds; yata—all; yuvatīra gaṇa—the groups of young girls.
"Kṛṣṇa attracts not only the minds of the gopīs and the goddesses of fortune but the minds of all the young girls in the three worlds as well.
kā stry aṅga te kala-padāmṛta-veṇu-gīta-
sammohitārya-caritān na calet trilokyām
trailokya-saubhagam idaṁ ca nirīkṣya rūpaṁ
yad go-dvija-druma-mṛgāḥ pulakāny abibhran
kā strī—who is that woman; aṅga—O Kṛṣṇa; te—of You; kala-pada—by the rhythms; amṛta-veṇu-gīta—and sweet songs of Your flute; sammohitā—being captivated; ārya-caritāt—from the path of chastity according to Vedic civilization; na—not; calet—would wander; tri-lokyām—within the three worlds; trailokya-saubhagam—which is the fortune of the three worlds; idam—this; ca—and; nirīkṣya—by observing; rūpam—the beauty; yat—which; go—the cows; dvija—the birds; druma—the trees; mṛgāḥ—forest animals like the deer; pulakāni—transcendental jubilation; abibhran—manifested.
" 'My dear Lord Kṛṣṇa, where is that woman within the three worlds who cannot be captivated by the rhythms of the sweet songs coming from Your wonderful flute? Who cannot fall down from the path of chastity in this way? Your beauty is the most sublime within the three worlds. Upon seeing Your beauty, even cows, birds, animals and trees in the forest are stunned in jubilation.'
This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.29.40).
guru-tulya strī-gaṇera vātsalye ākarṣaṇa
dāsya-sakhyādi-bhāve puruṣādi gaṇa
guru-tulya—on the level of a superior guardian; strī-gaṇera—of the ladies of Vṛndāvana; vātsalye—in parental affection; ākarṣaṇa—attracting; dāsya-sakhya-ādi—servants, friends, and others; bhāve—in the mode of; puruṣa-ādi gaṇa—all the males of Vṛndāvana.
"The women of Vṛndāvana, who are on the level of superior guardians, are attracted maternally. The men of Vṛndāvana are attracted as servants, friends and fathers to Lord Kṛṣṇa.
pakṣī, mṛga, vṛkṣa, latā, cetanācetana
preme matta kari' ākarṣaye kṛṣṇa-guṇa
pakṣī—birds; mṛga—animals; vṛkṣa—trees; latā—creepers; cetana-acetana—living entities and even the stones and wood; preme—in ecstatic love; matta—captivated; kari'-making; ākarṣaye—attract; kṛṣṇa-guṇa—the qualities of Kṛṣṇa.
"The qualities of Kṛṣṇa captivate and attract everything, living and dead. Even birds, animals and trees are attracted to Kṛṣṇa's qualities.
'hariḥ'-śabde nānārtha, dui mukhyatama
sarva amaṅgala hare, prema diyā hare mana
hariḥ—hari; śabde-by this word; nānā-artha—different imports; dui—two; mukhya-tama—chief; sarva—all; amaṅgala—inauspiciousness; hare—takes away; prema diyā—by ecstatic love; hare—attracts; mana—the mind.
"Although the word hari has many different meanings, two of them are foremost. One meaning is that the Lord takes away all inauspicious things from His devotee, and the second meaning is that He attracts the mind by ecstatic love for God.
yaiche taiche yohi kohi karaye smaraṇa
cāri-vidha tāpa tāra kare saṁharaṇa
yaiche taiche—somehow or other; yohi kohi—anywhere and everywhere; karaye smaraṇa—remembers; cāri-vidha—the four kinds; tāpa—miserable conditions of life; tāra—of the devotee; kare saṁharaṇa—He takes away.
"When the devotee somehow or other always remembers the Supreme Personality of Godhead anywhere and everywhere, Lord Hari takes away life's four miserable conditions.
The four miserable conditions are due to the four kinds of sinful activities, known as (1) pātaka, (2) urupātaka, (3) mahā-pātaka and (4) atipātaka-preliminary sin, very great sin, greater sin and topmost sin. However, Kṛṣṇa assures the devotee, ahaṁ tvāṁ sarva-pāpebhyo mokṣayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ: "I will protect you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear." The word sarva-pāpebhyaḥ indicates four kinds of sinful activity. As soon as the devotee surrenders unto Kṛṣṇa's lotus feet, he is certainly relieved from all sinful activities and their results. The four basic sinful activities are summarized as illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating.
karoty edhāṁsi bhasmasāt
tathā mad-viṣayā bhaktir
yathā—as; agniḥ—a fire; su-samṛddha-arciḥ—having a full flame; karoti—makes; edhāṁsi—fuel; bhasmasāt—into ashes; tathā—similarly; mat-viṣayā bhaktiḥ—devotional service in relation to Me; uddhava—O Uddhava; enāṁsi—all kinds of sinful activity; kṛtsnaśaḥ—totally.
" 'As all fuel is burned to ashes by a full-fledged fire, all sinful activities are totally erased when one engages in devotional service to Me.'
This verse is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.14.19).
tabe kare bhakti-bādhaka karma, avidyā nāśa
śravaṇādyera phala 'premā' karaye prakāśa
tabe—thereafter; kare—does; bhakti-bādhaka—impediments on the path of devotional service; karma—activities; avidyā—ignorance; nāśa—vanquishing; śravaṇa-ādyera—of hearing, chanting and so forth; phala—the result; premā—love of Godhead; karaye prakāśa—causes a manifestation of.
"In this way, when all sinful activities are vanquished by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one gradually vanquishes all kinds of impediments on the path of devotional service, as well as the ignorance resulting from these impediments. After this, one totally manifests his original love of Godhead through devotional service in nine different ways-hearing, chanting and so forth.
nija-guṇe tabe hare dehendriya-mana
aiche kṛpālu kṛṣṇa, aiche tāṅra guṇa
nija-guṇe—by transcendental qualities; tabe—then; hare—attracts; deha-indriya-mana—the body, senses and mind; aiche—in that way; kṛpālu kṛṣṇa—merciful Kṛṣṇa; aiche—in that way; tāṅra—His; guṇa—transcendental qualities.
"When the devotee is freed from all sinful material activities, Kṛṣṇa attracts his body, mind and senses to His service. Thus Kṛṣṇa is very merciful, and His transcendental qualities are very attractive.
cāri puruṣārtha chāḍāya, guṇe hare sabāra mana
'hari'-śabdera ei mukhya kahiluṅ lakṣaṇa
cāri puruṣa-artha—the four kinds of so-called goals of life; chāḍāya—causes to give up; guṇe—by the transcendental qualities; hare—attracts; sabāra mana—everyone's mind; hari—hari; śabdera—of the word; ei—this; mukhya—chief; kahiluṅ—I have explained; lakṣaṇa—the symptoms.
"When one's mind, senses and body are attracted to the transcendental qualities of Hari, one gives up the four principles of material success. Thus I have explained the chief meanings of the word hari.
The four principles of material success are (1) religious performance, (2) economic development, (3) sense gratification and (4) liberation, or merging in the impersonal effulgence of Brahman. These things do not interest the devotee.
'ca' 'api', dui śabda tāte 'avyaya' haya
yei artha lāgāiye, sei artha haya
ca—ca; api-api; dui-two; śabda—words; tāte—in that way; avyaya—indeclinable words; haya—are; yei—whatever; artha—meaning; lāgāiye—they want to use; sei—that; artha—meaning; haya—can be used.
"When the conjunction ca [and] and the adverb api [although] are added to this verse, the verse can assume whatever meaning one wants to give it.
tathāpi ca-kārera kahe mukhya artha sāta
"The word ca can be explained in seven ways.
'nyo 'nyārthe ca samuccaye
yatnāntare tathā pāda-
pūraṇe 'py avadhāraṇe
ca—this word ca; anvācaye—in connecting one with another; samāhāre—in the sense of aggregation; anyo 'nya-arthe—to help one another in the imports; ca-the word ca; samuccaye—in aggregate understanding; yatna-antare—in another effort; tathā—as well as; pāda-pūraṇe—in completing the verse; api—also; avadhāraṇe—in the sense of certainty.
" 'The word ca [and] is used to connect a word or sentence with a previous word or sentence, to give the sense of aggregation, to assist the meaning, to give a collective understanding, to suggest another effort or exertion, or to fulfill the meter of a verse. It is also used in the sense of certainty.'
api-śabde mukhya artha sāta vikhyāta
"There are seven chief meanings of the word api. They are as follows.
api—the word api; sambhāvanā—possibility; praśna—question; śaṅkā—doubt; garhā—censure or abuse; samuccaye—aggregation; tathā—as well as; yukta-pada-artheṣu—the appropriate application of things; kāma-cāra-kriyāsu—of extravagance; ca—and.
" 'The word api is used in the sense of possibility, question, doubt, censure, aggregation, appropriate application of things, and extravagance.'
ei ta' ekādaśa padera artha-nirṇaya
ebe ślokārtha kari, yathā ye lāgaya
ei ta'—this; ekādaśa—eleven; padera—of the words; artha-nirṇaya—demonstration of import; ebe—now; śloka-artha—the total meaning of the verse; kari—let Me do; yathā—as much as; ye-which; lāgaya—applicable.
"I have now described the different meanings of the eleven separate words. Now let Me give the complete meaning of the śloka, as it is applied in different places.
'brahma' śabdera artha--tattva sarva-bṛhattama
svarūpa aiśvarya kari' nāhi yāṅra sama
brahma—brahma; śabdera artha-the meaning of the word; tattva—the truth; sarva-bṛhat-tama—summum bonum among the relative truths; sva-rūpa—the original identity; aiśvarya—opulence; kari'-accepting; nāhi—not; yāṅra—whose; sama—equal.
"The word brahma indicates the summum bonum, the Absolute Truth, which is greater than all other truths. It is the original identity, and there can be no truth equal to that Absolute Truth.
bṛhattvād bṛṁhaṇatvāc ca
tad brahma paramaṁ viduḥ
tasmai namas te sarvātman
bṛhattvāt—because of being all-pervasive; bṛṁhaṇatvāt—because of increasing unlimitedly; ca—and; tat—that; brahma—Absolute Truth; paramam—the ultimate; viduḥ—they know; tasmai—unto Him; namaḥ—obeisances; te—unto You; sarva-ātman—the Supreme Soul; yogi-cintya—appreciable by great yogīs; avikāra-vat—without change.
" 'I offer my respectful obeisances to the Absolute Truth, the summum bonum. He is the all-pervasive, all-increasing subject matter for the great yogīs. He is changeless, and He is the soul of all.'
sei brahma-śabde kahe svayaṁ-bhagavān
advitīya-jñāna, yāṅhā vinā nāhi āna
sei—that; brahma—brahma; śabde—by the word; kahe—it is said; svayam-bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; advitīya-jñāna—the supreme one, without duality; yāṅhā—which; vinā—without; nāhi āna—there is nothing else.
"The proper meaning of the word brahma is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is one without a second and without whom nothing exists.
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
bhagavān iti śabdyate
vadanti—they say; tat—that; tattva-vidaḥ—learned souls; tattvam—the Absolute Truth; yat—which; jñānam—knowledge; advayam—nondual; brahma—Brahman; iti—thus; paramātmā—Paramātmā; iti—thus; bhagavān—Bhagavān; iti—thus; śabdyate—is known.
" 'Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth say that it is nondual knowledge and is called impersonal Brahman, localized Paramātmā and the Personality of Godhead.'
sei advaya-tattva kṛṣṇa--svayaṁ-bhagavān
tina-kāle satya tiṅho--śāstra-pramāṇa
sei—that; advaya-tattva—Absolute Truth without a second; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; svayam-bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tina-kāle—in three phases of time (past, present and future); satya—truth; tiṅho—He; śāstra-pramāṇa—the verdict of all Vedic literature.
"That Absolute Truth without a second is Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the supreme truth in the past, present and future. That is the evidence of all revealed scriptures.
aham evāsam evāgre
nānyad yat sad-asat-param
paścād ahaṁ yad etac ca
yo 'vaśiṣyeta so 'smy aham
aham—I, the Personality of Godhead; eva—certainly; āsam—existed; eva—only; agre—before the creation; na—never; anyat—anything else; yat—which; sat—the effect; asat—the cause; param—the supreme; paścāt—after; aham—I, the Personality of Godhead; yat—which; etat—this creation; ca—also; yaḥ—who; avaśiṣyeta—remains; saḥ—that; asmi—am; aham—I, the Personality of Godhead.
" 'Prior to the cosmic creation, only I exist, and no phenomena exist, either gross, subtle or primordial. After creation, only I exist in everything, and after annihilation only I remain eternally.'
'ātma'-śabde kahe kṛṣṇa bṛhattva-svarūpa
sarva-vyāpaka, sarva-sākṣī, parama-svarūpa
ātma—ātmā; śabde-by the word; kahe—it is said; kṛṣṇa—the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa; bṛhattva—the greatest of all; sva-rūpa—identity; sarva-vyāpaka—all pervasive; sarva-sākṣī—the witness of all; parama-svarūpa—the supreme form.
"The word ātmā [self] indicates the highest truth, Kṛṣṇa. He is the all-pervasive witness of all, and He is the supreme form.
ātatatvāc ca mātṛtvād
ātmā hi paramo hariḥ
ātatatvāt—due to being all-pervading; ca—and; mātṛtvāt—due to being the progenitor; ātmā—the soul; hi—certainly; paramaḥ—supreme; hariḥ—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
" 'Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is the all-pervasive original source of everything; He is therefore the Supersoul of everything.'
This is a quotation from the Bhāvārtha-dīpikā, Śrīdhara Svāmī's commentary on Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
sei kṛṣṇa-prāpti-hetu trividha 'sādhana'
jñāna, yoga, bhakti,--tinera pṛthak lakṣaṇa
sei—those; kṛṣṇa-prāpti—of achieving the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; hetu—causes; tri-vidha sādhana—the three kinds of execution; jñāna—knowledge; yoga—mystic yoga practice; bhakti—and devotional service; tinera—of these three; pṛthak lakṣaṇa—the symptoms are different.
"There are three ways to attain the lotus feet of the Absolute Truth, Kṛṣṇa. There is the process of philosophical speculation, the practice of mystic yoga and the execution of devotional service. Each of these has its different characteristics.
tina sādhane bhagavān tina svarūpe bhāse
brahma, paramātmā, bhagavattā,--trividha prakāśe
tina sādhane—by these three different processes; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tina—three; sva-rūpe—in identities; bhāse—appears; brahma—the impersonal feature; paramātmā—the localized feature; bhagavattā—and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; trividha prakāśe—three manifestations.
"The Absolute Truth is the same, but according to the process by which one understands Him, He appears in three forms-as Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
vadanti tat tattva-vidas
tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
bhagavān iti śabdyate
vadanti—they say; tat—that; tattva-vidaḥ—learned souls; tattvam—the Absolute Truth; yat—which; jñānam—knowledge; advayam—nondual; brahma—Brahman; iti—thus; paramātmā—Paramātmā; iti—thus; bhagavān—Bhagavān; iti—thus; śabdyate—is known.
" 'Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth say that it is nondual knowledge and is called impersonal Brahman, localized Paramātmā and the Personality of Godhead.'
'brahma-ātmā'-śabde yadi kṛṣṇere kahaya
'rūḍhi-vṛttye' nirviśeṣa antaryāmī kaya
brahma-ātmā—brahma and ātmā; śabde—by these words; yadi—if; kṛṣṇere kahaya—Kṛṣṇa is indicated; rūḍhi-vṛttye—by the direct meaning; nirviśeṣa—impersonal; antaryāmī—the Supersoul; kaya—is said.
"Although the words brahma and ātmā indicate Kṛṣṇa, their direct meaning refers only to the impersonal Brahman and the Supersoul.
jñāna-mārge—the process of philosophical speculation; nirviśeṣa-brahma—the impersonal Brahman effulgence; prakāśe—becomes manifest; yoga-mārge—by practicing mystic yoga; antaryāmi-svarūpete—in the localized aspect, Supersoul; bhāse—appears.
"If one follows the path of philosophical speculation, the Absolute Truth manifests Himself as impersonal Brahman, and if one follows the path of mystic yoga, He manifests Himself as the Supersoul.
rāga-bhakti-vidhi-bhakti haya dui-rūpa
'svayaṁ-bhagavattve', bhagavattve--prakāśa dvi-rūpa
rāga-bhakti—spontaneous devotional service; vidhi-bhakti—regulative devotional service; haya—are; dui-rūpa—the two kinds of devotional service; svayam-bhagavattve—in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhagavattve—and in His personal expansion; prakāśa dvi-rūpa—the two kinds of manifestation.
"There are two kinds of devotional activity-spontaneous and regulative. By spontaneous devotional service, one attains the original Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, and by the regulative process one attains the expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
rāga-bhaktye vraje svayaṁ-bhagavāne pāya
rāga-bhaktye—by the discharge of spontaneous devotional service; vraje—in Vṛndāvana; svayam—Himself; bhagavāne—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pāya—one gets.
"By executing spontaneous devotional service in Vṛndāvana, one attains the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa.
nāyaṁ sukhāpo bhagavān
yathā bhaktimatām iha
na—not; ayam—this Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; sukha-āpaḥ—easily available; bhagavān—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dehinām—for materialistic persons who have accepted the body as the self; gopikā-sutaḥ—the son of mother Yaśodā; jñāninām—for persons addicted to mental speculation; ca—and; ātma-bhūtānām—for persons performing severe austerities and penances; yathā—as; bhakti-matām—for persons engaged in spontaneous devotional service; iha—in this world.
" 'The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, the son of mother Yaśodā, is accessible to those devotees engaged in spontaneous loving service, but He is not as easily accessible to mental speculators, to those striving for self-realization by severe austerities and penances, or to those who consider the body the same as the self.'
vidhi-bhaktye pārṣada-dehe vaikuṇṭhete yāya
vidhi-bhaktye—by executing regulative devotional service; pārṣada-dehe—in the form of an associate of the Lord; vaikuṇṭhete yāya—one achieves the Vaikuṇṭha planets.
"By executing regulative devotional service, one becomes an associate of Nārāyaṇa and attains the Vaikuṇṭhalokas, the spiritual planets in the spiritual sky.
yac ca vrajanty animiṣām ṛṣabhānuvṛttyā
dūre-yamā hy upari naḥ spṛhaṇīya-śīlāḥ
bhartur mithaḥ suyaśasaḥ kathanānurāga-
yat—which; ca—also; vrajanti—go; animiṣām—of the demigods; ṛṣabha-anuvṛttyā—by practicing the best means of spiritual life; dūre—keeping at a distance; yamāḥ—the regulative principles; hi—certainly; upari—above; naḥ—our; spṛhaṇīya-śīlāḥ—decorated with desirable qualities; bhartuḥ—of the master; mithaḥ—mutually; su-yaśasaḥ—who has all transcendental qualities; kathana-anurāga—attracted to discussions; vaiklavya—transformation; bāṣpa-kalayā—with tears in the eyes; pulakīkṛta—jubilation; aṅgāḥ—bodily limbs.
" 'Those who discuss the activities of Lord Kṛṣṇa are on the highest platform of devotional life, and they evince the symptoms of tears in the eyes and bodily jubilation. Such persons discharge devotional service to Kṛṣṇa without practicing the rules and regulations of the mystic yoga system. They possess all spiritual qualities, and they are elevated to the Vaikuṇṭha planets, which exist above us.'
This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.15.25). In this verse Lord Brahmā is speaking to all the demigods, who feared the two asuras in Diti's womb. Lord Brahmā described the Kumāras' visit to Vaikuṇṭha, and this was again explained by Maitreya, the friend of Vyāsadeva, when he gave instructions to Vidura.
sei upāsaka haya trividha prakāra
akāma, mokṣa-kāma, sarva-kāma āra
sei upāsaka—those devotees; haya—are; tri-vidha prakāra—three varieties; akāma—without material desires; mokṣa-kāma—desiring to become liberated; sarva-kāma—filled with all material desires; āra—and.
"The devotees are divided into three categories-akāma [desireless], mokṣa-kāma [desiring liberation], and sarva-kāma [desiring material perfection].
akāmaḥ sarva-kāmo vā
yajeta puruṣaṁ param
akāmaḥ—without material desires; sarva-kāmaḥ—full of all material desires; vā—or; mokṣa-kāmaḥ—desiring liberation; udāra-dhīḥ—sincere and advanced in devotional service; tīvreṇa—firm; bhakti-yogena—by the practice of bhakti-yoga; yajeta—should worship; puruṣam param—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
" 'One who is actually intelligent, although he may be a devotee free from material desires, a karmī desiring all kinds of material facilities, or a jñānī desiring liberation, should seriously engage in bhakti-yoga for the satisfaction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.'
buddhimān-arthe--yadi 'vicāra-jña' haya
nija-kāma lāgiha tabe kṛṣṇere bhajaya
buddhimān-arthe—by the meaning of intelligent; yadi—if; vicāra-jña—expert in scrutinizing things; haya—is; nija-kāma lāgiha—even for sense gratification; tabe—then; kṛṣṇere bhajana—worships Lord Kṛṣṇa.
"The meaning of the word udāra-dhīḥ is buddhimān-intelligent or considerate. Because of this, even for one's own sense gratification one engages in the devotional service of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
bhakti vinu kona sādhana dite nāre phala
saba phala deya bhakti svatantra prabala
bhakti vinu—without devotional service; kona—some; sādhana—practice for perfection; dite—to give; nāre—not able; phala—any result; saba phala—all the results of different processes; deya—give; bhakti—devotional service; svatantra—independent; prabala—and powerful.
"The other processes cannot yield results unless they are associated with devotional service. Devotional service, however, is so strong and independent that it can give one all the desired results.
ajā-gala-stana-nyāya anya sādhana
ataeva hari bhaje buddhimān jana
ajā-gala-stana-nyāya—like the nipples on the neck of a goat; anya—other; sādhana—execution of spiritual life; ataeva—therefore; hari—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhaje—one worships; buddhimān jana—the intelligent person.
"With the exception of devotional service, all the methods of self-realization are like nipples on the neck of a goat. An intelligent person adopts only devotional service, giving up all other processes of self-realization.
Without devotional service, other methods for self-realization and spiritual life are useless. Other methods cannot produce good results at any time, and therefore they are compared to the nipples on the neck of a goat. These nipples cannot produce milk, although it may appear that they can. An unintelligent person cannot understand that only devotional service can elevate one to the transcendental position.
catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ
janāḥ sukṛtino 'rjuna
ārto jijñāsur arthārthī
jñānī ca bharatarṣabha
catuḥ-vidhāḥ—four kinds; bhajante—worship; mām—Me; janāḥ—persons; sukṛtinaḥ—who have obeyed the principles of human life or the regulative principles of varṇa and āśrama; arjuna—O Arjuna; ārtaḥ—the distressed; jijñāsuḥ—the inquisitive; artha-arthī—one in need of money; jñānī—one pursuing knowledge; ca—also; bharata-ṛṣabha—O best of the Bharata dynasty.
" 'O best among the Bharatas [Arjuna], four kinds of pious men render devotional service unto Me-the distressed, the desirer of wealth, the inquisitive, and he who is searching for knowledge of the Absolute.'
This is a quotation from Bhagavad-gītā (7.16). The word sukṛtinaḥ is very important in this verse. Su means "auspicious," and kṛtī means "meritorious" or "regulated." Unless one follows the regulative principles of religious life, human life is no different from animal life. Religious life means following the principles of varṇa and āśrama. In the Viṣṇu Purāṇa it is said:
puruṣeṇa paraḥ pumān
viṣṇur ārādhyate panthā
According to religious life, society is divided into four social divisions-brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra-and four spiritual divisions-brahmacarya, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa. One needs to be trained to become a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya or śūdra, just as one is trained to become an engineer, doctor or lawyer. Those who are properly trained can be considered human beings; if one is not trained socially and spiritually-that is, if one is uneducated and unregulated-his life is on the animal platform. Among animals there is no question of spiritual advancement. Spiritual life can be attained by proper training-either by following the principles of varṇa and āśrama or by being directly trained in the bhakti school by the methods of śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ smaraṇaṁ pāda-sevanamarcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ sakhyam ātma-nivedanam. Without being trained, one cannot be sukṛtī, auspicious. In this verse Kṛṣṇa says that people approach Him when in distress, in need of money or when actually inquisitive to understand the Supreme Being or the original source of everything. Some people approach Him in the pursuit of knowledge of the Absolute Truth, and others approach Him when they are distressed, like the devotee Gajendra. Others are inquisitive, like the great sages headed by Sanaka, and others need money, like Dhruva Mahārāja. Śukadeva Gosvāmī approached the Lord when he pursued knowledge. All these great personalities thus took to the devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa.
ārta, arthārthī,--dui sakāma-bhitare gaṇi
jijñāsu, jñānī,--dui mokṣa-kāma māni
ārta—distressed; artha-arthī—desirous of money; dui—two persons; sakāma-bhitare—in the division of material activities; gaṇi—we consider; jijñāsu—inquisitive; jñānī—pursuing knowledge; dui—two; mokṣa-kāma—transcendentalists pursuing spiritual knowledge for liberation; māni—I consider.
"Materialistic devotees take to devotional service and worship Kṛṣṇa when they are distressed or in need of money. Those who are actually inquisitive to understand the supreme source of everything and those who are in search of knowledge are called transcendentalists, for they desire liberation from all material contamination.
ei cāri sukṛti haya mahā-bhāgyavān
tat-tat-kāmādi chāḍi' haya śuddha-bhaktimān
ei cāri—these four persons; sukṛti—pious men; haya—are; mahā-bhāgyavān—highly fortunate; tat-tat—those respective; kāma-ādi—aspirations; chāḍi'-giving up; haya—become; śuddha-bhaktimān—pure devotees.
"Because they have a pious background, all four types of people are to be considered greatly fortunate. Such people gradually give up material desires and become pure devotees.
sādhu-saṅga-kṛpā kimvā kṛṣṇera kṛpāya
kāmādi 'duḥsaṅga' chāḍi' śuddha-bhakti pāya
sādhu-saṅga-kṛpā—by the mercy of association with devotees; kimvā—or; kṛṣṇera kṛpāya—by the mercy of Kṛṣṇa; kāma-ādi—material desires and so on; duḥsaṅga—unwanted association; chāḍi'-giving up; śuddha-bhakti pāya—one obtains the platform of pure devotional life.
"One is elevated to the platform of devotional life by the mercy of a Vaiṣṇava, the bona fide spiritual master, and by the special mercy of Kṛṣṇa. On that platform, one gives up all material desires and the association of unwanted people. Thus one is elevated to the platform of pure devotional service.
hātuṁ notsahate budhaḥ
kīrtyamānaṁ yaśo yasya
sakṛd ākarṇya rocanam
sat-saṅgāt—by the association of pure devotees; mukta—freed; duḥsaṅgaḥ—the association of materialistic persons; hātum—to give up; na—not; utsahate—is able; budhaḥ—one who is actually learned; kīrtyamānam—being glorified; yaśaḥ—the glories; yasya—of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); sakṛt—once; ākarṇya—hearing; rocanam—very pleasing.
" 'The intelligent, who have understood the Supreme Lord in the association of pure devotees and have become free from bad materialistic association, can never avoid hearing the glories of the Lord, even though they have heard them only once.'
This is a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.10.11). All the members of the Kuru dynasty offered respects when Kṛṣṇa was leaving Hastināpura after the Battle of Kurukṣetra. Kṛṣṇa was going to His own kingdom, and all the members of the Kuru dynasty were overwhelmed by His departure. This verse was spoken in that connection by Śukadeva Gosvāmī. A pure devotee becomes attached to Kṛṣṇa by hearing the Lord's glories. The Lord's glories and the Lord Himself are identical. One has to be qualified to understand this Absolute Truth; therefore one should be given a chance to associate with a pure devotee. Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is meant for this purpose. We want to create pure devotees so that other people will benefit by their association. In this way the number of pure devotees increases. Professional preachers cannot create pure devotees. There are many professional preachers of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam who read this work to earn their livelihood. However, they cannot convert materialistic people to devotional service. Only a pure devotee can convert others to pure devotional service. It is therefore important for all the preachers in our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement to first become pure devotees and follow the regulative principles, refraining from illicit sex, meat-eating, gambling and intoxication. They should regularly chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra on their beads, follow the devotional process, rise early in the morning, attend maṅgala-ārati and recite Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and Bhagavad-gītā regularly. In this way, one can become purified and free from all material contamination.
sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate
To make a show of devotional service will not help one. One must be a pure devotee following the devotional process; then one can convert others to devotional service. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu practiced devotional service and preached (āpani ācari' bhakti karila pracāra). If a preacher behaves properly in devotional service, he will be able to convert others. Otherwise, his preaching will have no effect.
'duḥsaṅga' kahiye--'kaitava', 'ātma-vañcanā'
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