This Thirteenth Chapter of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta describes Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's appearance. The entire Ādi-līlā section describes Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu's household life, and similarly the Antya-līlā describes His life in the sannyāsa order. Within the Antya-līlā, the first six years of His sannyāsa life are called Madhya-līlā. During this time, Caitanya Mahāprabhu toured southern India, went to Vṛndāvana, returned from Vṛndāvana and preached the saṅkīrtana movement.
A learned brāhmaṇa named Upendra Miśra who resided in the district of Śrīhaṭṭa was the father of Jagannātha Miśra, who came to Navadvīpa to study under the direction of Nīlāmbara Cakravartī and then settled there after marrying Nīlāmbara Cakravartī's daughter, Śacīdevī. Śrī Śacīdevī gave birth to eight children, all daughters, who died one after another immediately after birth. After her ninth pregnancy, she gave birth to a son, who was named Viśvarūpa. Then, in 1407 Śaka Era (A.D. 1486), on the full moon evening of the month of Phālguna, during the constellation of siṁha-lagna, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared as the son of Śrī Śacīdevī and Jagannātha Miśra. After hearing of the birth of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, learned scholars and brāhmaṇas, bringing many gifts, came to see the newly born baby. Nīlāmbara Cakravartī, who was a great astrologer, immediately prepared a horoscope, and by astrological calculation he saw that the child was a great personality. This chapter describes the symptoms of this great personality.
sa prasīdatu caitanya-
devo yasya prasādataḥ
sadyaḥ syād adhamo 'py ayam
saḥ—He; prasīdatu—may bestow His blessings; caitanya-devaḥ—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; yasya—of whom; prasādataḥ—by the grace; tat-līlā—His pastimes; varṇane—in the description; yogyaḥ—able; sadyaḥ—immediately; syāt—becomes possible; adhamaḥ—the most fallen; api—although; ayam—I am.
I wish the grace of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, by whose mercy even one who is fallen can describe the pastimes of the Lord.
To describe Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu or Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, one needs supernatural power, which is the grace and mercy of the Lord. Without this grace and mercy, one cannot compose transcendental literature. By dint of the grace of the Lord, however, even one who is unfit for a literary career can describe wonderful transcendental topics. Description of Kṛṣṇa is possible for one who is empowered. Kṛṣṇa-śakti vinā nahe tāra pravartana (Cc. Antya 7.11). Unless endowed with the mercy of the Lord, one cannot preach of the Lord's name, fame, quality, form, entourage and so on. It should be concluded, therefore, that the description of Caitanya-caritāmṛta by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī manifests specific mercy bestowed upon the author, although he thought of himself as the most fallen. We should not consider him fallen because he describes himself as such. Rather, anyone who is able to compose such transcendental literature is our esteemed master.
jaya jaya śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya gauracandra
jayādvaitacandra jaya jaya nityānanda
jaya jaya—all glories; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; gaura-candra—Lord Gauracandra; jaya ādvaita-candra—all glories to Advaita Ācārya; jaya jaya—all glories to; nityānanda—Lord Nityānanda Prabhu.
All glories to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Advaitacandra! All glories to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu!
jaya jaya gadādhara jaya śrīnivāsa
jaya mukunda vāsudeva jaya haridāsa
jaya jaya gadādhara—all glories to Gadādhara Prabhu; jaya śrīnivāsa—all glories to Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura; jaya mukunda—all glories to Mukunda; vāsudeva—all glories to Vāsudeva; jaya haridāsa—all glories to Haridāsa Ṭhākura.
All glories to Gadādhara Prabhu! All glories to Śrīvāsa Ṭhākura! All glories to Mukunda Prabhu and Vāsudeva Prabhu! All glories to Haridāsa Ṭhākura!
jaya dāmodara-svarūpa jaya murāri gupta
ei saba candrodaye tamaḥ kaila lupta
jaya—all glories; dāmodara-svarūpa—of the name Svarūpa Dāmodara; jaya—all glories; murāri gupta—of the name Murāri Gupta; ei saba—of all these; candra-udaye—such moons having arisen; tamaḥ—darkness; kaila—made; lupta—dissipated.
All glories to Svarūpa Dāmodara and Murāri Gupta! All these brilliant moons have together dissipated the darkness of this material world.
jaya śrī-caitanyacandrera bhakta candra-gaṇa
sabāra prema jyotsnāya ujjvala tri-bhuvana
jaya—all glories; śrī-caitanya—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; candrera—who is as bright as the moon; bhakta—devotees; candra-gaṇa—other moons; sabāra—of all of them; prema-jyotsnāya—by the full light of love of Godhead; ujjvala—bright; tri-bhuvana—all the three worlds.
All glories to the moons who are devotees of the principal moon, Lord Caitanyacandra! Their bright moonshine illuminates the entire universe.
In this verse we find the moon described as candra-gaṇa, which is plural in number. This indicates that there are many moons. In the Bhagavad-gītā the Lord says, nakṣatrāṇām ahaṁ śaśī: "Among the stars, I am the moon." (Bg. 10.21) All the stars are like the moon. Western astronomers consider the stars to be suns, but Vedic astronomers, following the Vedic scriptures, consider them moons. The sun has the ability to shine powerfully, and the moons reflect the sunshine and therefore look brilliant. In Caitanya-caritāmṛta Kṛṣṇa is described to be like the sun. The supreme powerful is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Śrī Kṛṣṇa, or Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and His devotees are also bright and illuminating because they reflect the supreme sun. The Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Madhya 22.31) states:
kṛṣṇa--sūrya-sama; māyā haya andhakāra
yāhāṅ kṛṣṇa, tāhāṅ nāhi māyāra adhikāra
"Kṛṣṇa is bright like the sun. As soon as the sun appears, there is no question of darkness or nescience." Similarly, this verse also describes that by the illumination of all the moons, brightened by the reflection of the Kṛṣṇa sun, or by the grace of all the devotees of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the entire world will be illuminated, despite the darkness of Kali-yuga. Only the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu can dissipate the darkness of Kali-yuga, the ignorance of the population of this age. No one else can do so. We therefore wish that all the devotees of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement may reflect the supreme sun and thus dissipate the darkness of the entire world.
ei ta' kahila granthārambhe mukha-bandha
ebe kahi caitanya-līlā-krama-anubandha
ei ta'-thus; kahila—I have spoken; grantha-ārambhe—in the beginning of the book; mukha-bandha—preface; ebe—now; kahi—I speak; caitanya—of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; līlā-krama—the chronological order of His pastimes; anubandha—as they are combined together.
Thus I have spoken the preface of Caitanya-caritāmṛta. Now I shall describe Caitanya Mahāprabhu's pastimes in chronological order.
prathame ta' sūtra-rūpe kariye gaṇana
pācṅe tāhā vistāri kariba vivarana
prathame—in the beginning; ta'-however; sūtra-rūpe—in the form of a synopsis; kariye—do; gaṇana—counting; pāche—thereafter; tāhā—that; vistāri—describing; kariba—I shall do; vivaraṇa—expansion.
First let me give a synopsis of the Lord's pastimes. Then I shall describe them in detail.
śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya navadvīpe avatari
āṭa-calliśa vatsara prakaṭa vihari
śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; navadvīpe—at Navadvīpa; avatari—adventing Himseif; āṭa-calliśa—forty-eight; vatsara—years; prakaṭa—visible; vihari—enjoying.
Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, adventing Himself in Navadvīpa, was visible for forty-eight years, enjoying His pastimes.
caudda-śata sāta śake janmera pramāṇa
caudda-śata pañcānne ha-ila antardhāna
caudda-śata—1400 (A.D. 1479); sāta—and seven; śake—in the Śaka Era; janmera—of birth; pramāṇa—evidence; caudda-śata pañcānne—in the year 1455 (A.D. 1534); ha-ila—became; antardhāna—disappearance.
In the year 1407 of the Śaka Era (A.D. 1486), Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu appeared, and in the year 1455 (A.D. 1534) He disappeared from this world.
cabbiśa vatsara prabhu kaila gṛha-vāsa
nirantara kaila kṛṣṇa-kīrtana-vilāsa
cabbiśa—twenty-four; vatsara—years; prabhu—the Lord; kaila—did; gṛha-vāsa—residing at home; nirantara—always; kaila—did; kṛṣṇa-kīrtana—chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra; vilāsa—pastimes.
For twenty-four years Lord Caitanya lived in the gṛhastha-āśrama [household life], always engaging in the pastimes of the Hare Kṛṣṇa movement.
cabbiśa vatsara-śeṣe kariyā sannyāsa
āra cabbiśa vatsara kaila nīlācale vāsa
cabbiśa—twenty-four; vatsara—years; śeṣe—at the end of; kariyā—accepting; sannyāsa—renounced order; āra—another; cabbiśa—twenty-four; vatsara—years; kaila—did; nīlācale—at Jagannātha Purī; vāsa—reside.
After twenty-four years He accepted the renounced order of life, sannyāsa, and He resided for twenty-four years more at Jagannātha Purī.
tāra madhye chaya vatsara--gamanāgamana
kabhu dakṣiṇa, kabhu gauḍa, kabhu vṛndāvana
tāra madhye—out of that; chaya vatsara—six years; gamana-āgamana—touring; kabhu—sometimes; dakṣiṇa—in South India; kabhu—sometimes; gauḍa—in Bengal; kabhu—sometimes; vṛndāvana—in Vṛndāvana.
Of these last twenty-four years, He spent the first six years continuously touring India, sometimes in South India, sometimes in Bengal and sometimes in Vṛndāvana.
aṣṭādaśa vatsara rahilā nīlācale
kṛṣṇa-prema-nāmāmṛte bhāsā'la sakale
aṣṭādaśa—eighteen; vatsara—years; rahilā—remained; nīlācale—at Jagannātha Purī; kṛṣṇa-prema—love of Godhead; nāma-amṛte—in the nectar of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra; bhāsā'la—inundated; sakale—everyone.
For the remaining eighteen years He continuously stayed in Jagannātha Purī. Chanting the nectarean Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, He inundated everyone there in a flood of love of Kṛṣṇa.
gārhasthye prabhura līlā--'ādi'-līlākhyāna
'madhya'- 'antya'-līlā--śeṣa-līlāra dui nāma
gārhasthye—in household life; prabhura—of the Lord; līlā—pastimes; ādi—the original; līlā—pastimes; ākhyāna—has the name of; madhya—middle; antya—last; līlā—pastimes; śeṣa-līlāra—the last part of the pastimes; dui—two; nāma—names.
The pastimes of His household life are known as ādi-līlā, or the original pastimes. His later pastimes are known as madhya-līlā and antya-līlā, or the middle and final pastimes.
ādi-līlā-madhye prabhura yateka carita
sūtra-rūpe murāri gupta karilā grathita
ādi-līlā—the original pastimes; madhye—within; prabhura—of the Lord; yateka—whatever; carita—activities; sūtra-rūpe—in the form of notes; murāri gupta—of the name Murāri Gupta; karilā—has; grathita—recorded.
All the pastimes enacted by Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His ādi-lilā were recorded in summary form by Murāri Gupta.
prabhura ye śeṣa-līlā svarūpa-dāmodara
sūtra kari' granthilena granthera bhitara
prabhura—of the Lord; ye—whatever; śeṣa-līlā—pastimes at the end; svarūpa- dāmodara—of the name Svarūpa Dāmodara; sūtra kari'-in the form of notes; granthilena—recorded; granthera—a book; bhitara—within.
His later pastimes [madhya-līlā and āntya-līlā] were recorded in the form of notes by His secretary, Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī, and thus kept within a book.
ei dui janera sūtra dekhiyā śuniyā
varṇanā karena vaiṣṇava krama ye kariyā
ei—of these; dui—two; janera—persons; sūtra—notes; dekhiyā—after looking at; śuniyā—and hearing; varṇanā—description; karena—does; vaiṣṇava—the devotee; krama—chronological; ye—which; kariyā—making.
By seeing and hearing the notes recorded by these two great personalities, a Vaiṣṇava, a devotee of the Lord, can know these pastimes one after another.
bālya, paugaṇḍa, kaiśora, yauvana,--cāri bheda
ataeva ādi-khaṇḍe līlā cāri bheda
bālya—childhood; paugaṇḍa—early boyhood; kaiśora—later boyhood; yauvana—youth; cāri—four; bheda—divisions; ataeva—therefore; ādi-khaṇḍe—in the original part; līlā—of the pastimes; cāri—four; bheda—divisions.
In His original pastimes there are four divisions: bālya, paugaṇḍa, kaiśora and yauvana [childhood, early boyhood, later boyhood and youth ].
sarva—all; sat—auspicious; guṇa—qualities; pūrṇām—filled with; tām—that; vande—I offer obeisances; phālguna—of the month of Phālguna; pūrṇimām—the full-moon evening; yasyām—in which; śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanyaḥ—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; avatīrṇaḥ—advented; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa's; nāmabhiḥ—with the chanting of the holy names.
I offer my respectful obeisances unto the full-moon evening in the month of Phālguna, an auspicious time full of auspicious symptoms, when Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu advented Himself with the chanting of the holy name, Hare Kṛṣṇa.
phālguna-pūrṇimā-sandhyāya prabhura janmodaya
sei-kāle daiva-yoge candra-grahaṇa haya
phālguna-pūrṇimā—of the full moon of the month of Phālguna; sandhyāya—in the evening; prabhura—of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; janma-udaya—at the time of His birth; sei-kāle—at that moment; daiva-yoge—accidentally; candra-grahaṇa—lunar eclipse; haya—takes place.
On the full-moon evening of the month of Phālguna when the Lord took birth, coincidentally there was also a lunar eclipse.
'hari' 'hari' bale loka haraṣita hañā
janmilā caitanya-prabhu 'nāma' janmāiyā
hari hari—the holy names of the Lord; bale—speak; loka—the people; haraṣita—jubilant; hañā—becoming; janmilā—took birth; caitanya-prabhu—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nāma—the holy name; janmāiyā—after causing to appear.
In jubilation everyone was chanting the holy name of the Lord-"Hari! Hari!"-and Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then appeared, after first causing the appearance of the holy name.
hari-nāma laoyāilā prabhu nānā chale
janma—time of birth; bālya—childhood; paugaṇḍa—early boyhood; kaiśora—end of boyhood; yuvā-kāle—youth; hari-nāma—the holy name of the Lord; laoyāilā—caused to take; prabhu—the Lord; nānā—various; chale—under different pleas.
At His birth, in His childhood, in His early and later boyhood as well as in His youth, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, under different pleas, induced people to chant the holy name of Hari [the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra].
bālya-bhāva chale prabhu karena krandana
'kṛṣṇa' 'hari' nāma śuni' rahaye rodana
bālya-bhāva chale—as if in His childhood state; prabhu—the Lord; karena—does; krandana—crying; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; hari—Lord Hari; nāma—names; śuni'-hearing; rahaye—stops; rodana—crying.
In His childhood, when the Lord was crying, He would stop immediately upon hearing the holy names Kṛṣṇa and Hari.
ataeva 'hari' 'hari' bale nārīgaṇa
dekhite āise yebā sarva bandhu jana
ataeva—therefore; hari hari—the holy name of the Lord; bale—chant; nārī-gaṇa—all the ladies; dekhite—to see; āise—they come; yebā—whoever; sarva—all; bandhu-jana—friends.
All the friendly ladies who came to see the child would chant the holy names, "Hari, Hari!" as soon as the child would cry.
'gaurahari' bali' tāre hāse sarva nārī
ataeva haila tāṅra nāma 'gaurahari'
gaurahari—of the name Gaurahari; bali'-addressing Him thus; tāre—unto the Lord; hāse—laugh; sarva nārī—all the ladies; ataeva—therefore; haila—became; tāṅra—His; nāma—name; gaurahari—of the name Gaurahari.
When all the ladies saw this fun, they enjoyed laughing and called the Lord "Gaurahari." Since then, Gaurahari became another of His names.
bālya vayasa--yāvat hāte khaḍi dila
paugaṇḍa vayasa--yāvat vivāha nā kaila
bālya vayasa—childhood age; yāvat—until the time; hāte—in His hand; khaḍi—chalk; dila—was given; paugaṇḍa vayasa—the part of boyhood known as paugaṇḍa; yāvat—until; vivāha—marriage; nā—not; kaila—did take place.
His childhood lasted until the date of hāte khaḍi, the beginning of His education, and His age from the end of His childhood until He married is called paugaṇḍa.
vivāha karile haila navīna yauvana
sarvatra laoyāila prabhu nāma-saṅkīrtana
vivāha karile—after getting married; haila—began; navīna—new; yauvana—youth; sarvatra—everywhere; laoyāila—caused to take; prabhu—the Lord; nāma-saṅkīrtana—the saṅkīrtana movement.
After His marriage His youth began, and in His youth He induced everyone to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra anywhere and everywhere.
paugaṇḍa-vayase paḍena, paḍāna śiṣyagaṇe
sarvatra karena kṛṣṇa-nāmera vyākhyāne
paugaṇḍa-vayase—in the age of paugaṇḍa; paḍena—studies; paḍāna—teaches; śisya-gaṇe—disciples; sarvatra—everywhere; karena—does; kṛṣṇa-nāmera—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; vyākhyāne—description.
During His paugaṇḍa age He became a serious student and also taught disciples. In this way He used to explain the holy name of Kṛṣṇa everywhere.
sūtra-vṛtti-pāṅji-ṭīkā kṛṣṇete tātparya
śiṣyera pratīta haya,--prabhāva āścarya
sūtra—aphorisms; vṛtti—explanation; pāṅji—application; ṭīkā—notes; kṛṣṇete—unto Kṛṣṇa; tātparya—culmination; śiṣyera—of the disciple; pratīta—realization; haya—becomes; prabhāva—influence; āścarya—wonderful.
When teaching a course in grammar [vyākaraṇa] and explaining it with notes, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught His disciples about the glories of Lord Kṛṣṇa. All explanations culminated in Kṛṣṇa, and His disciples would understand them very easily. Thus His influence was wonderful.
Śrīla Jiva Gosvāmī compiled a grammar in two parts named Laghu-hari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa and Bṛhad-dhari-nāmāmṛta-vyākaraṇa. If someone studies these two texts in vyākaraṇa, or grammar, he learns the grammatical rules of the Sanskrit language and simultaneously learns how to become a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
In the Caitanya-bhāgavata, First Chapter, there is a statement about the method by which Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught grammar. Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained the aphorisms of grammar to be eternal, like the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (15.15), vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ. The purport of all revealed scriptures is understanding of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore if a person explains anything that is not Kṛṣṇa, he simply wastes his time laboring hard without fulfilling the aim of his life. If one simply becomes a teacher or professor of education but does not understand Kṛṣṇa, it is to be understood that he is among the lowest of mankind, as stated in Bhagavad-gītā (7.15): narādhamā māyayāpahṛta-jñānāḥ. If one does not know the essence of all revealed scriptures but still becomes a teacher, his teaching is like the disturbing braying of an ass.
yāre dekhe, tāre kahe,--kaha kṛṣṇa-nāma
kṛṣṇa-nāme bhāsāila navadvīpa-grāma
yāre—whomever; dekhe—He sees; tāre—to him; kahe—He says; kaha—speak; kṛṣṇa-nāma—the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-nāme—by the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhāsāila—was inundated; navadvīpa—the place of the name Navadvīpa; grāma—village.
When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was a student, He asked whomever He met to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. In this way He inundated the whole town of Navadvīpa with the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa.
The present Navadvīpa-dhāma is but a part of the whole of Navadvīpa. Navadvīpa means "nine islands." These nine islands, which occupy an area of land estimated at thirty-two square miles, are surrounded by different branches of the Ganges. In all nine of those islands of the Navadvīpa area there are different places for cultivating devotional service. It is stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.5.23) that there are nava-vidha bhakti, nine different activities of devotional service:
śravaṇaṁ kīrtanaṁ viṣṇoḥ
arcanaṁ vandanaṁ dāsyaṁ
There are different islands in the Navadvīpa area for cultivation of these nine varieties of devotional service. They are as follows: (1) Antardvīpa, (2) Sīmantadvīpa, (3) Godrumadvīpa, (4) Madhyadvīpa, (5) Koladvīpa, (6) Ṛtudvīpa, (7) Jahnudvīpa, (8) Modadruma-dvīpa and (9) Rudradvīpa. According to the settlement map, our ISKCON Navadvīpa center is situated on the Rudradvīpa island. Below Rudradvīpa, in Antardvīpa, is Māyāpur. There Śrī Jagannātha Miśra, the father of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, used to reside. In all these different islands, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, as a young man, used to lead His saṅkīrtana party. He thus inundated the entire area with the waves of love of Kṛṣṇa.
kiśora vayase ārambhilā saṅkīrtana
rātra-dine preme nṛtya, saṅge bhakta-gaṇa
kiśora vayase—just before the beginning of His youthful life; ārambhilā—began; saṅkīrtana—the saṅkīrtana movement; rātra-dine—night and day; preme—in ecstasy; nṛtya—dancing; saṅge—along with; bhakta-gaṇa—the devotees.
Just prior to His youthful life, He began the saṅkīrtana movement. Day and night He used to dance in ecstasy with His devotees.
nagare nagare bhrame kīrtana kariyā
bhāsāila tri-bhuvana prema-bhakti diyā
nagare nagare—in different parts of the town; bhrame—wanders; kīrtana—chanting; kariyā—performing; bhāsāila—inundated; tri-bhuvana—all the three worlds; prema-bhakti—love of Godhead; diyā—distributing.
The saṅkīrtana movement went on from one part of the town to another, as the Lord wandered everywhere performing kīrtana. In this way He inundated the whole world by distributing love of Godhead.
One may raise the question how all three worlds became inundated with love of Kṛṣṇa since Caitanya Mahāprabhu performed kīrtana only in the Navadvīpa area. The answer is that Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Kṛṣṇa Himself. The entire cosmic manifestation results from the Lord's first setting it in motion. Similarly, since the saṅkīrtana movement was first set in motion five hundred years ago by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu's desire that it spread all over the universe, the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, in continuity of that same motion, is now spreading all over the world, and in this way it will gradually spread all over the universe. With the spread of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, everyone will merge in an ocean of love of Kṛṣṇa.
cabbiśa vatsara aiche navadvīpa-grāme
laoyāilā sarva-loke kṛṣṇa-prema-nāme
cabbiśa—twenty-four; vatsara—years; aiche—in that way; navadvīpa—of the name Navadvīpa; grāme—in the village; laoyāilā—induced; sarva-loke—every man; kṛṣṇa-prema—love of Kṛṣṇa; nāme—in the holy name.
Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu lived in the Navadvīpa area for twenty-four years, and He induced every person to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra and thus merge in love of Kṛṣṇa.
cabbiśa vatsara chilā kariyā sannyāsa
bhakta-gaṇa lañā kailā nīlācale vāsa
cabbiśa—twenty-four; vatsara—years; chilā—remained; kariyā—accepting; sannyāsa—the renounced order; bhakta-gaṇa—devotees; lañā—taking with Him; kailā—did; nīlācale—in Jagannātha Purī; vāsa—reside.
For His remaining twenty-four years, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, after accepting the renounced order of life, stayed at Jagannātha Purī with His devotees.
tāra madhye nīlācale chaya vatsara
nṛtya, gīta, premabhakti-dāna nirantara
tāra madhye—out of those twenty-four years; nīlācale—while He was staying at Jagannātha Purī; chaya vatsara—continuously for six years; nṛtya—dancing; gīta—chanting; prema-bhakti—love of Kṛṣṇa; dāna—distribution; nirantara—always.
For six of these twenty-four years in Nīlācala [Jagannātha Purī], He distributed love of Godhead by always chanting and dancing.
setubandha, āra gauḍa-vyāpi vṛndāvana
prema-nāma pracāriyā karilā bhramaṇa
setubandha—Cape Comorin; āra—and; gauḍa—Bengal; vyāpi—extending; vṛndāvana—to Vṛndāvana; prema-nāma—love of Kṛṣṇa and the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; pracāriyā—distributing; karilā—performed; bhramaṇa—touring.
Beginning from Cape Comorin and extending through Bengal to Vṛndāvana, during these six years He toured all of India, chanting, dancing and distributing love of Kṛṣṇa.
ei 'madhya-līlā' nāma--līlā-mukhyadhāma
śeṣa aṣṭādaśa varṣa--'antya-līlā' nāma
ei—these; madhya-līlā nāma—named the middle pastimes; līlā—pastimes; mukhya-dhāma—principal place; śeṣa—last; aṣṭādaśa—eighteen; varṣa—years; antya-līlā—the final pastimes; nāma—named.
The activities of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu in His travels after He accepted sannyāsa are His principal pastimes. His activities during His remaining eighteen years are called antya-līlā, or the final portion of His pastimes.
tāra madhye chaya vatsara bhaktagaṇa-saṅge
prema-bhakti laoyāila nṛtya-gīta-raṅge
tāra madhye—out of that; chaya vatsara—six years; bhakta-gaṇa-saṅge—along with devotees; prema-bhakti—love of Kṛṣṇa; laoyāila—induced; nṛtya—dancing; gīta—chanting; raṅge—in transcendental bliss.
For six of the eighteen years He continuously stayed in Jagannātha Purī, He regularly performed kīrtana, inducing all the devotees to love Kṛṣṇa simply by chanting and dancing.
dvādaśa vatsara śeṣa rahilā nīlācale
premāvasthā śikhāilā āsvādana-cchale
dvādaśa—twelve; vatsara—years; śeṣa—balance; rahilā—remained; nīlācale—at Jagannātha Purī; prema-avasthā—a state of ecstasy; śikhāilā—instructed everyone; āsvādana-chale—under the plea of tasting it Himself.
For the remaining twelve years He stayed in Jagannātha Purī, He taught everyone how to taste the transcendental mellow ecstasy of love of Kṛṣṇa by tasting it Himself.
A person who is advanced in Kṛṣṇa consciousness always feels separation from Kṛṣṇa because such a feeling of separation excels the feeling of meeting Kṛṣṇa. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in His last twelve years of existence within this world at Jagannātha Purī, taught the people of the world how, with a feeling of separation, one can develop His dormant love of Kṛṣṇa. Such feelings of separation or meeting with Kṛṣṇa are different stages of love of Godhead. These feelings develop in time when a person seriously engages in devotional service. The highest stage is called prema-bhakti, but this stage is attained by executing sādhana-bhakti. One should not try to elevate himself artificially to the stage of prema-bhakti without seriously following the regulative principles of sādhana-bhakti. prema-bhakti is the stage of relishing, whereas sādhana-bhakti is the stage of improving in devotional service. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu taught this cult of devotional service in full detail by practical application in His own life. It is said, therefore, āpani ācari' bhakti śikhāimu sabāre. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is Kṛṣṇa Himself, and in the role of a kṛṣṇa-bhakta, a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, He instructed the entire world how one can execute devotional service and thus go back home, back to Godhead, in due course of time.
unmādera ceṣṭā kare pralāpa-vacana
rātri-divase—day and night; kṛṣṇa-viraha—feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa; sphuraṇa—awakening; unmādera—of a madman; ceṣṭā—activities; kare—performs; pralāpa—talking inconsistently; vacana—words.
Day and night Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu felt separation from Kṛṣṇa. Manifesting symptoms of this separation, He cried and talked very inconsistently, like a madman.
śrī-rādhāra pralāpa yaiche uddhava-darśane
seimata unmāda-pralāpa kare rātri-dine
śrī-rādhāra—of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; pralāpa—talking; yaiche—as She did; uddhava-darśane—by meeting Uddhava; sei-mata—exactly like that; unmāda—madness; pralāpa—talking inconsistently; kare—does; rātri-dine—day and night.
As Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī talked inconsistently when She met Uddhava, so also Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished, both day and night, such ecstatic talk in the mood of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
In this connection one should refer to Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī's soliloquy after meeting Uddhava in Vṛndāvana. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu presented a similar picture of such ecstatic imaginary talking. Full of jealousy and madness symptomizing neglect by Kṛṣṇa, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, criticizing a bumblebee, talked just like a madwoman. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, in the last days of His pastimes, exhibited all the symptoms of such ecstasy. In this connection one should refer to the Fourth Chapter of Ādi-līlā, verses 107 and 108.
vidyāpati, jayadeva, caṇḍīdāsera gīta
vidyāpati—the author of the name Vidyāpati; jayadeva—of the name Jayadeva; caṇḍīdāsera—of the name Caṇḍīdāsa; gīta—their songs; āsvādena—tastes; rāmānanda—of the name Rāmānanda; svarūpa—of the name Svarūpa; sahita—along with.
The Lord used to read the books of Vidyāpati, Jayadeva and Caṇḍīdāsa, relishing their songs with His confidential associates like Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī.
Vidyāpati was a famous composer of songs about the pastimes of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. He was an inhabitant of Mithilā, born in a brāhmaṇa family. It is calculated that he composed his songs during the reign of King Śivasiṁha and Queen Lachimādevī in the beginning of the fourteenth century of the Śaka Era, almost one hundred years before the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The twelfth generation of Vidyāpati's descendants is still living. Vidyāpati's songs about the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa express intense feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished all those songs in His ecstasy of separation from Kṛṣṇa.
Jayadeva was born during the reign of Mahārāja Lakṣmaṇa Sena of Bengal in the eleventh or twelfth century of the Śaka Era. His father was Bhojadeva, and his mother was Vāmādevī. For many years he lived in Navadvīpa, then the capital of Bengal. His birthplace was in the Birbhum district in the village Kendubilva. In the opinion of some authorities, however, he was born in Orissa, and still others say that he was born in southern India. He passed the last days of his life in Jagannātha Purī. One of his famous books is Gīta-govinda, which is full of transcendental mellow feelings of separation from Kṛṣṇa. The gopīs felt separation from Kṛṣṇa before the rāsa dance, as mentioned in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and the Gīta-govinda expresses such feelings. There are many commentaries on the Gīta-govinda by many Vaiṣṇavas.
Caṇḍīdāsa was born in the village of Nānnura, which is also in the Birbhum district of Bengal. He was born of a brāhmaṇa family, and it is said that he also took birth in the beginning of the fourteenth century, Śakābda Era. It has been suggested that Caṇḍīdāsa and Vidyāpati were great friends because the writings of both express the transcendental feelings of separation profusely. The feelings of ecstasy described by Caṇḍīdāsa and Vidyāpati were actually exhibited by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He relished all those feelings in the role of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, and His appropriate associates for this purpose were Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī. These intimate associates of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu helped the Lord very much in the pastimes in which He felt like Rādhārāṇī.
Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments in this connection that such feelings of separation as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu enjoyed from the books of Vidyāpati, Caṇḍīdāsa and Jayadeva are especially reserved for persons like Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya and Svarūpa Dāmodara, who were paramahaṁsas, men of the topmost perfection, because of their advanced spiritual consciousness. Such topics are not to be discussed by ordinary persons imitating the activities of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. For critical students of mundane poetry and literary men without God consciousness who are after bodily sense gratification, there is no need to read such a high standard of transcendental literature. Persons who are after sense gratification should not try to imitate rāgānuga devotional service. In their songs, Caṇḍīdāsa, Vidyāpati and Jayadeva have described the transcendental activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Mundane reviewers of the songs of Vidyāpati, Jayadeva and Caṇḍīdāsa simply help people in general become debauchees, and this leads only to social scandals and atheism in the world. One should not misunderstand the pastimes of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa to be the activities of a mundane young boy and girl. The mundane sexual activities of young boys and girls are most abominable. Therefore, those who are in bodily consciousness and who desire sense gratification are forbidden to indulge in discussions of the transcendental pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.
kṛṣṇera viyoge yata prema-ceṣṭita
āsvādiyā pūrṇa kaila āpana vāñchita
kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; viyoge—in separation; yata—as many; prema—loving affairs; ceṣṭita—activities; āsvādiyā—tasting them; pūrṇa—fulfilled; kaila—made; āpana—own; vāñchita—desires.
In separation from Kṛṣṇa, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished all these ecstatic activities, and thus He fulfilled His own desires.
In the beginning of Caitanya-caritāmṛta it is said that Lord Caitanya appeared in order to taste the feelings Rādhārāṇī felt upon seeing Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa Himself could not understand the ecstatic feelings of Rādhārāṇī toward Him, and therefore He desired to accept the role of Rādhārāṇī and thereby taste these feelings. Lord Caitanya is Kṛṣṇa with the feelings of Rādhārāṇī; in other words, He is a combination of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. It is therefore said, śrī-kṛṣṇa-caitanya rādhā-kṛṣṇa nahe anya. By worshiping Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu alone, one can relish the loving affairs of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa together. One should therefore try to understand Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa not directly but through Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and through His devotees. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura therefore says, rūpa-raghunātha-pade haibe ākuti, kabe hāma bujhaba se yugala-pīriti: "When shall I develop a mentality of service toward Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī and the other devotees of Lord Caitanya and thus become eligible to understand the pastimes of Śrī Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa?"
ananta caitanya-līlā kṣudra jīva hañā
ke varṇite pāre, tāhā vistāra kariyā
ananta—unlimited; caitanya-līlā—the pastimes of Lord Caitanya; kṣudra—a small; jīva—living entity; hañā—being; ke—who; varṇite—describe; pāre—can; tāhā—that; vistāra—expanding; kariyā—doing so.
The pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu are unlimited. How much can a small living entity elaborate about those transcendental pastimes?
sūtra kari' gaṇe yadi āpane ananta
sahasra-vadane teṅho nāhi pāya anta
sūtra—aphorisms; kari'-making; gaṇe—counts; yadi—if; āpane—personally; ananta—Śeṣa Nāga, the Personality of Godhead; sahasra-vadane—by thousands of mouths; teṅho—He also; nāhi—does not; pāya—get; anta—the limit.
If Śeṣaṇāga Ananta personally were to make the pastimes of Lord Caitanya into sūtras, even with His thousands of mouths there is no possibility that He could find their limit.
dāmodara-svarūpa, āra gupta murāri
mukhya-mukhya-līlā sūtre likhiyāche vicāri'
dāmodara-svarūpa—of the name Svarūpa Dāmodara; āra—and; gupta murāri—of the name Murāri Gupta; mukhya-mukhya—most important; līlā—pastimes; sūtre—in notes; likhiyāche—have written; vicāri'-by mature deliberation.
Devotees like Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara and Murāri Gupta have recorded all the principal pastimes of Lord Caitanya in the form of notes, after deliberate consideration.
sei, anusāre likhi līlā-sūtragaṇa
vistāri' varṇiāchena tāhā dāsa-vṛndāvana
sei—that; anusāre—following; likhi—I write; līlā—pastimes; sūtra-gaṇa—notes; vistāri'-very explicitly; varṇiyāchena—has described; tāhā—that; dāsa-vṛndāvana—Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura.
The notes kept by Śrī Svarūpa Dāmodara and Murāri Gupta are the basis of this book. Following those notes, I write of all the pastimes of the Lord. The notes have been described elaborately by Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura.
caitanya-līlāra vyāsa,--dāsa vṛndāvana
madhura kariyā līlā karilā racana
caitanya-līlāra—of the pastimes of Lord Caitanya; vyāsa—the authorized writer Vyāsadeva; dāsa vṛndāvana—Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura; madhura—sweet; kariyā—making it; līlā—pastimes; karilā—did; racana—compilation.
Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura, the authorized writer of the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, is as good as Śrīla Vyāsadeva. He has described the pastimes in such a way as to make them sweeter and sweeter.
grantha-vistāra-bhaye chāḍilā ye ye sthāna
sei sei sthāne kichu kariba vyākhyāna
grantha—of the book; vistāra—of expansion; bhaye—being afraid; chāḍilā—gave up; ye ye sthāna—which different places; sei sei sthāne—in those places; kichu—something; kariba—I shall make; vyākhyāna—description.
Being afraid of his book's becoming too voluminous, he left some places without vivid descriptions. I shall try to fill those places as far as possible.
prabhura līlāmṛta teṅho kaila āsvādana
tāṅra bhukta-śeṣa kichu kariye carvaṇa
prabhura—of the Lord; līlāmṛta—the nectar of the pastimes; teṅho—he (Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura); kaila—did; āsvādana—taste; tāṅra—his; bhukta—of food; śeṣa—remnants; kichu—something; kariye—I do; carvaṇa—chew.
The transcendental pastimes of Lord Caitanya have actually been relished by Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura. I am simply trying to chew the remnants of food left by him.
ādi-līlā-sūtra likhi, śuna, bhakta-gaṇa
saṅkṣepe likhiye samyak nā yāya likhana
ādi-līlā—the first part of His pastimes; sūtra likhi—I write a synopsis; śuna—hear; bhakta-gaṇa—all you devotees; saṅkṣepe—in brief; likhiye—I write; samyak—full; nā—not; yāya—possible; likhana—to write.
My dear devotees of Lord Caitanya, let me now write a synopsis of the ādi-līlā; I write of these pastimes in brief because it is not possible to describe them in full.
kona vāñchā pūraṇa lāgi' vrajendra-kumāra
avatīrṇa haite mane karilā vicāra
kona—some; vāñchā—desire; pūraṇa—fulfillment; lāgi'-for the matter of; vrajendra-kumāra—Lord Kṛṣṇa; avatīrṇa haite—to descend as an incarnation; mane—in the mind; karilā—did; vicāra—consideration.
To fulfill a particular desire within His mind, Lord Kṛṣṇa, Vrajendra-kumāra, decided to descend on this planet after mature contemplation.
āge avatārilā ye ye guru-parivāra
saṅkṣepe kahiye, kahā nā yāya vistāra
āge—first of all; avatārilā—allowed to descend; ye ye—all those; guru-parivāra—family of spiritual masters; saṅkṣepe—in brief; kahiye—I describe; kahā—to describe; nā—not; yāya—possible; vistāra—expansively.
Lord Kṛṣṇa therefore first allowed His family of superiors to descend on the earth. I shall try to describe them in brief because it is not possible to describe them fully.
keśava bhāratī, āra śrī-īśvara purī
advaita ācārya, āra paṇḍita śrīvāsa
ācāryaratna, vidyānidhi, ṭhākura haridāsa
śrī-śacī-jagannātha—Śrīmatī Śacidevī and Jagannātha Miśra; śrī-mādhava purī—Śrī Mādhavendra Purī; keśava bhāratī—of the name Keśava Bhāratī; āra—and; śrī-īśvara purī—of the name Śrī Īśvara Purī; advaita ācārya—of the name Advaita Ācārya; āra—and; paṇḍita śrīvāsa—of the name Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita; ācārya-ratna—of the name Ācāryaratna; vidyānidhi—of the name Vidyānidhi; ṭhākura haridāsa—of the name Ṭhākura Haridāsa.
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, before appearing as Lord Caitanya, requested these devotees to precede Him: Śrī Śacīdevī, Jagannātha Miśra, Mādhavendra Purī, Keśava Bhāratī, Īśvara Purī, Advaita Ācārya, Śrīvāsa Paṇḍita, Ācāryaratna, Vidyānidhi and Ṭhākura Haridāsa.
vaiṣṇava, paṇḍita, dhanī, sad-guṇa-pradhāna
śrī-haṭṭa-nivāsī—a resident of Śrīhaṭṭa; śrī-upendra-miśra-nāma—by the name of Upendra Miśra; vaiṣṇava—a devotee of Lord Viṣṇu; paṇḍita—learned; dhanī—rich; sat-guṇa-pradhāna—qualified with all good qualities.
There was also Śrī Upendra Miśra, a resident of the district of Śrīhaṭṭa. He was a great devotee of Lord Viṣṇu, a learned scholar, a rich man and a reservoir of all good qualities.
Upendra Miśra is described in the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 35, as the gopāla named Parjanya. The same personality who was formerly the grandfather of Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared as Upendra Miśra at Śrīhaṭṭa and begot seven sons. He was a resident of Dhākā-dakṣiṇa-grāma in the district of Śrīhaṭṭa. There are still many residents of that part of the country who introduce themselves as belonging to the Miśra family of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
sapta miśra tāṅra putra--sapta ṛṣīśvara
kaṁsāri, paramānanda, padmanābha, sarveśvara
jagannātha, janārdana, trailokyanātha
nadīyāte gaṅgā-vāsa kaila jagannātha
sapta miśra—seven Miśras; tāṅra—his; putra—sons; sapta—seven; ṛṣi—great saintly persons; īśvara—most influential; kaṁsāri—of the name Kaṁsāri; paramānanda—of the name Paramānanda; padmanābha—of the name Padmanābha; sarveśvara—of the name Sarveśvara; jagannātha—of the name Jagannātha; janārdana—of the name Janārdana; trailokyanātha—of the name Trailokyanātha; nadīyāte—at Navadvīpa; gaṅgā-vāsa—living on the bank of the Ganges; kaila—did; jagannātha—the fifth son of Upendra Miśra.
Upendra Miśra had seven sons, who were all saintly and most influential: (1) Kaṁsāri, (2) Paramānanda, (3) Padmanābha, (4) Sarveśvara, (5) Jagannātha, (6) Janārdana and (7) Trailokyanātha. Jagannātha Miśra, the fifth son, decided to reside on the bank of the Ganges at Nadia.
jagannātha miśravara--padavī 'purandara'
jagannātha miśra-vara—Jagannātha Miśra, who was the chief among the seven; padavī—designation; purandara—another name of Vasudeva; nanda—Nanda, the father of Kṛṣṇa; vasudeva—the father of Kṛṣṇa; rūpa—like; sat-guṇa—good qualities; sāgara—ocean.
Jagannātha Miśra was designated as Purandara. Exactly like Nanda Mahārāja and Vasudeva, he was an ocean of all good qualities.
tāṅra patnī 'śacī'-nāma, pativratā satī
yāṅra pitā 'nīlāmbara' nāma cakravartī
tāṅra patnī—his wife; śacī—of the name Śacī; nāma—named; pati-vratā—devoted to her husband; satī—chaste; yāṅra—whose; pitā—father; nīlāmbara—of the name Nīlāmbara; nāma—named; cakravartī—with the title Cakravartī.
His wife, Śrīmatī Śacīdevī, was a chaste woman highly devoted to her husband. Śacīdevī's father's name was Nīlāmbara, and his surname was Cakravartī.
In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā, verse 104, it is mentioned that Nīlāmbara Cakravartī was formerly Garga Muni. Some of the family descendants of Nīlāmbara Cakravartī still live in the village of the name Magḍobā in the district of Faridpur in Bangladesh. His nephew was Jagannātha Cakravartī, also known as Māmu Ṭhākura, who became a disciple of Paṇḍita Gosvāmī and stayed at Jagannātha Purī as the priest of Ṭoṭā-gopīnātha. Nīlāmbara Cakravartī lived at Navadvīpa in the neighborhood of Belapukuriyā. This fact is mentioned in the book Prema-vilāsa. Because he lived near the house of the Kazi, the Kazi was also considered one of the maternal uncles of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. The Kazi used to address Nīlāmbara Cakravartī as kākā, or "uncle." One cannot separate the residence of the Kazi from Vāmanapukura because the tomb of the Kazi is still existing there. Formerly the place was known as Belapukuriyā, and now it is called Vāmanapukura. This has been ascertained by archeological evidence.
rāḍhadeśe janmilā ṭhākura nityānanda
gaṅgādāsa paṇḍita, gupta murāri, mukunda
rāḍha-deśe—the place where there is no Ganges; janmilā—took birth; ṭhākura nityānanda—Nityānanda Prabhu; gaṅgādāsa paṇḍita—of the name Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita; gupta murāri—of the name Murāri Gupta; mukunda—of the name Mukunda.
In Rāḍhadeśa, the part of Bengal where the Ganges is not visible, Nityānanda Prabhu, Gaṅgādāsa Paṇḍita, Murāri Gupta and Mukunda took birth.
Here rāḍha-deśe refers to the village of the name Ekacakrā in the district of Birbhum, next to Burdwan. After the Burdwan railway station there is another branch line, which is called the Loop Line of the eastern railway, and there is a railway station of the name Mallārapura. Eight miles east of this railway station Ekacakrā Village is still situated. Ekacakrā Village extends north and south for an area of about eight miles. Other villages, namely Vīracandra-pura and Vīrabhadra-pura, are situated within the area of the village of Ekacakrā. In honor of the holy name of Vīrabhadra Gosvāmī, these places are renowned as Vīracandra-pura and Vīrabhadra-pura.
In the Bengali year 1331 (A.D. 1924) a thunderbolt struck the temple of Ekacakrā-grāma. Therefore the temple is now in a broken state. Before this, there were no such accidents in that quarter. Within the temple there is a Deity of Śrī Kṛṣṇa established by Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. The name of the Deity is Baṅkima Rāya or Bāṅkā Rāya.
On the right side of Baṅkima Rāya is a Deity of Jāhnavā, and on His left side is Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī. The priests of the temple describe that Lord Nityānanda Prabhu entered within the body of Baṅkima Rāya and that the Deity of Jāhnavā-mātā was therefore later placed on the right side of Baṅkima Rāya. Afterwards, many other Deities were installed within the temple. On another throne within the temple are Deities of Muralīdhara and Rādhā-Mādhava. On another throne are Deities of Manomohana, Vṛndāvana-candra and Gaura-Nitāi. But Baṅkima Rāya is the Deity originally installed by Nityānanda Prabhu.
On the eastern side of the temple is a ghāṭa known as Kadamba-khaṇḍī on the bank of the Yamunā, and it is said that the Deity of Baṅkima Rāya was floating in the water and Lord Nityānanda Prabhu picked Him up and then installed Him in the temple. Thereafter, in a place known as Bhaḍḍāpura, in the village of Vīracandra-pura, about half a mile west, in a place underneath a nima tree, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī was found. For this reason, the Rādhārāṇī of Baṅkima Rāya was known as Bhaḍḍāpurera Ṭhākurāṇī, the mistress of Bhaḍḍāpura. On another throne, on the right side of Baṅkima Rāya, is a Deity of Yogamāyā.
Now the temple and temple corridor rest on a high plinth, and on a concrete structure in front of the temple is a meeting hall. It is also said that on the northern side of the temple there was a Deity of Lord Śiva named Bhāṇḍīśvara and that the father of Nityānanda Prabhu, Hāḍāi Paṇḍita, used to worship that Deity. At present, however, the Bhāṇḍīśvara Deity is missing, and in his place a Jagannātha Svāmī Deity has been installed. Lord Nityānanda Prabhu did not factually construct any temples. The temple was constructed at the time of Vīrabhadra Prabhu. In the Bengali year 1298 (A.D. 1891), the temple being in a dilapidated condition, a brahmacārī of the name Śivānanda Svāmī repaired it.
In this temple there is an arrangement to offer foodstuffs to the Deity on the basis of seventeen seers of rice and necessary vegetables. The present priestly order of the temple belongs to the family of Gopījana-vallabhānanda, one of the branches of Nityānanda Prabhu. There is a land settlement in the name of the temple, and income from this land finances the expenditures for the temple. There are three parties of priestly gosvāmīs who take charge of the temple management, one after another. A few steps onward from the temple is a place known as Viśrāmatalā, where it is said that Nityānanda Prabhu in His childhood used to enjoy sporting with His boyfriends by enacting the rāsa-līlā and various other pastimes of Vṛndāvana.
Near the temple is a place named Āmalītalā, which is so named because of a big tamarind tree there. According to a party named the Neḍādi-sampradāya, Vīrabhadra Prabhu, with the assistance of twelve hundred Neḍās, dug a great lake of the name Śvetagaṅgā. Outside of the temple are tombs of the Gosvāmīs, and there is a small river known as the Mauḍeśvara, which is called the water of Yamunā. Within half a mile from this small river is the birthplace of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. It appears that there was a big meeting hall in front of the temple, but later it became dilapidated. It is now covered by banyan trees. Later on, a temple was constructed within which Gaura-Nityānanda Deities are existing. The temple was constructed by the late Prasannakumāra Kārapharmā. A tablet was installed in his memory in the Bengali year 1323 (A.D. 1916), in the month of Vaiśākha (April-May).
The place where Nityānanda Prabhu appeared is called Garbhavāsa. There is an allotment of about forty-three bighās (fourteen acres) of land to continue the worship in a temple there. The Mahārāja of Dinājapura donated twenty bighās (6.5 acres) of land in this connection. It is said that near the place known as Garbhavāsa, Hāḍāi Paṇḍita conducted a primary school. The priests of this place, listed in a genealogical table, were as follows: (1) Śrī Rāghavacandra, (2) Jagadānanda dāsa, (3) Kṛṣṇadāsa, (4) Nityānanda dāsa, (5) Rāmadāsa, (6) Vrajamohana dāsa, (7) Kānāi dāsa, (8) Gauradāsa, (9) Śivānanda dāsa and (10) Haridāsa. Kṛṣṇadāsa belonged to the Ciḍiyā-kuñja at Vṛndāvana. The date of his disappearance is Kṛṣṇa-janmāṣṭamī. Ciḍiyā-kuñja is a place now managed by the gosvāmīs of Śiṅgāra-ghāṭa in Vṛndāvana. They are also known as belonging to the Nityānanda family, most probably on the basis of their relationship with Kṛṣṇadāsa.
Near Garbhavāsa is a place called Bakulatalā, where Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu and His boyfriends used to take part in sporting activities known as jhāla-jhapeṭā. There is a bakula tree there that is wonderful because all its branches and subbranches look like the hoods of serpents. It has been suggested that by the desire of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, Anantadeva manifested Himself in that way. The tree is very old. It is said that formerly it had two trunks, but later on, when the playmates of Nityānanda Prabhu felt inconvenience in jumping from the branches of one trunk to those of the nother, Nityānanda Prabhu, by His mercy, merged the two trunksinto one.
Another place nearby is named Hāṅṭugāḍā. It is said that Lord Nityānanda Prabhu brought all the holy places there. Therefore the people in the surrounding villages go there instead of to the Ganges to take bath. It is named Hāṅṭugāḍā because Śrīla Nityānanda Prabhu used to perform the dadhi-ciḍā festival of distributing chipped rice with yogurt prasāda there and He took the prasāda kneeling down. A sanctified lake in this place is always full of water throughout the year. A great fair is held there during Goṣṭhāṣṭamī, and there is another big fair on the birthday of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu. In the Gaura-gaṇoddeśa-dīpikā it is described that Halāyudha, Baladeva, Viśvarūpa and Saṅkarṣaṇa appeared as Nityānanda Avadhūta.
asaṅkhya bhaktera karāilā avatāra
śeṣe avatīrṇa hailā vrajendra-kumāra
asaṅkhya—unlimited; bhaktera—of devotees; karāilā—made into being; avatāra—incarnation; śeṣe—at last; avatīrṇa—descended; hailā—became; vrajendra-kumāra—Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.
Lord Kṛṣṇa, Vrajendra-kumāra, first caused countless devotees to appear, and at last He appeared Himself.
prabhura āvirbhāva-pūrve yata vaiṣṇava-gaṇa
advaita-ācāryera sthāne karena gamana
prabhura—of the Lord; āvirbhāva—appearance; pūrve—before; yata—all; vaiṣṇava-gaṇa—devotees; advaita-ācāryera—of Advaita Ācārya; sthāne—place; karena—do; gamana—go.
Before the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all the devotees of Navadvīpa used to gather in the house of Advaita Ācārya.
gītā-bhhāgavata kahe ācārya-gosāñi
jñāna-karma nindi' kare bhaktira baḍāi
gītā—Bhagavad-gītā; bhāgavata—Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; kahe—recites; ācārya-gosāñi—Advaita Ācārya; jñāna—the path of philosophical speculation; karma—fruitive activity; nindi'-decrying; kare—establishes; bhaktira—of devotional service; baḍāi—excellence.
In these meetings of the Vaiṣṇavas, Advaita Ācārya used to recite Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, decrying the paths of philosophical speculation and fruitive activity and establishing the superexcellence of devotional service.
sarva-śāstre kahe kṛṣṇa-bhaktira vyākhyāna
jñāna, yoga, tapo-dharma nāhi māne āna
sarva-śāstre—in all revealed scriptures; kahe—says; kṛṣṇa-bhaktira—of devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa; vyākhyāna—explanation; jñāna—philosophical speculation; yoga—mystic haṭha-yoga; tapas—austerities; dharma—religious procedures; nāhi—does not; māne—accept; āna—other.
In all the revealed scriptures of Vedic culture, devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa is explained throughout. Therefore devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa do not recognize the processes of philosophical speculation, mystic yoga, unnecessary austerity and so-called religious rituals. They do not accept any process but devotional service.
Our Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement follows this principle. We do not recognize any method for spiritual realization other than Kṛṣṇa consciousness, devotional service. Sometimes we are criticized by groups following jñāna, yoga, tapas or dharma, but fortunately we are unable to make any compromises with them. We simply stand on the platform of devotional service and preach the same principles all over the world.
tāṅra saṅge ānanda kare vaiṣṇavera gaṇa
kṛṣṇa-kathā, kṛṣṇa-pūjā, nāma-saṅkīrtana
tāṅra saṅge—with Him (Advaita Ācārya); ānanda—pleasure; kare—takes; vaiṣṇavera—of the devotees; gaṇa—assembly; kṛṣṇa-kathā—topics of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-pūjā—worship of Kṛṣṇa; nāma-saṅkīrtana—chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
In the house of Advaita Ācārya, all the Vaiṣṇavas took pleasure in always talking of Kṛṣṇa, always worshiping Kṛṣṇa and always chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
kintu sarva-loka dekhi' kṛṣṇa-bahirmukha
viṣaye nimagna loka dekhi' pāya duḥkha
kintu—but; sarva-loka—all people; dekhi'-seeing; kṛṣṇa-bahirmukha—without Kṛṣṇa consciousness; viṣaye—material enjoyment; nimagna—merged; loka—all people; dekhi'-seeing; pāya duḥkha—felt pained.
But Śrī Advaita Ācārya Prabhu felt pained to see all the people without Kṛṣṇa consciousness simply merging in material sense enjoyment.
A bona fide devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa is always pained to see the fallen condition of the whole world. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura used to say, "There is no scarcity of anything within this world. The only scarcity is of Kṛṣṇa consciousness." That is the vision of all pure devotees. Because of this lack of Kṛṣṇa consciousness in human society, people are suffering terribly, being merged in an ocean of nescience and sense gratification. A devotee onlooker is very much aggrieved to see such a situation in the world.
lokera nistāra-hetu karena cintana
kemate e saba lokera ha-ibe tāraṇa
lokera—of all people; nistāra-hetu—for the matter of deliverance; karena—does; cintana—contemplation; kemate—how; e—these; saba—all; lokera—of people in general; ha-ibe—will become; tāraṇa—liberation.
Seeing the condition of the world, He began to think seriously of how all these people could be delivered from the clutches of māyā.
kṛṣṇa avatari' karena bhaktira vistāra
tabe ta' sakala lokera ha-ibe nistāra
kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; avatari'-descending; karena—does; bhaktira—of devotional service; vistāra—expansion; tabe—then; ta'-certainly; sakala—all; lokera—of the people; ha-ibe—there will be; nistāra—liberation.
Śrīla Advaita Ācārya Prabhu thought, "If Kṛṣṇa Himself appears in order to distribute the cult of devotional service, then only will liberation be possible for all people."
Just as a condemned person can be relieved by a special favor of the chief executive head, the president or king, so the condemned people of this Kali-yuga can be delivered only by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself or a person especially empowered for this purpose. Śrīla Advaita Ācārya Prabhu desired that the Supreme Personality of Godhead advent Himself to deliver the fallen souls of this age.
kṛṣṇa avatārite ācārya pratijñā kariyā
kṛṣṇa-pūjā kare tulasī-gaṅgājala diyā
kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; avatārite—to cause His advent; ācārya—Advaita Ācārya; pratijñā—promise; kariyā—making; kṛṣṇa-pūjā—worship of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kare—does; tulasī—tulasī leaves; gaṅgā-jala diyā—with the water of the Ganges.
With this consideration, Advaita Ācārya Prabhu, promising to cause Lord Kṛṣṇa to descend, began to worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, with tulasī leaves and water of the Ganges.
patraṁ puspaṁ phalaṁ toyaṁ
yo me bhaktyā prayacchati
tad ahaṁ bhakty-upahṛtam
kṛṣṇera āhvāna kare saghana huṅkāra
huṅkāre ākṛṣṭa hailā vrajendra-kumāra
kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; āhvāna—invitation; kare—does; saghana—with great gravity; huṅkāra—vibration; huṅkāre—and by such loud cries; ākṛṣṭa—attracted; hailā—became; vrajendra-kumāra—the son of Vrajendra, Lord Kṛṣṇa.
By loud cries He invited Kṛṣṇa to appear, and this repeated invitation attracted Lord Kṛṣṇa to descend.
jagannāthamiśra-patnī śacīra udare
aṣṭa kanyā krame haila, janmi' janmi' mare
jagannātha-miśra—of the name Jagannātha Miśra; patnī—his wife; śacīra—of Śacīmātā; udare—within the womb; aṣṭa—eight; kanyā—daughters; krame—one after another; haila—appeared; janmi'-after taking birth; janmi'-after taking birth; mare—all died.
Before the birth of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, eight daughters took birth one after another from the womb of Śacīmātā, the wife of Jagannātha Miśra. But just after their birth, they all died.
apatya-virahe miśrera duḥkhī haila mana
putra lāgi' ārādhila viṣṇura caraṇa
apatya—of children; virahe—in separation; miśrera—of Jagannātha Miśra; duḥkhī—unhappy; haila—became; mana—mind; putra—son; lāgi'-for the matter of; ārādhila—worshiped; viṣṇura—of Lord Viṣṇu; caraṇa—lotus feet.
Jagannātha Miśra was very unhappy at the death of his children one after another. Therefore, desiring a son, he worshiped the lotus feet of Lord Viṣṇu.
tabe putra janamilā 'viśvarūpa' nāma
tabe—thereafter; putra—son; janamilā—took birth; viśvarūpa—Viśvarūpa; nāma—named; mahā-guṇavān—highly qualified; teṅha—He; baladeva—of Lord Baladeva; dhāma—incarnation.
After this, Jagannātha Miśra got a son of the name Viśvarūpa, who was most powerful and highly qualified because He was an incarnation of Baladeva.
Viśvarūpa was the elder brother of Gaurahari, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. When arrangements were being made for His marriage, He took sannyāsa and left home. He took the sannyāsa name of Śaṅkarāraṇya. In 1431 Śakābda Era (A.D. 1510), He disappeared in Pāṇḍerapura in the district of Sholapur. As an incarnation of Saṅkarṣaṇa, He is both the ingredient and immediate cause of the creation of this material world. He is nondifferent from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, as aṁśa and aṁśī, or the part and the whole, are not different. He belongs to the quadruple manifestation of catur-vyūha as an incarnation of Saṅkarṣaṇa. In the Gaura-candrodaya it is said that Viśvarūpa, after His so-called demise, remained mixed within Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.
baladeva-prakāśa—manifestation of Baladeva; parama-vyome—in the spiritual sky; saṅkarṣaṇa—of the name Saṅkarṣaṇa; teṅha—He; viśvera—the cosmic manifestation; upādāna—ingredient; nimitta-kāraṇa—immediate cause.
The expansion of Baladeva known as Saṅkarṣaṇa in the spiritual world is the ingredient and immediate cause of this material cosmic manifestation.
tāṅhā ba-i viśve kichu nāhi dekhi āra
ataeva 'viśvarūpa' nāma ye tāṅhāra
tāṅhā ba-i—except Him; viśve—within this cosmic manifestation; kichu—something; nāhi—there is none; dekhi—I see; āra—further; ataeva—therefore; viśvarūpa—universal form; nāma—name; ye—that; tāṅhāra—His.
The gigantic universal form is called the Viśvarūpa incarnation of Mahā-saṅkarṣaṇa. Thus we do not find anything within this cosmic manifestation except the Lord Himself.
naitac citraṁ bhagavati
hy anante jagad-īśvare
otaṁ protam idaṁ yasmin
tantuṣv aṅga yathā paṭaḥ
na—not; etat—this; citram—wonderful; bhagavati—in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hi—certainly; anante—in the unlimited; jagat-īśvare—the master of the universe; otam—lengthwise; protam—breadthwise; idam—this universe; yasmin—in whom; tantuṣu—in the threads; aṅga—O King; yathā—as much as; paṭaḥ—a cloth.
"As the thread in a cloth spreads both lengthwise and breadthwise, so everything we see within this cosmic manifestation is directly and indirectly existing in the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is not very wonderful for Him."
This is a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.15.35).
ataeva prabhu tāṅre bale, 'baḍa bhāi'
kṛṣṇa, balarāma dui--caitanya, nitāi
ataeva—therefore; prabhu—Lord Caitanya; tāṅre—unto Viśvarūpa; bale—says; baḍa bhāi—elder brother; kṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa; balarāma—and Baladeva; dui—two; caitanya—Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; nitāi—and Lord Nityānanda Prabhu.
Because Mahā-saṅkarṣaṇa is the ingredient and efficient cause of the cosmic manifestation, He is present in every detail of it. Lord Caitanya therefore called Him His elder brother. The two brothers are known as Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma in the spiritual world, but at the present moment they are Caitanya and Nitāi. Therefore the conclusion is that Nityānanda Prabhu is the original Saṅkarṣaṇa, Baladeva.
putra pāñā dampati hailā ānandita mana
viśeṣe sevana kare govinda-caraṇa
putra—son; pāñā—having gotten; dampati—husband and wife; hailā—became; ānandita—pleased; mana—mind; viśeṣe—specifically; sevana—service; kare—render; govinda-caraṇa—the lotus feet of Lord Govinda.
The husband and wife [Jagannātha Miśra and Śacīmātā], having gotten Viśvarūpa as their son, were very pleased within their minds. Because of their pleasure, they specifically began to serve the lotus feet of Govinda.
catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ
janāḥ sukṛtino 'rjuna
ārto jijñāsur arthārthī
jñānī ca bharatarṣabha
"If backed by pious activities in the past, four kinds of men-namely, those who are distressed, those in need of money, those searching after knowledge and those who are inquisitive-become interested in devotional service." The husband and wife, Jagannātha Miśra and Śacīmātā, were very unhappy because their eight daughters had passed away. Now, when they got Viśvarūpa as their son, certainly they became extremely happy. They knew that it was by the grace of the Lord that they were endowed with such happiness and opulence. Therefore instead of forgetting the Lord, they became more and more adherent in rendering service to the lotus feet of Govinda. When a common man becomes opulent, he forgets God; but the more opulent a devotee becomes by the grace of the Lord, the more he becomes attached to the service of the Lord.
caudda-śata chaya śake śeṣa māgha māse
jagannātha-śacīra dehe kṛṣṇera praveśe
caudda-śata—1400; chaya—6; śake—in the year of the Śaka Era; śeṣa—last; māgha—Māgha; māse—in the month; jagannātha—of Jagannātha Miśra; śacīra—and of Śacīdevī; dehe—in the bodies; kṛṣṇera—of Lord Kṛṣṇa; praveśe—by the entrance.
In the month of January in the year 1406 of the Śaka Era (A.D. 1485), Lord Kṛṣṇa entered the bodies of both Jagannātha Miśra and Śacī.
Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu took His birth in the year 1407 Śaka Era (A.D. 1486), in the month of Phālguna. But here we see that He entered the bodies of His parents in the year 1406 in the month of Māgha. Therefore, the Lord entered the bodies of His parents thirteen full months before His birth. Generally a common child remains within the womb of his mother for ten lunar months, but here we see that the Lord remained within the body of His mother for thirteen lunar months.
miśra kahe śacī-sthāne,--dekhi āna rīta
jyotirmaya deha, geha lakṣmī-adhiṣṭhita
miśra kahe—Jagannātha Miśra began to speak; śacī-sthāne—in the presence of Śacīdevī-mātā; dekhi—I see; āna—extraordinary; rīta—behavior; jyotir-maya—effulgent; deha—body; geha—home; lakṣmī—the goddess of fortune; adhiṣṭhita—situated.
Jagannātha Miśra said to Śacīmātā, "I see wonderful things! Your body is effulgent, and it appears as if the goddess of fortune were now staying personally in my home.
yāhāṅ tāhāṅ sarva-loka karaye sammāna
ghare pāṭhāiyā deya dhana, vastra, dhāna
yāhāṅ—wherever; tāhāṅ—anywhere; sarva-loka—all people; karaye—show; sammāna—respect; ghare—at home; pāṭhāiyā—sending; deya—give; dhana—riches; vastra—cloth; dhāna—paddy.
"Anywhere and everywhere I go, all people offer me respect. Even without my asking, they voluntarily give me riches, clothing and paddy."
A brāhmaṇa does not become anyone's servant. To render service to someone else is the business of the śūdras. A brāhmaṇa is always independent because he is a teacher, spiritual master and advisor to society. The members of society provide him with all the necessities for life. In the Bhagavad-gītā the Lord has divided society into four divisions-brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra. A society cannot run smoothly without this scientific division. A brāhmaṇa should give good advice to all the members of the society, a kṣatriya should look after the administration, maintaining law and order in society, vaiśyas should produce and trade to meet all the needs of society, whereas śūdras should render service to the higher sections of society (the brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas and vaiśyas).
Jagannātha Miśra was a brāhmaṇa; therefore people would send him all bodily necessities-money, cloth, grain and so on. While Lord Caitanya was in the womb of Śacīmātā, Jagannātha Miśra received all these necessities of life without asking for them. Because of the presence of the Lord in his family, everyone offered him due respect as a brāhmaṇa. In other words, if a brāhmaṇa or Vaiṣṇava sticks to his position as an eternal servant of the Lord and executes the will of the Lord, there is no question of scarcity for his personal maintenance or the needs of his family.
śacī kahe,--muñi dekhoṅ ākāśa-upare
divya-mūrti loka saba yena stuti kare
śacī kahe—mother Śacīdevī replied; muñi—I; dekhoṅ—see; ākāśa-upare—in outer space; divya-mūrti—brilliant forms; loka—people; saba—all; yena—as if; stuti—prayers; kare—offering.
Śacīmatā told her husband, "I also see wonderfully brilliant human beings appearing in outer space, as if offering prayers."
jagannātha miśra kahe,--svapna ye dekhila
jyotirmaya-dhāma mora hṛdaye paśila
jagannātha miśra kahe—Jagannātha Miśra replied; svapna—dream; ye—that; dekhila—I have seen; jyotir-maya—with a brilliant effulgence; dhāma—abode; mora—my; hṛdaye—in the heart; paśila—entered.
āmāra hṛdaya haite gelā tomāra hṛdaye
hena bujhi, janmibena kona mahāśaye
āmāra hṛdaya haite—from my heart; gelā—transferred; tomāra hṛdaye—into your heart; hena—like this; bujhi—I understand; janmibena—will take birth; kona—some; mahāśaye—very great personality.
"From my heart it entered your heart. I therefore understand that a great personality will soon take birth."
eta bali' duṅhe rahe haraṣita hañā
śālagrāma sevā kare viśeṣa kariyā
eta bali'-after this conversation; duṅhe—both of them; rahe—remained; haraṣita—jubilant; hañā—becoming; śālagrāma—śālagrāma-nārāyaṇa-śilā; sevā—service; kare—rendered; viśeṣa—with special attention; kariyā—giving it.
After this conversation, both husband and wife were very jubilant, and together they rendered service to the household śālagrāma-śilā.
Especially in every brāhmaṇa's house there must be a śālagrāma-śilā to be worshiped by the brāhmaṇa family. This system is still current. People who are brāhmaṇa by caste, who are born in a brāhmaṇa family, must worship the śālagrāma-śilā. Unfortunately, with the progress of Kali-yuga, the so-called brāhmaṇas, although very proud of taking birth in brāhmaṇa families, no longer worship the śālagrāma-śilā. But actually it has been a custom since time immemorial that a person born in a brāhmaṇa family must worship the śālagrāma-śilā in all circumstances. In our Kṛṣṇa consciousness society, some of the members are very anxious to introduce the śālagrāma-śilā, but we have purposely refrained from introducing it because most of the members of the Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement do not originally come from families of the brāhmaṇa caste. After some time, when we find that they are actually situated strictly in the line of brahminical behavior, this śālagrāma-śilā will be introduced.
In this age, the worship of the śālagrāma-śilā is not as important as the chanting of the holy name of the Lord. That is the injunction of the śāstra. Harer nāma harer nāma harer nāmaiva kevalam kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva gatir anyathā. Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī's opinion is that by chanting the holy name offenselessly one becomes completely perfect. Nevertheless, just to purify the situation of the mind, worship of the Deity in the temple is also necessary. Therefore when one is advanced in spiritual consciousness or is perfectly situated on a spiritual platform he may take to the worship of the śālagrāma-śilā.
The transference of the Lord from the heart of Jagannātha Miśra to the heart of Śacīmātā is explained by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura as follows: "It is to be concluded that Jagannātha Miśra and Śacīmātā are nitya-siddhas, ever purified associates of the Lord. Their hearts are always uncontaminated, and therefore they never forget the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A common man in this material world has a contaminated heart. He must therefore first purify his heart to come to the transcendental position. But Jagannātha Miśra and Śacīmātā were not a common man and woman with contaminated hearts. When the heart is uncontaminated, it is said to be in the existential position of Vasudeva. Vasudeva can beget Vāsudeva, or Kṛṣṇa, who is transcendentally situated."
It is to be understood that Śacīdevī did not become pregnant as an ordinary woman becomes pregnant because of sense indulgence. One should not think the pregnancy of Śacīmātā to be that of an ordinary woman because that is an offense. One can understand the pregnancy of Śacīmātā when one is actually advanced in spiritual consciousness and fully engaged in the devotional service of the Lord.
bhagavān api viśvātmā
This is a statement regarding the birth of Lord Kṛṣṇa. The incarnation of the Lord entered the mind of Vasudeva and was then transferred to the mind of Devakī. Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī gives the following annotation in this connection: 'mana āviveśa' manasy āvirbabhūva; jīvānām iva na dhātu-sambandha ity arthaḥ. There was no question of the seminal discharge necessary for the birth of an ordinary human being. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī also comments in this connection that Lord Kṛṣṇa first appeared in the mind of Ānakadundubhi, Vasudeva, and was then transferred to the mind of Devakī-devī. Thus the spiritual bliss in the mind of Devakī-devī gradually increased, just as the moon increases every night until it becomes a full moon. At the time of His appearance, Lord Kṛṣṇa came out of the mind of Devakī and appeared within the prison house of Kaṁsa by the side of Devakī's bed. At that time, by the spell of yogamāyā, Devakī thought that her child had now been born. In this connection, even the demigods from the celestial kingdom were also bewildered. As it is stated, muhyanti yat sūrayaḥ (Bhāg. 1.1.1). They came to offer their prayers to Devakī, thinking that the Supreme Lord was within her womb. The demigods came to Mathurā from their celestial kingdom. This indicates that Mathurā is still more important than the celestial kingdom of the upper planetary system.
Lord Kṛṣṇa, as the eternal son of Yaśodāmayī, is always present in Vṛndāvana. The pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa are continuously going on within both this material world and the spiritual world. In such pastimes, the Lord always thinks Himself the eternal son of mother Yaśodā and father Nanda Mahārāja. In the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Chapter Six, verse 43, it is stated, "When magnanimous, broad-hearted Nanda Mahārāja came back from a tour, he immediately took his son Kṛṣṇa on his lap and experienced transcendental bliss by smelling His head." Similarly, in the Tenth Canto, Ninth Chapter, verse 21, it is said, "This Personality of Godhead, appearing as the son of a cowherd damsel, is easily available and understandable to devotees, whereas those who are under the concept of bodily life, even though they are very advanced in austerity and penance or even though they are great philosophers, are unable to understand Him."
Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura next quotes Śrīpāda Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, who refers to the prayers offered by the demigods to Lord Kṛṣṇa in the womb of Devakī and summarizes the birth of Kṛṣṇa as follows: "As the rising moon manifests light in the east, so Devakī, who was always situated on the transcendental platform, having been initiated in the Kṛṣṇa mantra by Vasudeva, the son of Śūrasena, kept Kṛṣṇa within her heart." From this statement of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.2.18) it is understood that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, having been transferred from the heart of Ānakadundubhi, or Vasudeva, manifested Himself in the heart of Devakī. According to Śrīla Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa, the "heart of Devakī" means the womb of Devakī because in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Tenth Canto, Second Chapter, verse 41, the demigods say, diṣṭyāmba te kukṣi-gataḥ paraḥ pumān: "Mother Devakī, the Lord is already within your womb." Therefore, that the Lord was transferred from the heart of Vasudeva to the heart of Devakī means that He was transferred to the womb of Devakī.
Similarly, in regard to the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu as described in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, the words viśeṣe sevana kare govinda-caraṇa, "they specifically began to worship the lotus feet of Govinda," indicate that exactly as Kṛṣṇa appeared in the heart of Devakī through the heart of Vasudeva, so Lord Caitanya appeared in the heart of Śacīdevī through the heart of Jagannātha Miśra. This is the mystery of the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Consequently, one should not think of Lord Caitanya's appearance as that of a common man or living entity. This subject matter is a little difficult to understand, but for devotees of the Lord it will not at all be difficult to realize the statements given by Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī.
haite haite haila garbha trayodaśa māsa
tathāpi bhūmiṣṭha nahe,--miśrera haila trāsa
haite haite—thus becoming; haila—it so became; garbha—pregnancy; trayodaśa—thirteenth; māsa—month; tathāpi—still; bhūmiṣṭha—delivery; nahe—there was no sign; miśrera—of Jagannātha Miśra; haila—became; trāsa—apprehension.
In this way the pregnancy approached its thirteenth month, but still there was no sign of the delivery of the child. Thus Jagannātha Miśra became greatly apprehensive.
nīlāmbara cakravartī kahila gaṇiyā
ei māse putra habe śubha-kṣaṇa pāñā
nīlāmbara cakravartī—of the name Nīlāmbara Cakravartī; kahila—said; gaṇiyā—by astrological calculation; ei māse—in this month; putra—son; habe—will take birth; śubha-kṣaṇa—auspicious moment; pāñā—taking advantage of.
Nīlāmbara Cakravartī [the grandfather of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu] then did an astrological calculation and said that in that month, taking advantage of an auspicious moment, the child would take birth.
caudda-śata sāta-śake māsa ye phālguna
paurṇamāsīra sandhyā-kāle haile śubha-kṣaṇa
caudda-śata sāta-śake—in 1407 of the Śaka Era (A.D. 1486); māsa—month; ye—which; phālguna—of the name Phālguna; paurṇamāsira—of the full moon; sandhyā-kāle—in the evening; haile—there was; śubha-kṣaṇa—an auspicious constellation.
Thus in the year 1407 of the Śaka Era (A.D. 1486), in the month of Phālguna [March-April], on the evening of the full moon, the desired auspicious moment appeared.
7 11 8
15 54 38
40 37 40
13 6 23
The explanation of the horoscope given by Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura is that at the time of the birth of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu the constellations were situated as follows: Śukra (Venus) was in Meṣa-rāśi (Aries), in the constellation of Aśvinī; Ketu (the ninth planet) was in Siṁha-rāśi (Leo), in Uttaraphalgunī; Candra (the moon) was in Siṁha-rāśi, in Pūrvaphalgunī (the eleventh lunar mansion); Śani (Saturn) was in Vṛścika-rāśi (Scorpio), in Jyeṣṭhā; Bṛhaspati (Jupiter) was in Dhanu-rāśi, in Pūrvāṣāḍhā (Sagittarius); Maṅgala (Mars) was in Makara-rāśi (Capricorn), in Śravaṇā; Ravi (the sun) and Rāhu were in Kumbha-rāśi (Aquarius), in Pūrvabhādrapāda; and Budha (Mercury) was in Mīna-rāśi (Pisces), in Uttarabhādrapāda.. The lagna was Siṁha.
siṁha-rāśi, siṁha-lagna, ucca graha-gaṇa
ṣaḍ-varga, aṣṭa-varga, sarva sulakṣaṇa
siṁha—the lion; rāśi—sign of the zodiac; siṁha—the lion; lagna—birth moment; ucca—high; graha-gaṇa—all planets; ṣaṭ-varga—six area; aṣṭa-varga—eight area; sarva—all; su-lakṣaṇa—auspiciousness.
According to the Jyotir-veda, or Vedic astronomy, when the figure of the lion appears both in the zodiac and the time of birth [lagna], this indicates a very high conjunction of planets, an area under the influence of ṣaḍ-varga and aṣṭa-varga, which are all-auspicious moments.
The divisions of the ṣaḍ-varga area are technically called kṣetra, horā, drekkāṇa, navāṁśa, dvādaśāṁśa and triṁśāṁśa. According to Jyotir-vedic astrology, when it is calculated who rules the constellation of six areas, the auspicious moment is calculated. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, who was previously also a great astrologer, says that in the book named Bṛhaj-jātaka and other books there are directions for knowing the movements of the stars and planets. One who knows the process of drawing a straight line and thus understands the area of aṣṭa-varga can explain the auspicious constellations. This science is known especially by persons who are called horā-śāstra-vit, or those who know the scripture of the name Horā. On the strength of astrological calculations from the Horā scripture, Nīlāmbara Cakravartī, the grandfather of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, ascertained the auspicious moment in which the Lord would appear.
a-kalaṅka gauracandra dilā daraśana
sa-kalaṅka candre āra kon prayojana
a-kalaṅka—without contamination; gauracandra—the moon of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu; dilā—gave; daraśana—audience; sa-kalaṅka—with contamination; candre—for a moon; āra—also; kon—what; prayojana—necessity.
When the spotless moon of Caitanya Mahāprabhu became visible, what would be the need for a moon full of black marks on its body?
eta jāni' rāhu kaila candrera grahaṇa
'kṛṣṇa' 'kṛṣṇa' 'hari' nāme bhāse tri-bhuvana
eta jāni'-knowing all this; rāhu—the zodiac figure Rāhu; kaila—attempted; candrera—of the moon; grahaṇa—eclipse; kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa—the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; hari—the holy name of Hari; nāme—the names; bhāse—inundated; tri-bhuvana—the three worlds.
Considering this, Rāhu, the black planet, covered the full moon, and immediately vibrations of "Kṛṣṇa! Kṛṣṇa! Hari!" inundated the three worlds.
According to the Jyotir-veda, the Rāhu planet comes in front of the full moon, and thus a lunar eclipse takes place. It is customary in India that all the followers of the Vedic scriptures bathe in the Ganges or the sea as soon as there is a lunar or solar eclipse. All strict followers of Vedic religion stand up in the water throughout the whole period of the eclipse and chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. At the time of the birth of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu such a lunar eclipse took place, and naturally all the people standing in the water were chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare.
jaya jaya dhvani haila sakala bhuvana
camatkāra haiyā loka bhāve mane mana
jaya jaya—all glories; dhvani—vibration; haila—there was; sakala—all; bhuvana—worlds; camatkāra—wonderful; haiyā—becoming; loka—all the people; bhāve—state; mane mana—within their minds.
All people thus chanted the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra during the lunar eclipse, and their minds were struck with wonder.
jagat bhariyā loka bale--'hari' 'hari'
sei-kṣaṇe gaurakṛṣṇa bhūme avatari
jagat—the whole world; bhariyā—fulfilling; loka—people; bale—said; hari hari—the holy name of the Lord; sei-kṣaṇe—at that time; gaurakṛṣṇa—Lord Kṛṣṇa in the form of Gaurahari; bhūme—on the earth; avatari—advented.
When the whole world was thus chanting the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa in the form of Gaurahari advented Himself on the earth.
prasanna ha-ila saba jagatera mana
'hari' bali' hinduke hāsya karaye yavana
prasanna—joyful; ha-ila—became; saba—all; jagatera—of the whole world; mana—the mind; hari—the holy name of the Lord; bali'-saying; hinduke—unto the Hindus; hāsya—laughing; karaye—do so; yavana—the Muslims.
The whole world was pleased. While the Hindus chanted the holy name of the Lord, the non-Hindus, especially the Muslims, jokingly imitated the words.
Although the Muslims, or non-Hindus, have no interest in chanting the holy name of the Lord, the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, while the Hindus in Navadvīpa chanted during the lunar eclipse the Muslims imitated them. Thus the Hindus and Muslims joined together in chanting the holy name of the Lord when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu advented Himself.
'hari' bali' nārīgaṇa dei hulāhuli
svarge vādya-nṛtya kare deva kutūhalī
hari bali'-by saying the word Hari; nārī-gaṇa—all the ladies; dei—chanting; hulāhuli—the sound of hulāhuli; svarge—in the heavenly planets; vādya-nṛtya—music and dance; kare—do; deva—demigods; kutūhalī—curious.
While all the ladies vibrated the holy name of Hari on earth, in the heavenly planets dancing and music were going on, for the demigods were very curious.
prasanna haila daśa dik, prasanna nadījala
sthāvara-jaṅgama haila ānande vihvala
prasanna—jubilant; haila—became; daśa—ten; dik—directions; prasanna—satisfied; nadī-jala—the water of the rivers; sthāvara—immovable; jaṅgama—movable; haila—became; ānande—in joy; vihvala—overwhelmed.
In this atmosphere, all the ten directions became jubilant, as did the waves of the rivers. Moreover, all beings, moving and nonmoving, were overwhelmed with transcendental bliss.
nadīyā-udayagiri, pūrṇacandra gaurahari,
kṛpā kari' ha-ila udaya
pāpa-tamaḥ haila nāśa, tri-jagatera ullāsa,
jagabhari' hari-dhvani haya
nadīyā—the place known as Nadīyā; udayagiri—is the appearing place; pūrṇa-candra—the full moon; gaurahari—Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; kṛpā—by mercy; kari'-doing so; ha-ila—became; udaya—risen; pāpa—sinful; tamaḥ—darkness; haila—became; nāśa—dissipated; tri-jagatera—of the three worlds; ullāsa—happiness; jaga-bhari'-filling the whole world; hari-dhvani—the transcendental vibration of Hari; haya—resounded.
Thus by His causeless mercy the full moon, Gaurahari, rose in the district of Nadia, which is compared to Udayagiri, where the sun first becomes visible. His rising in the sky dissipated the darkness of sinful life, and thus the three worlds became joyful and chanted the holy name of the Lord.
sei-kāle nijālaya, uṭhiyā advaita rāya,
nṛtya kare ānandita-mane
haridāse lañā saṅge, huṅkāra-kīrtana-raṅge
kene nāce, keha nāhi jāne
sei-kāle—at that time; nija-ālaya—in His own house; uṭhiyā—standing; advaita—Advaita Ācārya; rāya—the rich man; nṛtya—dancing; kare—performs; ānandita—with joyful; mane—mind; haridāse—Ṭhākura Haridāsa; lañā—taking; saṅge—with Him; huṅkāra—loudly; kīrtana—saṅkīrtana; raṅge—performing; kene—why; nāce—dances; keha nāhi—no one; jāne—knows.
At that time Śrī Advaita Ācārya Prabhu, in His own house at Śāntipura, was dancing in a pleasing mood. Taking Haridāsa Ṭhākura with Him, He danced and loudly chanted Hare Kṛṣṇa. But why they were dancing, no one could understand.
It is understood that Advaita Prabhu, at that time, was in His own paternal house at Śāntipura. Haridāsa Ṭhākura frequently used to meet Him. Coincidentally, therefore, he was also there, and upon the birth of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu both of them immediately began to dance. But no one in Śāntipura could understand why those two saintly persons were dancing.
dekhi' uparāga hāsi', śīghra gaṅgā-ghāṭe āsi'
ānande karila gaṅgā-snāna
pāñā uparāga-chale, āpanāra mano-bale,
brāhmaṇere dila nānā dāna
dekhi'-seeing; uparāga—the eclipse; hāsi'-laughing; śīghra—very soon; gaṅga-ghāṭe—on the bank of the Ganges; āsi'-coming; ānande—in jubilation; karila—took; gaṅgā-snāna—bath in the Ganges; pāñā—taking advantage of; uparāga-chale—on the event of the lunar eclipse; āpanāra—His own; manaḥ-bale—by the strength of mind; brāhmaṇere—unto the brāhmaṇas; dila—gave; nānā—various; dāna—charities.
Seeing the lunar eclipse and laughing, both Advaita Ācārya and Haridāsa Ṭhākura immediately went to the bank of the Ganges and bathed in the Ganges in great jubilation. Taking advantage of the occasion of the lunar eclipse, Advaita Ācārya, by His own mental strength, distributed various types of charity to the brāhmaṇas.
It is the custom of Hindus to give in charity to the poor as much as possible during the time of a lunar or solar eclipse. Advaita Ācārya, therefore, taking advantage of this eclipse, distributed many varieties of charity to the brāhmaṇas. In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam there is a statement in the Tenth Canto, Third Chapter, verse 11, that when Kṛṣṇa took His birth, immediately Vasudeva, taking advantage of this moment, distributed ten thousand cows to the brāhmaṇas. It is customary among Hindus that at the time a child is born, especially a male child, the parents distribute great charity in jubilation. Advaita Ācārya was actually interested in distributing charity because of Lord Caitanya's birth at the time of the lunar eclipse. People could not understand, however, why Advaita Ācārya was giving such a great variety of things in charity. He did so not because of the lunar eclipse but because of the Lord's taking birth at that moment. He distributed charity exactly as Vasudeva did at the time of Lord Kṛṣṇa's appearance.
jagat ānandamaya, dekhi' mane sa-vismaya,
ṭhāreṭhore kahe haridāsa
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